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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 634215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381737

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections (BSIs), the presence of microorganisms in blood, are potentially serious conditions that can quickly develop into sepsis and life-threatening situations. When assessing proper treatment, rapid diagnosis is the key; besides clinical judgement performed by attending physicians, supporting microbiological tests typically are performed, often requiring microbial isolation and culturing steps, which increases the time required for confirming positive cases of BSI. The additional waiting time forces physicians to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics and empirically based treatments, before determining the precise cause of the disease. Thus, alternative and more rapid cultivation-independent methods are needed to improve clinical diagnostics, supporting prompt and accurate treatment and reducing the development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, a culture-independent workflow for pathogen detection and identification in blood samples was developed, using peptide biomarkers and applying bottom-up proteomics analyses, i.e., so-called "proteotyping". To demonstrate the feasibility of detection of blood infectious pathogens, using proteotyping, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were included in the study, as the most prominent bacterial causes of bacteremia and sepsis, as well as Candida albicans, one of the most prominent causes of fungemia. Model systems including spiked negative blood samples, as well as positive blood cultures, without further culturing steps, were investigated. Furthermore, an experiment designed to determine the incubation time needed for correct identification of the infectious pathogens in blood cultures was performed. The results for the spiked negative blood samples showed that proteotyping was 100- to 1,000-fold more sensitive, in comparison with the MALDI-TOF MS-based approach. Furthermore, in the analyses of ten positive blood cultures each of E. coli and S. aureus, both the MALDI-TOF MS-based and proteotyping approaches were successful in the identification of E. coli, although only proteotyping could identify S. aureus correctly in all samples. Compared with the MALDI-TOF MS-based approaches, shotgun proteotyping demonstrated higher sensitivity and accuracy, and required significantly shorter incubation time before detection and identification of the correct pathogen could be accomplished.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Candida albicans , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2997, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542373

RESUMO

The rDNA clusters and flanking sequences on human chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 represent large gaps in the current genomic assembly. The organization and the degree of divergence of the human rDNA units within an individual nucleolar organizer region (NOR) are only partially known. To address this lacuna, we previously applied transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning to isolate individual rDNA units from chromosome 21. That approach revealed an unexpectedly high level of heterogeneity in human rDNA, raising the possibility of corresponding variations in ribosome dynamics. We have now applied the same strategy to analyze an entire rDNA array end-to-end from a copy of chromosome 22. Sequencing of TAR isolates provided the entire NOR sequence, including proximal and distal junctions that may be involved in nucleolar function. Comparison of the newly sequenced rDNAs to reference sequence for chromosomes 22 and 21 revealed variants that are shared in human rDNA in individuals from different ethnic groups, many of them at high frequency. Analysis infers comparable intra- and inter-individual divergence of rDNA units on the same and different chromosomes, supporting the concerted evolution of rDNA units. The results provide a route to investigate further the role of rDNA variation in nucleolar formation and in the empirical associations of nucleoli with pathology.

3.
Proteomics ; 19(14): e1800367, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908818

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based proteomics starts with identifications of peptides and proteins, which provide the bases for forming the next-level hypotheses whose "validations" are often employed for forming even higher level hypotheses and so forth. Scientifically meaningful conclusions are thus attainable only if the number of falsely identified peptides/proteins is accurately controlled. For this reason, RAId continued to be developed in the past decade. RAId employs rigorous statistics for peptides/proteins identification, hence assigning accurate P-values/E-values that can be used confidently to control the number of falsely identified peptides and proteins. The RAId web service is a versatile tool built to identify peptides and proteins from tandem mass spectrometry data. Not only recognizing various spectra file formats, the web service also allows four peptide scoring functions and choice of three statistical methods for assigning P-values/E-values to identified peptides. Users may upload their own protein database or use one of the available knowledge integrated organismal databases that contain annotated information such as single amino acid polymorphisms, post-translational modifications, and their disease associations. The web service also provides a friendly interface to display, sort using different criteria, and download the identified peptides and proteins. RAId web service is freely available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Biologia Computacional
4.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(8): 1721-1737, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873019

RESUMO

Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple "fingerprinting"; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199162, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928000

