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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 767637, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869481

RESUMO

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated coagulopathy is a widely recognized risk factor for secondary brain damage and contributes to poor clinical outcomes. Various theories, including disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), have been proposed regarding its pathomechanisms; no consensus has been reached thus far. This study aimed to elucidate the pathophysiology of TBI-induced coagulopathy by comparing coagulofibrinolytic changes in isolated TBI (iTBI) to those in non-TBI, to determine the associated factors, and identify the clinical significance of DIC diagnosis in patients with iTBI. Methods: This secondary multicenter, prospective study assessed patients with severe trauma. iTBI was defined as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores ≥4 in the head and neck, and ≤2 in other body parts. Non-TBI was defined as AIS scores ≥4 in single body parts other than the head and neck, and the absence of AIS scores ≥3 in any other trauma-affected parts. Specific biomarkers for thrombin and plasmin generation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis inhibition were measured at the presentation to the emergency department (0 h) and 3 h after arrival. Results: We analyzed 34 iTBI and 40 non-TBI patients. Baseline characteristics, transfusion requirements and in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between groups. The changes in coagulation/fibrinolysis-related biomarkers were similar. Lactate levels in the iTBI group positively correlated with DIC scores (rho = -0.441, p = 0.017), but not with blood pressure (rho = -0.098, p = 0.614). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the injury severity score was an independent predictor of DIC development in patients with iTBI (odds ratio = 1.237, p = 0.018). Patients with iTBI were further subdivided into two groups: DIC (n = 15) and non-DIC (n = 19) groups. Marked thrombin and plasmin generation were observed in all patients with iTBI, especially those with DIC. Patients with iTBI and DIC had higher requirements for massive transfusion and emergency surgery, and higher in-hospital mortality than those without DIC. Furthermore, DIC development significantly correlated with poor hospital survival; DIC scores at 0 h were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Coagulofibrinolytic changes in iTBI and non-TBI patients were identical, and consistent with the pathophysiology of DIC. DIC diagnosis in the early phase of TBI is key in predicting the outcomes of severe TBI.

2.
Burns ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In current intensive care treatment, some patients with severe burns cannot be saved due to progressive organ failure. Further investigation of the pathogenesis of severe burns is needed to improve the mortality rate. In burns, inflammatory cytokines form a network that leads to an inflammatory response. Adipocytes secrete physiologically active substances (adipokines). The roles of adipokines have not been completely clarified in burn patients. This study aimed to determine the relation between serial changes of adipokines and clinical course in severely burned patients. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study. Patients' blood samples were collected on the day of injury and around 1 week later. Adipokines (adiponectin, angiotensinogen, chemerin, CXCL-12/SDF-1, leptin, resistin, vaspin, visfatin), various inflammatory cytokines, syndecan-1 and C1 esterase inhibitor were measured. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were included. Resistin levels were significantly higher in the non-survivors versus survivors on Day 1 after burn injury. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed common clusters on Day 1 and at 1 Week after burn injury (resistin, IL-6, IL-8, IL10 and MCP-1). The correlation coefficient of resistin to SOFA score at 1 Week was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relation of resistin levels on Day 1 with prognosis; the area under the ROC curve for resistin was 0.801. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of burns, resistin was associated with other pro-inflammatory cytokines and was related to the severity and prognosis of major burns.

3.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815889

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese rapid/living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCG. Methods: The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (version 4.0; released on September 9, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), anticoagulants (CQ7), baricitinib (CQ8), and casirivimab/imdevimab (CQ9). Two CQs (hydroxychloroquine [CQ3] and ciclesonide [CQ6]) were retrieved in this updated version. Recommendations: Favipiravir is not suggested for all patients with COVID-19 (GRADE 2C). Remdesivir is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Corticosteroids are recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and for patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Anticoagulant administration is recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (good practice statement). Baricitinib is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2C). Casirivimab/imdevimab is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). We hope that these updated clinical practice guidelines will help medical professionals involved in the care of patients with COVID-19.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807272

