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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Graying of HIV epidemic" is observed globally, as People Living With HIV (PLWH) are aging, due to effectiveness of AntiRetrovirals. The normal aging processes and HIV-induced immune dysfunction, are potential mechanisms, driving multimorbidity in PLWH. Multimorbidity is the concurrent presence of two or more diseases in a single individual. Aging PLWH, are at increased risk of acute and chronic morbidities compared to counterpart without HIV. Despite increasing concern in Nigeria, research on correlates of multimorbidities in aging PLWH is lagging. METHODS: This was a comparative study, of ≥ 60 years old, age-matched(±5years) HIV-positive and HIV-negative, patients. Patients were recruited, from the Infectious Disease Institute and Geriatric clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, between April and June 2018. Multimorbidity was defined, as the occurrence of more than 2 morbidities in an individual, it was considered acute, when within 30 days and chronic, when above 3-months duration. Data analysis were done using SPSS 23. RESULTS: We studied 186 individuals (62 HIV-positive &124 HIV-negative).The PLWH had lower mean age (63.9yrs vs 68.1yrs, p=0.00, t=5.68), more chronic multimorbidity (2.0 vs 1.3, p=0.004, t=2.970) which occurred earlier (4.7yrs vs 9.6yrs, p=0.003, t=3.05), more overall multimorbidities (3.6 vs 2.8, p = 0.015, t=2.448), and lower quality of life (82.7 vs 86.2 p=0.002, t=3.130). Risk estimates for "any" multimorbidity revealed the odds are in favour of the older PLWH [ 69.4 % vs 46.8%, p=0.004, OR=0.388 (95% CI-0.204-0.740)]. Logistic regression revealed, age >64yrs, higher total body fat, lower nadir CD4 and longer duration of HIV infection, were significantly associated with multimorbidity in aging y PLWH [ p=0.019]. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals with HIV on AntiRetrovirals in Ibadan, had a significantly greater burden of multimorbidity compared to those without HIV. HIV treatment programs in Nigeria will need to adapt comprehensive health care-plan for aging PLWH.

2.
Neurology ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardized approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the Stroke and Cognition Consortium (STROKOG) consortium. METHODS: We harmonized data from 13 studies based in 8 countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardized cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile cutoffs from normative groups, and associations between domain scores and risk factors were examined with 1-stage IPD meta-analysis. RESULTS: In a combined sample of 3,146 participants admitted to hospital for stroke (97%) or TIA (3%), 44% were impaired in global cognition and 30% to 35% were impaired in individual domains 2 to 6 months after the index event. Diabetes mellitus and a history of stroke were strongly associated with poorer cognitive function after covariate adjustments; hypertension, smoking, and atrial fibrillation had weaker domain-specific associations. While there were no significant differences in domain impairment among ethno-racial groups, some interethnic differences were found in the effects of risk factors on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the high prevalence of PSCI in diverse populations, highlights common risk factors, in particular diabetes mellitus, and points to ethno-racial differences that warrant attention in the development of prevention strategies.

3.
Ghana Med J ; 53(3): 210-216, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741493

RESUMO

Background: This study determined the frailty status and its association with mortality among older patients. Design: A prospective cohort design. Setting: Study was conducted at the medical wards of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants and study tools: Four hundred and fifty older patients (>60 years) were followed up from the day of admission to death or discharge. Information obtained includes socio-demographic characteristics and clinical frailty was assessed using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) scale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using SPSS version 21 at a p <0.05. Results: Overall, frailty was identified in 285 (63.3%) respondents. Mortality was significantly higher among frail respondents (25.3%) than non-frail respondents (15.4%) p=0.028. Logistic regression analysis showed factors associated with frailty were: male sex (OR=1.946 [1.005-3.774], p=0.048), non-engagement in occupational activities (OR=2.642 [1.394-5.008], p=0.003), multiple morbidities (OR=4.411 [1.944-10.006], p<0.0001), functional disability (OR=2.114 [1.029-4.343), p=0.042], malnutrition (OR=9.258 [1.029-83.301], p=0.047) and being underweight (OR=7.462 [1.499-37.037], p=0.014). Conclusion: The prevalence of frailty among medical in-hospital older patients is very high and calls for its prompt identification and management to improve their survival. Funding: The study was self-funded by the authors.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(2): 285-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162006