RESUMO

Off-target oligoprobe's interaction with partially complementary nucleotide sequences represents a problem for many bio-techniques. The goal of the study was to identify oligoprobe sequence characteristics that control the ratio between on-target and off-target hybridization. To understand the complex interplay between specific and genome-wide off-target (cross-hybridization) signals, we analyzed a database derived from genomic comparison hybridization experiments performed with an Affymetrix tiling array. The database included two types of probes with signals derived from (i) a combination of specific signal and cross-hybridization and (ii) genomic cross-hybridization only. All probes from the database were grouped into bins according to their sequence characteristics, where both hybridization signals were averaged separately. For selection of specific probes, we analyzed the following sequence characteristics: vulnerability to self-folding, nucleotide composition bias, numbers of G nucleotides and GGG-blocks, and occurrence of probe's k-mers in the human genome. Increases in bin ranges for these characteristics are simultaneously accompanied by a decrease in hybridization specificity-the ratio between specific and cross-hybridization signals. However, both averaged hybridization signals exhibit growing trends along with an increase of probes' binding energy, where the hybridization specific signal increases significantly faster in comparison to the cross-hybridization. The same trend is evident for the S function, which serves as a combined evaluation of probe binding energy and occurrence of probe's k-mers in the genome. Application of S allows extracting a larger number of specific probes, as compared to using only binding energy. Thus, we showed that high values of specific and cross-hybridization signals are not mutually exclusive for probes with high values of binding energy and S. In this study, the application of a new set of sequence characteristics allows detection of probes that are highly specific to their targets for array design and other bio-techniques that require selection of specific probes.


Assuntos
Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Humanos
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(13): 6712-6725, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788454

RESUMO

Despite the key role of the human ribosome in protein biosynthesis, little is known about the extent of sequence variation in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) or its pre-rRNA and rRNA products. We recovered ribosomal DNA segments from a single human chromosome 21 using transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning in yeast. Accurate long-read sequencing of 13 isolates covering ∼0.82 Mb of the chromosome 21 rDNA complement revealed substantial variation among tandem repeat rDNA copies, several palindromic structures and potential errors in the previous reference sequence. These clones revealed 101 variant positions in the 45S transcription unit and 235 in the intergenic spacer sequence. Approximately 60% of the 45S variants were confirmed in independent whole-genome or RNA-seq data, with 47 of these further observed in mature 18S/28S rRNA sequences. TAR cloning and long-read sequencing enabled the accurate reconstruction of multiple rDNA units and a new, high-quality 44 838 bp rDNA reference sequence, which we have annotated with variants detected from chromosome 21 of a single individual. The large number of variants observed reveal heterogeneity in human rDNA, opening up the possibility of corresponding variations in ribosome dynamics.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , DNA Ribossômico/química , Genes de RNAr , Variação Genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/química , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 182, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: RAId is a software package that has been actively developed for the past 10 years for computationally and visually analyzing MS/MS data. Founded on rigorous statistical methods, RAId's core program computes accurate E-values for peptides and proteins identified during database searches. Making this robust tool readily accessible for the proteomics community by developing a graphical user interface (GUI) is our main goal here. RESULTS: We have constructed a graphical user interface to facilitate the use of RAId on users' local machines. Written in Java, RAId_GUI not only makes easy executions of RAId but also provides tools for data/spectra visualization, MS-product analysis, molecular isotopic distribution analysis, and graphing the retrieval versus the proportion of false discoveries. The results viewer displays and allows the users to download the analyses results. Both the knowledge-integrated organismal databases and the code package (containing source code, the graphical user interface, and a user manual) are available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/raid.html .


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Humanos , Internet , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
RNA Biol ; 14(12): 1649-1654, 2017 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722509

RESUMO

Comparison of mRNA and protein structures shows that highly structured mRNAs typically encode compact protein domains suggesting that mRNA structure controls protein folding. This function is apparently performed by distinct structural elements in the mRNA, which implies 'fine tuning' of mRNA structure under selection for optimal protein folding. We find that, during evolution, changes in the mRNA folding energy follow amino acid replacements, reinforcing the notion of an intimate connection between the structures of a mRNA and the protein it encodes, and the double encoding of protein sequence and folding in the mRNA.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Dobramento de Proteína , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Estabilidade de RNA , Seleção Genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Bioinformatics ; 32(17): i552-i558, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587674