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urinary extravasation is one of the major complications after non-operative management of traumatic renal injury and may lead to urinary tract infection and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these factors in patients with traumatic renal injury. METHODS: This was a multi-center, retrospective, observational study performed at three tertiary referral hospitals in Osaka prefecture. We included patients with traumatic renal injury transported to the centers between January 2008 and December 2018. We excluded patients who either died or underwent nephrectomy within 24 h after admission. We investigated the occurrence of urinary extravasation and the related factors after traumatic renal injury using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 146 patients were eligible for analysis. Their median age was 44 years and 68.5% were male. Their median Injury Severity Score was 17. Renal injuries were graded as American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade I in 33 (22.6%), II in 27 (18.5%), III in 38 (26.0%), IV in 28 (19.2%), and V in 20 (13.7%) patients. Urinary extravasation was diagnosed in 26 patients (17.8%) and was statistically significantly associated with AAST grades IV-V (adjusted odds ratio, 33.8 [95% confidence interval 7.12-160], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We observed urinary extravasation in 17.8% of patients with non-operative management of traumatic renal injury and the diagnosed was made in mostly within 7 days after admission. In this study, the patients with AAST grade IV-V injury were associated with having urinary extravasation.

5.
J Neurotrauma ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779275

RESUMO

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are severely injured patients who require timely, efficient, and specialized care. The effectiveness of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) for patients with TBI remains unclear. This study aimed to compare the mortality of patients with TBI transported by HEMS and ground ambulance using propensity score-matching analysis, and to analyze the effects of HEMS in various subpopulations. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Japan Trauma Data Bank. The study period was from January 2004 to December 2018. The participants were divided into two groups: the helicopter group (patients transported by HEMS) and ground group (patients transported by ground ambulance). The principal outcome was death at hospital discharge. In total, 58,532 patients were eligible for analysis (ground group, n = 54,820 [93.7%]; helicopter group, n = 3712 [6.3%]). Helicopter transport decreased patient mortality at hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.92). In propensity score-matched patients, the proportion of deaths at hospital discharge was lower in the helicopter (18.76%) than in the ground (21.21%) group (crude OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96). The mortality rate in the helicopter group was significantly reduced in many subpopulations, especially in cases of severe TBI with a decreased level of consciousness or higher Injury Severity Score (ISS; Japan Coma Scale score 2 [adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.80] and ISS ≥50 [adjusted OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99]). Although the study design was non-randomized, our findings in patients with TBI showed that HEMS conferred a mortality benefit over ground ambulance.

6.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 62, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654482

RESUMO

We comment on the study by Batra et al. on the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill ICU patients. They also reported that probiotics administration was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of diarrhea (OR 0.59; CI 0.34, 1.03; P = 0.06; I2 = 38%). However, their meta-analysis missed one RCT, and when we repeated the analysis including this RCT, we found that probiotics administration significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhea (OR 0.51; CI 0.28, 0.92; P = 0.02; I2 = 45.6%). We thus believe that probiotics administration is effective in reducing the incidence of diarrhea in ventilated critically ill ICU patients.

7.
J Intensive Care ; 9: 62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667617

RESUMO

We comment on the study by Batra et al. on the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill ICU patients. They also reported that probiotics administration was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of diarrhea (OR 0.59; CI 0.34, 1.03; P = 0.06; I 2 = 38%). However, their meta-analysis missed one RCT, and when we repeated the analysis including this RCT, we found that probiotics administration significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhea (OR 0.51; CI 0.28, 0.92; P = 0.02; I 2 = 45.6%). We thus believe that probiotics administration is effective in reducing the incidence of diarrhea in ventilated critically ill ICU patients.