RESUMO

Detection of acute HIV infection is a unique problem that fourth-generation HIV assays were expected to alleviate. In this commentary, we draw attention to the limitations and challenges with use of currently available rapid antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) combination tests for detection of acute HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Laboratory-based HIV-1 Ag/Ab immunoassays are complex, requiring specialized equipment and handling that are currently not affordable in many settings in Africa. The point-of-care Ag/Ab platform on the other hand is easier to deploy and potentially more accessible in resource-limited settings. However, available fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests have demonstrated poor performance characteristics in field studies where non-B subtypes of HIV-1 dominate. The potential for point-of-care HIV-1 Ag/Ab diagnostics to significantly improve detection of acute HIV infection remains yet to be realized in sub-Saharan Africa. Assay platforms need to be optimized to identify local circulating subtypes, and optimal algorithms need to be determined.

5.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 20(2): 297-306, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based studies of neurological disease patterns and mechanisms are sparse in sub-Saharan Africa. However, availability of human brain tissue resource depends on willingness towards brain donation. This study evaluated the level of willingness among outpatient clinic attendees in a Nigerian teaching hospital. METHODS: Under the auspices of the IBADAN Brain Bank Project, a 43-item semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of individuals attending Neurology, Psychiatry and Geriatrics Outpatient clinics regarding willingness to donate brain for research. Association between participants characteristics and willingness towards brain donation was investigated using logistic regression models. Analysis was conducted using Stata SE version 12.0. RESULTS: A total of 412 participants were interviewed. Their mean age was 46.3 (16.1) years. 229 (55.6%) were females and 92.5% had at least 6 years of formal education. Overall, 109 (26.7%) were willing to donate brains for research. In analyses adjusting for educational status, religion, ethnicity, marital status and family setting, male sex showed independent association with willingness towards brain donation OR (95% CI) 1.7 (1.08-2.69), p = 0.023. Participants suggested public engagement and education through mass media (including social media) and involvement of religious and community leaders as important interventions to improve awareness and willingness towards brain donation. CONCLUSION: The survey revealed low willingness among outpatient clinic attendees to donate brain for research, although men were more inclined to donate. It is imperative to institute public engagement and educational interventions in order to improve consent for brain donation for research.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 92: 226-234, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria yielded figures ranging between 3.1 and 37 per 1000, giving one of the widest variations in prevalence of epilepsy world over. In order to accurately estimate clinical and public health impacts of epilepsy in Nigeria, robust and reliable epidemiological data are required for an appropriate estimation of logistical, economical, and social impacts of epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the study were to determine, using meta-analysis, the prevalence of epilepsy by pooling data from community-based door-to-door surveys conducted in various parts of Nigeria, explore the existing variation in prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria along geopolitical regions and settlement setting of the country, and then evaluate the burden of epilepsy in Nigeria. METHODS: Prevalence estimates were derived from a random effects meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria. The derived estimate for the prevalence of epilepsy was applied to the total populations in Nigeria to give an estimated burden of epilepsy in Nigeria. RESULT: Nine community-based door-to-door surveys, with quality data from different regions in Nigeria, were included. I-squared (I2) heterogeneity was 88.5%. Random effects model (REM) estimate of overall prevalence of epilepsy from the studies was 8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 6-10). The prevalence was highest (11 per 1000) in the south western part of the country. It was also higher among the rural (15 per 1000 people) than the urban (6 per 1000) dwellers. The burden of epilepsy in Nigeria, based on the prevalence estimate was 1,280,000 persons (95% CI: 960,000-1,600,000 persons). CONCLUSION: In Nigeria, the estimated prevalence of epilepsy is 8 per 1000 people indicating a substantial burden of the disease in the country.

7.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-5, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility and clinical impact of a psychosocial intervention, Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST), to help manage dementia in a rural setting in Nigeria. METHOD: People with dementia were identified from a prevalence study in Lalupon in the south-west of Nigeria. Prior to this feasibility study CST was adapted for the setting and pilot by our team. Fourteen sessions of CST were provided over a 7-week period by a trained nurse specialist and occupational therapist. Change in quality of life was the main outcome. RESULTS: Nine people were enrolled in CST. Significant improvements in cognitive function, quality of life (physical, psychosocial and environmental domains), physical function, neuro-psychiatric symptoms and carer burden were seen. CONCLUSIONS: CST appears to be feasible in this setting, although adaptation for low literacy levels, uncorrected visual and hearing impairment and work and social practices is needed. The clinical improvements seen were encouraging.