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Target-specific hybridization depends on oligo-probe characteristics that improve hybridization specificity and minimize genome-wide cross-hybridization. Interplay between specific hybridization and genome-wide cross-hybridization has been insufficiently studied, despite its crucial role in efficient probe design and in data analysis. RESULTS: In this study, we defined hybridization specificity as a ratio between oligo target-specific hybridization and oligo genome-wide cross-hybridization. A microarray database, derived from the Genomic Comparison Hybridization (GCH) experiment and performed using the Affymetrix platform, contains two different types of probes. The first type of oligo-probes does not have a specific target on the genome and their hybridization signals are derived from genome-wide cross-hybridization alone. The second type includes oligonucleotides that have a specific target on the genomic DNA and their signals are derived from specific and cross-hybridization components combined together in a total signal. A comparative analysis of hybridization specificity of oligo-probes, as well as their nucleotide sequences and thermodynamic features was performed on the database. The comparison has revealed that hybridization specificity was negatively affected by low stability of the fully-paired oligo-target duplex, stable probe self-folding, G-rich content, including GGG motifs, low sequence complexity and nucleotide composition symmetry. CONCLUSION: Filtering out the probes with defined 'negative' characteristics significantly increases specific hybridization and dramatically decreasing genome-wide cross-hybridization. Selected oligo-probes have two times higher hybridization specificity on average, compared to the probes that were filtered from the analysis by applying suggested cutoff thresholds to the described parameters. A new approach for efficient oligo-probe design is described in our study. CONTACT: shabalin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or olga.matveeva@gmail.com SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Genoma , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Sondas de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Oligonucleotídeos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 44(22): 10898-10911, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466388

RESUMO

Specific structures in mRNA modulate translation rate and thus can affect protein folding. Using the protein structures from two eukaryotes and three prokaryotes, we explore the connections between the protein compactness, inferred from solvent accessibility, and mRNA structure, inferred from mRNA folding energy (ΔG). In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the ΔG value of the most stable 30 nucleotide segment of the mRNA (ΔGmin) strongly, positively correlates with protein solvent accessibility. Thus, mRNAs containing exceptionally stable secondary structure elements typically encode compact proteins. The correlations between ΔG and protein compactness are much more pronounced in predicted ordered parts of proteins compared to the predicted disordered parts, indicative of an important role of mRNA secondary structure elements in the control of protein folding. Additionally, ΔG correlates with the mRNA length and the evolutionary rate of synonymous positions. The correlations are partially independent and were used to construct multiple regression models which explain about half of the variance of protein solvent accessibility. These findings suggest a model in which the mRNA structure, particularly exceptionally stable RNA structural elements, act as gauges of protein co-translational folding by reducing ribosome speed when the nascent peptide needs time to form and optimize the core structure.


Assuntos
Dobramento de Proteína , RNA Mensageiro/fisiologia , Animais , Composição de Bases , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , Termodinâmica , Transcriptoma
11.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 27(2): 194-210, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26510657

RESUMO

Correct and rapid identification of microorganisms is the key to the success of many important applications in health and safety, including, but not limited to, infection treatment, food safety, and biodefense. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is challenging correct microbial identification because of the large number of choices present. To properly disentangle candidate microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple 'fingerprinting'; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptidome profiles of microbes to better separate them and by designing an analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an analysis pipeline that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using MS/MS data of 81 samples, each composed of a single known microorganism, that the proposed pipeline can correctly identify microorganisms at least at the genus and species levels. We have also shown that the proposed pipeline computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E-values for identified peptides and unified E-values for identified microorganisms. The proposed analysis pipeline has been implemented in MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification. MiCId is available for download at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/estatística & dados numéricos , Bactérias/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escherichia coli/classificação , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Software
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(11): 7132-44, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24792168

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS), alternative transcription initiation (ATI) and alternative transcription termination (ATT) create the extraordinary complexity of transcriptomes and make key contributions to the structural and functional diversity of mammalian proteomes. Analysis of mammalian genomic and transcriptomic data shows that contrary to the traditional view, the joint contribution of ATI and ATT to the transcriptome and proteome diversity is quantitatively greater than the contribution of AS. Although the mean numbers of protein-coding constitutive and alternative nucleotides in gene loci are nearly identical, their distribution along the transcripts is highly non-uniform. On average, coding exons in the variable 5' and 3' transcript ends that are created by ATI and ATT contain approximately four times more alternative nucleotides than core protein-coding regions that diversify exclusively via AS. Short upstream exons that encompass alternative 5'-untranslated regions and N-termini of proteins evolve under strong nucleotide-level selection whereas in 3'-terminal exons that encode protein C-termini, protein-level selection is significantly stronger. The groups of genes that are subject to ATI and ATT show major differences in biological roles, expression and selection patterns.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética , Terminação da Transcrição Genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteoma , Transcriptoma
13.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 25(1): 57-70, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24254576