8.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e695, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567578

RESUMO

Aim: Vasopressors are frequently incorporated into severe traumatic brain injury management algorithms. However, evidence regarding their clinical effectiveness is lacking. We undertook a nationwide retrospective cohort study to determine the association between vasopressor use and mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: Data were collected between January 2004 and December 2018 from the Japanese Trauma Data Bank, which includes data from 272 emergency hospitals in Japan. Adults aged 16 years and over with severe traumatic brain injury but without major extracranial injuries were examined. A severe traumatic brain injury was defined based on a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3-8 on admission. Multivariable analysis and propensity score matching were carried out. Statistical significance was assessed using 95% confidence intervals. Results: In total, 10,295 patients were eligible for analysis, with 654 included in the vasopressor group and 9,641 included in the nonvasopressor group. The proportion of deaths at hospital discharge was higher in the vasopressor group than in the nonvasopressor group (81.80% [535/654] versus 40.24% [3,880/9,641]). This finding was confirmed in a multivariable logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.37; 95% confidence interval, 4.23-6.81). Among propensity score-matched patients adjusted for severity, the proportion of deaths at hospital discharge remained higher in the vasopressor group than in the nonvasopressor group (81.87% [533/651] versus 56.22% [366/651]) (odds ratio, 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.73-4.53). Conclusion: The study results suggest that vasopressor use in patients with severe isolated traumatic brain injury is associated with a higher mortality at hospital discharge.

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 338, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trends in the incidence and outcomes of sepsis using a Japanese nationwide database were investigated. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adult patients, who had both presumed serious infections and acute organ dysfunction, between 2010 and 2017 were extracted using a combined method of administrative and electronic health record data from the Japanese nationwide medical claim database, which covered 71.5% of all acute care hospitals in 2017. Presumed serious infection was defined using blood culture test records and antibiotic administration. Acute organ dysfunction was defined using records of diagnosis according to the international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, and records of organ support. The primary outcomes were the annual incidence of sepsis and death in sepsis per 1000 inpatients. The secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality rate and length of hospital stay in patients with sepsis. RESULTS: The analyzed dataset included 50,490,128 adult inpatients admitted between 2010 and 2017. Of these, 2,043,073 (4.0%) patients had sepsis. During the 8-year period, the annual proportion of patients with sepsis across inpatients significantly increased (slope = + 0.30%/year, P < 0.0001), accounting for 4.9% of the total inpatients in 2017. The annual death rate of sepsis per 1000 inpatients significantly increased (slope = + 1.8/1000 inpatients year, P = 0.0001), accounting for 7.8 deaths per 1000 inpatients in 2017. The in-hospital mortality rate and median (interquartile range) length of hospital stay significantly decreased (P < 0.001) over the study period and were 18.3% and 27 (15-50) days in 2017, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese nationwide data indicate that the annual incidence of sepsis and death in inpatients with sepsis significantly increased; however, the annual mortality rates and length of hospital stay in patients with sepsis significantly decreased. The increasing incidence of sepsis and death in sepsis appear to be a significant and ongoing issue.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia
10.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484801

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members. As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371948

RESUMO

Patients suffering from critical illness have host inflammatory responses against injuries, such as infection and trauma, that can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Modulation of host immune response as well as infection and damage control are detrimental factors in the management of systemic inflammation. The gut is the motor of multiple organ failure following injury, and it is recognized that gut dysfunction is one of the causative factors of disease progression. The gut microbiota has a role in maintaining host immunity, and disruption of the gut microbiota might induce an immunosuppressive condition in critically ill patients. Treatment with probiotics and synbiotics has been reported to attenuate systemic inflammation by maintaining gut microbiota and to reduce postoperative infectious complications and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The administration of prophylactic probiotics/synbiotics could be an important treatment option for preventing infectious complications and modulating immunity. Further basic and clinical research is needed to promote intestinal therapies for critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/microbiologia
12.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408882

RESUMO

Aim: The quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) was proposed for use as a simple screening tool for sepsis. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the prehospital use of qSOFA and prognosis in patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis using the population-based Osaka Emergency Information Research Intelligent Operation Network (ORION) registry, which compiles prehospital ambulance data and in-hospital information. Methods: The study enrolled 437,974 patients in the ORION registry from January 1 to December 31, 2016. We selected hospitalized patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis using the appropriate codes from the International Classification of Diseases revision 10. We excluded patients with: (i) missing data (outcome, Japan Coma Scale, respiratory rate, and blood pressure); (ii) respiratory rate ≥60/min; and (iii) blood pressure ≥250 mmHg. These measures were evaluated by ambulance personnel when they first contacted the patient in the prehospital setting. The primary end-point was discharge to death. Results: In total, 12,646 patients (median age, 78 [interquartile range, 65-85] years; male, n = 6,760 [53.5%]) were eligible for our analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors, the proportion of patients discharged to death was significantly higher for those evaluated as qSOFA positive (≥2 points) than qSOFA negative (≤1 point) (265/2,250 [11.78%] vs. 415/10,396 [3.99%]; adjusted odds ratio 2.91; 95% confidence interval, 2.47-3.43; P < 0.0001). The specificity and sensitivity were 83.4% and 39.0%, respectively, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for qSOFA positive was 0.61. Conclusions: The qSOFA evaluated by ambulance personnel in the prehospital setting was significantly associated with prognosis in patients with sepsis or suspected sepsis.