8.
Brain Res Bull ; 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149197

RESUMO

Brain banks are biorepositories of central nervous system (CNS) tissue including fixed and frozen whole brains, brain biopsies and spinal cord, as well as body fluids comprising the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood stored for research purposes. Though several independent brain banks exist in high income countries, only five low- and middle - income countries (LMIC) have brain banks. The African continent is yet to establish a formalized brain bank despite its huge human genomic diversity, ageing of her populations with concomitant increases in ageing - associated brain disorders and differential phenotypic expression and outcomes of brain disorders. Cellular and molecular clinicopathological studies are vital to shaping our understanding of the interaction between racial (genetic) and geographical (environmental) factors in the natural history and mechanisms of disease, and unravelling frameworks of diagnostic biomarkers, and new therapeutic and preventative interventions. The Ibadan Brain Ageing, Dementia And Neurodegeneration (IBADAN) Brain Bank, the first organized brain tissue biorepository in sub - Saharan Africa, is set up to accrue, process and store unique brain tissues for future research into a broad spectrum of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The potential unique discoveries and research breakthroughs will benefit people of African ancestry and other ancestral populations.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137500

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular comorbidities are risk factors for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Given differences in cardiometabolic risk profiles between women and men with HIV, we investigated whether associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalent cognitive impairment differ by sex. Methods: Separate logistic regression models were constructed for women and men at entry into a prospective study of older persons with HIV (PWH) to assess the association of cardiometabolic and other risk factors with cognitive impairment. Results: Of 988 participants, 20% were women. Women had higher total cholesterol (194 versus 186 mg/dL, p=0.027), hemoglobin A1c (5.9% versus 5.7%, p=0.003), and body mass index (30.8 versus 27.4 kg/m 2, p<0.001) compared with men, and were less physically active (43% versus 55%, p=0.005). In a multivariable model, physical activity was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment in women (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.80, p=0.013) but not men. Conclusion: Physical activity may have a greater positive impact on cognitive health in women than in men with HIV. This finding should be confirmed in studies examining the longitudinal association between physical activity and incident cognitive impairment in PWH and the effect of interventions that increase physical activity on cognitive impairment in women with HIV.

10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people face the biggest challenges in the overburdened healthcare services in Nigeria especially when hospitalized. There is no reliable data on the predictors of mortality in this population. AIMS: To determine the predictors of mortality among older patients on admission in the medical wards of University College Hospital, Ibadan. METHODS: Using a prospective cohort design, we investigated 450 patients (> 60 years) from the day of admission to death or discharge. Variables assessed included sociodemographic, family dynamics, lifestyle habits, healthcare utilization, quality of life, frailty, anxiety, depression, cognition, functional disability and anthropometric parameters. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used to estimate and compare survival functions, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of mortality. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 71.5 ± 8.0 years and 234 (52.0%) were females. Overall, there were 99 (22.0%) in-hospital deaths. The median survival time (MST) was 36.0 ± 3.0 days [females = 40.0 ± 3.5 days vs males = 31.0 ± 4.5 days (p < 0.001)]. There was a significant negative correlation between MST and age (r = - 0.931). Predictors of mortality on Cox's proportional hazard regression analyses were male sex HR = 2.03 (95% CI 1.27-3.24), severe frailty HR = 2.07 (1.02-4.20), cognitive impairment HR = 1.90 (1.14-3.17) and having ≥ 5 morbidities HR = 1.94 (1.14-3.30). CONCLUSION: There was a high mortality among older patients particularly the frail, male or those with multiple morbidities. Prompt and holistic management of morbidities and targeted interventions for cognitive impairment and frailty are needed to improve survival during hospitalization.