RESUMO

In this paper, we present Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs), a new software tool designed to compute molecular isotopic distributions with adjustable accuracies. MIDAs offers two algorithms, one polynomial-based and one Fourier-transform-based, both of which compute molecular isotopic distributions accurately and efficiently. The polynomial-based algorithm contains few novel aspects, whereas the Fourier-transform-based algorithm consists mainly of improvements to other existing Fourier-transform-based algorithms. We have benchmarked the performance of the two algorithms implemented in MIDAs with that of eight software packages (BRAIN, Emass, Mercury, Mercury5, NeutronCluster, Qmass, JFC, IC) using a consensus set of benchmark molecules. Under the proposed evaluation criteria, MIDAs's algorithms, JFC, and Emass compute with comparable accuracy the coarse-grained (low-resolution) isotopic distributions and are more accurate than the other software packages. For fine-grained isotopic distributions, we compared IC, MIDAs's polynomial algorithm, and MIDAs's Fourier transform algorithm. Among the three, IC and MIDAs's polynomial algorithm compute isotopic distributions that better resemble their corresponding exact fine-grained (high-resolution) isotopic distributions. MIDAs can be accessed freely through a user-friendly web-interface at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/midas/index.html.


Assuntos
Isótopos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Internet , Peso Molecular , Proteômica
14.
Front Genet ; 3: 163, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22952469

RESUMO

Small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) became an important research tool in cell biology. Reliable design of these molecules is essential for the needs of large functional genomics projects. To optimize the design of efficient shRNAs, we performed comparative, thermodynamic, and correlation analyses of ~18,000 miR30-based shRNAs with known functional efficiencies, derived from the Sensor Assay project (Fellmann et al., 2011). We identified features of the shRNA guide strand that significantly correlate with the silencing efficiency and performed multiple regression analysis, using 4/5 of the data for training purposes and 1/5 for cross validation. A model that included the position-dependent nucleotide preferences was predictive in the cross-validation data subset (R = 0.39). However, a model, which in addition to the nucleotide preferences included thermodynamic shRNA features such as a thermodynamic duplex stability and position-dependent thermodynamic profile (dinucleotide free energy) was performing better (R = 0.53). Software "miR_Scan" was developed based upon the optimized models. Calculated mRNA target secondary structure stability showed correlation with shRNA silencing efficiency but failed to improve the model. Correlation analysis demonstrates that our algorithm for identification of efficient miR30-based shRNA molecules performs better than approaches that were developed for design of chemically synthesized siRNAs (R(max) = 0.36).

15.
J Proteomics ; 74(2): 199-211, 2011 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21055489

RESUMO

Querying MS/MS spectra against a database containing only proteotypic peptides reduces data analysis time due to reduction of database size. Despite the speed advantage, this search strategy is challenged by issues of statistical significance and coverage. The former requires separating systematically significant identifications from less confident identifications, while the latter arises when the underlying peptide is not present, due to single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) or post-translational modifications (PTMs), in the proteotypic peptide libraries searched. To address both issues simultaneously, we have extended RAId's knowledge database to include proteotypic information, utilized RAId's statistical strategy to assign statistical significance to proteotypic peptides, and modified RAId's programs to allow for consideration of proteotypic information during database searches. The extended database alleviates the coverage problem since all annotated modifications, even those that occurred within proteotypic peptides, may be considered. Taking into account the likelihoods of observation, the statistical strategy of RAId provides accurate E-value assignments regardless whether a candidate peptide is proteotypic or not. The advantage of including proteotypic information is evidenced by its superior retrieval performance when compared to regular database searches.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Peptídeos/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 5(11): e15438, 2010 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21103371

RESUMO

Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos/análise , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Peso Molecular , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/química , Proteômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
17.
PLoS One ; 5(4): e10180, 2010 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20422034