13.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 53, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433491

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members.As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15206, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312458

RESUMO

Surgeons and medical staff attend academic meetings several times a year. However, there is insufficient evidence on the influence of the "meeting effect" on traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatments and outcomes. Using the Japan Trauma Data Bank, we analyzed the data of TBI patients admitted to the hospital from 2004 to 2018 during the national academic meeting days of the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine, the Japanese Association for the surgery of trauma, the Japan Society of Neurotraumatology and the Japan Neurosurgical Society. The data of these patients were compared with those of TBI patients admitted 1 week before and after the meetings. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. We included 7320 patients in our analyses, with 5139 and 2181 patients admitted during the non-meeting and meeting days, respectively; their in-hospital mortality rates were 15.7% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant differences in in-hospital mortality were found (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.11). In addition, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality during the meeting and non-meeting days by the type of national meeting. In Japan, it is acceptable for medical professionals involved in TBI treatments to attend national academic meetings without impacting the outcomes of TBI patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Congressos como Assunto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgia/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatologia/organização & administração
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211033030, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278836

RESUMO

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) commonly complicates sepsis and considerably worsens mortality. Recent studies suggested that anticoagulant therapies improved mortality only in specific sepsis populations, and key pathologies for selecting optimal targets needed to be identified. Anticoagulant activities were naturally altered with aging. This study aimed to evaluate age-related differences in efficacy of anticoagulant therapies in sepsis. This post hoc analysis of a nationwide multicenter cohort study was conducted in 42 intensive care units in Japan. Adult patients with septic DIC were divided into anticoagulant and control groups. Age-related changes in predicted mortality in both groups were compared using a logistic regression model including 2-way interaction terms. Patients were also stratified into 3 subsets based on age, and propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine survival effect of anticoagulants in each subset. We included 1432 patients with septic DIC; 867 patients received anticoagulants and 565 received none. Age-related change in predicted mortality was significantly different between groups (P for interaction = 0.013), and the gap between groups was broad in the younger population. Similarly, in Cox regression analyses, anticoagulant therapies were associated with significantly lower mortality in the subsets of age ≤ 60 and 60-79 (hazard ratios = 0.461, 0.617, P = 0.007, 0.005, respectively), whereas there was no difference in survival between the groups in the subsets of age ≥ 80. The efficacy of anticoagulant therapies for septic DIC might be associated with patient age.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 261, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the many factors that may influence traumatic brain injury (TBI) progression, sex is one of the most controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences in TBI-associated morbidity and mortality using data from the largest trauma registry in Japan. METHODS: This retrospective, population-based observational study included patients with isolated TBI, who were registered in a nationwide database between 2004 and 2018. We excluded patients with extracranial injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) and removed potential confounding factors, such as non-neurological causes of mortality. Patients were stratified by age and mortality and post-injury complications were compared between males and females. RESULTS: A total of 51,726 patients with isolated TBI were included (16,901 females and 34,825 males). Mortality across all ages was documented in 12.01% (2030/16901) and 12.76% (4445/34825) of males and females, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of TBI mortality for males compared to females was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.42]. Males aged 10-19 years and ≥ 60 years had a significantly higher mortality than females in the same age groups (10-19 years: adjusted OR, 1.97 [95% CI, 1.08-3.61]; 60-69 years: adjusted OR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.02-1.50]; 70-79 years: adjusted OR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.03-1.40]; 80-89 years: adjusted OR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.31-1.73], and 90-99 years: adjusted OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.28-2.32]). In terms of the incidence of post-TBI neurologic and non-neurologic complications, the crude ORs were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.19-1.39) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.07-1.22), respectively, for males versus females. This difference was especially evident among elderly patients (neurologic complications: OR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.14-1.41]; non-neurologic complications: OR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.19-1.39]). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide sample of patients with TBI in Japan, males had a higher mortality than females. This disparity was particularly evident among younger and older generations. Furthermore, elderly males experienced more TBI complications than females of the same age.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acute Med Surg ; : e664, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178358