11.
Lancet ; 391(10134): 2019-2027, 2018 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels. METHODS: We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month. FINDINGS: We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes. FUNDING: Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Brain Res Bull ; 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807146

RESUMO

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2-3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10-20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30-40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 83: 108-112, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunction (SD) has been shown to be more prevalent among females with epilepsy (FWE) when compared with controls. Identified risk factors for SD among FWE include depression, antiepileptic drug (AED) type, epileptic lateralization, and temporal lobe involvement. Despite a huge population of FWE in sub-Saharan Africa and by extension Nigeria, there are limited studies on the effect of AEDs and epilepsy on sexual function among FWE in the region. We therefore studied predictors and patterns of SD among Nigerian FWE. METHOD: This was a descriptive study carried out at the University College Hospital, Oyo State - a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nigeria. The Zung Self-rating Depression Scale was used to assess mood. Sexual dysfunction was measured using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequency of clinically significant SD among FWE (35, 50.0%) was similar to that of controls (27, 38.6%; p = 0.173). However, the mean ASEX score was higher in FWE than in controls (p = 0.009). Using domains defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition (DSM-V), we observed that FWE had higher scores in all domains. Sexual dysfunction was also more prevalent among FWE with lesional epilepsy when compared with those with nonlesional epilepsy. Standardized beta coefficients from multiple regressions conducted suggest that age of FWE, the presence of motor weakness, and systolic blood pressure contributed to SD. SIGNIFICANCE: Females with epilepsy had higher ASEX scores in all domains, with older FWE and those with lesional epilepsy more likely to have SD. Healthcare providers should pay attention to SD among FWE for improved quality of life.

14.
J Rehabil Med ; 50(4): 367-376, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP) in Nigeria and compare these with other low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: A rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia, conducted intensive workshops at medical/academic institutions in Nigeria for healthcare professionals from various local Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation facilities. A modified Delphi method identified challenges for person with disability, using 3 GDAP objectives. Findings were compared with similar exercises in Madagascar, Pakistan and Mongolia. RESULTS: Despite differences in the healthcare system and practice, the challenges reported in Nigeria were similar to those in other 3 low- and middle-income countries, at both macro (governmental/policymakers) and micro levels (community/social/individual). Common challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services, limited Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation workforce, guidelines and accreditation standards; coordination amongst healthcare sectors; social issues; data and research; legislation and political commitment. Common potential facilitators included: need for strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in infrastructure/human resources; coordination/partnerships in healthcare sector; and research. CONCLUSION: Disability care is an emerging priority in low- and middle-income countries to address the needs of people with disability. The challenges identified in Nigeria are common to most low- and middle-income countries. The GDAP framework can facilitate access and strengthen Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation services.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Saúde Global/economia , Pobreza/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Renda
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 74: 39-43, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, depression and decline in function. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QoL) of older adults. PURPOSE: This study was used to investigate the prevalence of functional disability, depression, and level of quality of life of older adults residing in Uyo metropolis and its environs, Nigeria. METHOD: This cross sectional survey involved 206 (116 females and 90 males) older adults with mean age of 69.8±6.7. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-OLD, Functional status Questionnaire (FSQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to measure quality of life, functional disability and depression respectively. Data was analysed using frequency counts and percentages and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, at 0.05 alpha level. RESULTS: 45.5% of participants had depression, and at least 30% had functional disability in at least one domain, but their quality of life was fairly good (>60.0%) across all domains. Significant correlation existed between depression scores and individual quality of life and functional disability domains and between overall QoL and each functional disability domain (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Depression and functional disability were quite prevalent among sampled older adults but their QOL was not too severely affected. Since the constructs were interrelated, it seems interventions targeted at depression and functional status may invariably enhance the quality of life of the older adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Depressão/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 24(3): 131-136, 2017 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian variation in blood pressure (BP) has been shown to determine cardiovascular events in people with chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Studies aimed at elucidating the relationship between diurnal variation in BP and cardiovascular disease have yielded conflicting results, and very few of these studies have been conducted on CKD patients in Sub-Saharan Africa, hence the need for this study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty-five adult participants comprising 54 patients with CKD (36 males and 18 females) and 31 hypertensive patients (16 males and 15 females) free of CKD were recruited for 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring and cardiovascular risk factor assessment. RESULTS: Patients with CKD had a higher mean clinic systolic BP (159.8 ± 28.6 vs. 147.9 ± 19.0 mmHg, P = 0.049) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (19.2 ± 18.6 vs. 106.2 ± 30.6, P < 0.0001) when compared with hypertensives free of CKD. The mean 24 h ambulatory SBP (135.9 ± 28.5 vs. 120.3 ± 11.8 mmHg, P = 0.007), diastolic BP (82.6 ± 18.1 vs. 74.8 ± 9.0 mmHg, P = 0.034) and mean arterial pressure (100.9 ± 21.2 vs. 90.6 ± 10.2 mmHg, P = 0.018) were higher amongst CKD patients. Compared with hypertensive without CKD, daytime hypertension (58.9% vs. 21.4, P = 0.001), nocturnal hypertension (80.4% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.004) and non-dippers (92.0% vs. 73.1%, P = 0.026) were commoner in people with CKD. White coat effect was more common amongst hypertensives without CKD (74.2% vs. 38.0%, P = 0.002). The mean left atrial diameter and left ventricular mass index were higher in CKD group. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the high prevalence of varied phenotypes in circadian rhythm amongst CKD patients. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be useful for early risk stratification of CKD patients. Large longitudinal study is needed to assess the prognostic implication of the findings.