RESUMO

Prediction of efficient oligonucleotides for RNA interference presents a serious challenge, especially for the development of genome-wide RNAi libraries which encounter difficulties and limitations due to ambiguities in the results and the requirement for significant computational resources. Here we present a fast and practical algorithm for shRNA design based on the thermodynamic parameters. In order to identify shRNA and siRNA features universally associated with high silencing efficiency, we analyzed structure-activity relationships in thousands of individual RNAi experiments from publicly available databases (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/shabalin/siRNA/si_shRNA_selector/). Using this statistical analysis, we found free energy ranges for the terminal duplex asymmetry and for fully paired duplex stability, such that shRNAs or siRNAs falling in both ranges have a high probability of being efficient. When combined, these two parameters yield a approximately 72% success rate on shRNAs from the siRecords database, with the target RNA levels reduced to below 20% of the control. Two other parameters correlate well with silencing efficiency: the stability of target RNA and the antisense strand secondary structure. Both parameters also correlate with the short RNA duplex stability; as a consequence, adding these parameters to our prediction scheme did not substantially improve classification accuracy. To test the validity of our predictions, we designed 83 shRNAs with optimal terminal asymmetry, and experimentally verified that small shifts in duplex stability strongly affected silencing efficiency. We showed that shRNAs with short fully paired stems could be successfully selected by optimizing only two parameters: terminal duplex asymmetry and duplex stability of the hypothetical cleavage product, which also relates to the specificity of mRNA target recognition. Our approach performs at the level of the best currently utilized algorithms that take into account prediction of the secondary structure of the target and antisense RNAs, but at significantly lower computational costs. Based on this study, we created the si-shRNA Selector program that predicts both highly efficient shRNAs and functional siRNAs (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/shabalin/siRNA/si_shRNA_selector/).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Desenho de Fármacos , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Inativação Gênica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Interferência de RNA , Termodinâmica
18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 27(8): 1745-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20360214

RESUMO

Comparison of expression levels and breadth and evolutionary rates of intronless and intron-containing mammalian genes shows that intronless genes are expressed at lower levels, tend to be tissue specific, and evolve significantly faster than spliced genes. By contrast, monomorphic spliced genes that are not subject to detectable alternative splicing and polymorphic alternatively spliced genes show similar statistically indistinguishable patterns of expression and evolution. Alternative splicing is most common in ancient genes, whereas intronless genes appear to have relatively recent origins. These results imply tight coupling between different stages of gene expression, in particular, transcription, splicing, and nucleocytosolic transport of transcripts, and suggest that formation of intronless genes is an important route of evolution of novel tissue-specific functions in animals.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Íntrons , Mamíferos/genética , Animais , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Splicing de RNA
19.
BMC Genomics ; 10: 162, 2009 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19371439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing (AS) in protein-coding sequences has emerged as an important mechanism of regulation and diversification of animal gene function. By contrast, the extent and roles of alternative events including AS and alternative transcription initiation (ATI) within the 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) of mammalian genes are not well characterized. RESULTS: We evaluated the abundance, conservation and evolution of putative regulatory control elements, namely, upstream start codons (uAUGs) and open reading frames (uORFs), in the 5'UTRs of human and mouse genes impacted by alternative events. For genes with alternative 5'UTRs, the fraction of alternative sequences (those present in a subset of the transcripts) is much greater than that in the corresponding coding sequence, conceivably, because 5'UTRs are not bound by constraints on protein structure that limit AS in coding regions. Alternative regions of mammalian 5'UTRs evolve faster and are subject to a weaker purifying selection than constitutive portions. This relatively weak selection results in over-abundance of uAUGs and uORFs in the alternative regions of 5'UTRs compared to constitutive regions. Nevertheless, even in alternative regions, uORFs evolve under a stronger selection than the rest of the sequences, indicating that some of the uORFs are conserved regulatory elements; some of the non-conserved uORFs could be involved in species-specific regulation. CONCLUSION: The findings on the evolution and selection in alternative and constitutive regions presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that alternative events, namely, AS and ATI, in 5'UTRs of mammalian genes are likely to contribute to the regulation of translation.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Evolução Molecular , Animais , Códon de Iniciação , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 18(6): 1037-51, 2009 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19103668

RESUMO

The mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is the principal receptor target for both endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesics. There are substantial individual differences in human responses to painful stimuli and to opiate drugs that are attributed to genetic variations in OPRM1. In searching for new functional variants, we employed comparative genome analysis and obtained evidence for the existence of an expanded human OPRM1 gene locus with new promoters, alternative exons and regulatory elements. Examination of polymorphisms within the human OPRM1 gene locus identified strong association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs563649 and individual variations in pain perception. SNP rs563649 is located within a structurally conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5'-UTR of a novel exon 13-containing OPRM1 isoforms (MOR-1K) and affects both mRNA levels and translation efficiency of these variants. Furthermore, rs563649 exhibits very strong linkage disequilibrium throughout the entire OPRM1 gene locus and thus affects the functional contribution of the corresponding haplotype that includes other functional OPRM1 SNPs. Our results provide evidence for an essential role for MOR-1K isoforms in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in alternative OPRM1 isoforms may contribute to individual differences in opiate responses.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Dor/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Splicing de RNA/genética
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