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese Rapid/Living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCGs. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (ver. 3.1) (released on March 30, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ-2), hydroxychloroquine (CQ-3), corticosteroids (CQ-4), tocilizumab (CQ-5), ciclesonide (CQ-6), and anticoagulants (CQ-7). Favipiravir is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 2C); remdesivir for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B); hydroxychloroquine is not recommended for all COVID-19 patients (GRADE 1B); corticosteroids are recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for mild COVID-19 patients not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B); tocilizumab is recommended for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B); and anticoagulant therapy for moderate COVID-19 patients requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator management/intensive care (GRADE 2C). We hope that these clinical practice guidelines will aid medical professionals involved in the care of COVID-19 patients.

18.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(4): 285-291, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score has been validated as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people. Older people are at a higher risk of sepsis and have a higher mortality rate. However, the association of frailty on outcomes in patients with sepsis has not been completely examined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association between CFS and outcomes in patients with sepsis. DESIGN: This was a multicenter prospective cohort substudy. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 37 emergency departments from across Japan. The patients (age ≥16 years) were included in this study if they had suspected infection at an emergency department during December 2017-February 2018. OUTCOME MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, stratified by the CFS score categories. The secondary outcomes were the duration of hospital stay, number of ICU-free days (ICUFDs) and number of ventilator-free days (VFDs). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 917 patients were included. The median age was 79 years. The CFS score was associated with an increased risk of 28-day mortality and with a higher likelihood of long-term hospital stay and short-term VFDs and ICUFDs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the CFS score was a predictor of 28-day mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.42]. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported that in patients with suspected sepsis in the emergency department, frailty may be associated with poor prognosis and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Adolescente , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26132, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032762

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the association between the intensive care unit (ICU) model and in-hospital mortality of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational study conducted in 59 ICUs in Japan from January 2016 to March 2017. We included adult patients (aged ≥16 years) with severe sepsis and septic shock based on the sepsis-2 criteria who were admitted to an ICU with a 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratio per shift. Patients were categorized into open or closed ICU groups, according to the ICU model. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.A total of 1018 patients from 45 ICUs were included in this study. Patients in the closed ICU group had a higher severity score and higher organ failure incidence than those in the open ICU group. The compliance rate for the sepsis care 3-h bundle was higher in the closed ICU group than in the open ICU group. In-hospital mortality was not significantly different between the closed and open ICU groups in a multilevel logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval; 0.52-1.32, P = .43) and propensity score matching analysis (closed ICU, 21.2%; open ICU, 25.7%, P = .22).In-hospital mortality between the closed and open ICU groups was not significantly different after adjusting for ICU structure and compliance with the sepsis care bundle.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11031, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040091

RESUMO

Trauma patients die from massive bleeding due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype in the early phase, which transforms to DIC with a thrombotic phenotype in the late phase of trauma, contributing to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and a consequently poor outcome. This is a sub-analysis of a multicenter prospective descriptive cross-sectional study on DIC to evaluate the effect of a DIC diagnosis on the survival probability and predictive performance of DIC scores for massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death in severely injured trauma patients. A DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a lower survival probability (Log Rank P < 0.001), higher frequency of massive transfusion and MODS and a higher mortality rate than no such diagnosis. The DIC scores at 0 and 3 h significantly predicted massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death. Markers of thrombin and plasmin generation and fibrinolysis inhibition also showed a good predictive ability for these three items. In conclusion, a DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a low survival probability. DIC scores obtained immediately after trauma predicted a poor prognosis of severely injured trauma patients.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
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