17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(11): 2662-2670, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies. METHODS: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics. RESULTS: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes. CONCLUSION: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia Doppler
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 379: 229-235, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited genetic variations offer a possible explanation for the observed peculiarities of stroke in sub - Saharan African populations. Interleukin-6 polymorphisms have been previously associated with ischemic stroke in some non-African populations. AIM: Herein we investigated, for the first time, the association of genetic polymorphisms of IL-6, CDKN2A- CDKN2B and other genes with ischemic stroke among indigenous West African participants in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Study. METHODS: Twenty-three previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes of relevance to the neurobiology of ischemic stroke were investigated. Logistic regression models adjusting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors were constructed to assess the associations of the 23 SNPs in rigorously phenotyped cases (N=429) of ischemic stroke (Men=198; Women=231) and stroke- free (N=483) controls (Men=236; Women=247). RESULTS: Interleukin-6 (IL6) rs1800796 (C minor allele; frequency: West Africans=8.6%) was significantly associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.006, 95% CI=[1.065, 3.777], p=0.031) with hypertension in the model but not in women. In addition, rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B (minor allele A with frequency: West Africans=1.7%) was also associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.550, 95% CI=[1.027, 6.331], p=0.044) with primary covariates in the model, but not in women. Polymorphisms in other genes did not show significant association with ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms rs1800796 in IL6 gene and rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B gene have significant associations with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. CDKN2A/CDKN2B SNP rs2383207 is independently associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. Further research should focus on the contributions of inflammatory genes and other genetic polymorphisms, as well as the influence of sex on the neurobiology of stroke in people of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
19.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 29(6): 990, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367785

RESUMO

In the above article (Paddick, 2017) The corresponding author's details were previously listed incorrectly. The correct details are; contact number +44 191 293 2709 and email address William.gray@nhct.nhs.uk. The original article has been updated with the correct contact details. The publishers apologise for any inconvenience and confusion this error has caused.

20.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 29(4): 244-251, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a low-literacy adaptation of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) for use in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for interventional studies in dementia. No such adaptations currently exist. METHODS: Tanzanian and Nigerian health professionals adapted the ADAS-Cog by consensus. Validation took place in a cross-sectional sample of 34 rural-dwelling older adults with mild/moderate dementia alongside 32 non-demented controls in Tanzania. Participants were oversampled for lower educational level. Inter-rater reliability was conducted by two trained raters in 22 older adults (13 with dementia) from the same population. Assessors were blind to diagnostic group. RESULTS: Median ADAS-Cog scores were 28.75 (interquartile range (IQR), 22.96-35.54) in mild/moderate dementia and 12.75 (IQR 9.08-16.16) in controls. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.973 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.936-1.00) for dementia. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.884) and inter-rater reliability was excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.905, 95% CI 0.804-0.964). CONCLUSION: The low-literacy adaptation of the ADAS-Cog had good psychometric properties in this setting. Further evaluation in similar settings is required.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Alfabetização , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Psicometria/métodos , População Rural , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tanzânia
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