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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144254

RESUMO

Overexposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) causes skin damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a fucoidan with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa, isolated from Hizikia fusiforme, against UVB-induced photodamage in vitro in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and in vivo in zebrafish. Fucoidan remarkably inhibited commercial collagenase. Additionally, it significantly and dose-dependently decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increased the viability of UVB-irradiated HDFs. Furthermore, fucoidan remarkably improved collagen synthesis, inhibited intracellular collagenase, and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated HDFs. Further research demonstrated that these effects occurred through the regulation of the activator protein 1, nuclear factor kappa B, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, the in vivo results showed that fucoidan protected zebrafish larvae against UVB-induced photodamage by decreasing cell death via the suppression of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response through ROS clearance. In conclusion, fucoidan isolated from Hizikia fusiforme exhibits strong in vitro and in vivo photoprotective effects, and can be used as an ingredient in the cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 18(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957728

RESUMO

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) isolated from Ishige okamurae (IO) showed potential whitening effects against UV-B radiation. However, the components of IO as well as their molecular mechanism against α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have not yet been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Ishophloroglucin A (IPA), a phlorotannin isolated from brown algae IO, and its crude extract (IOE), in melanogenesis in vivo in an α-MSH-induced zebrafish model and in B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Molecular docking studies of the phlorotannins were carried out to determine their inhibitory effects and to elucidate their mode of interaction with tyrosinase, a glycoprotein related to melanogenesis. In addition, morphological changes and melanin content decreased in the α-MSH-induced zebrafish model after IPA and IOE treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting results revealed that IPA upregulated the extracellular related protein expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Hence, these results suggest that IPA isolated from IOE has a potential for use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824148

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that fucoidan with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa, isolated from Hizikia fusiforme, possesses strong antioxidant activity. To explore the cosmeceutical potential of fucoidan, its anti-photoaging and anti-melanogenesis effects were evaluated in the present study. The anti-photoaging effect was investigated in ultraviolet (UV) B-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), where fucoidan effectively reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and improved the viability of the UVB-irradiated cells without any cytotoxic effects. Moreover, fucoidan significantly decreased UVB-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells by regulating the protein expression of Bax, Bcl-xL, PARP, and Caspase-3 in HaCaT cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-melanogenesis effect of fucoidan was evaluated in B16F10 melanoma cells that had been stimulated with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and fucoidan treatment remarkably inhibited melanin synthesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Further studies indicated that fucoidan significantly suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2 (TRP-1 and-2) in B16F10 cells by down-regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) through regulation of the ERK-MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase-mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan isolated from H. fusiforme possesses strong anti-photoaging and anti-melanogenesis activities and can be used as an ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

4.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(9): 1379-1386, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713876

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the distribution and epidemiological relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion dogs, owners, and residential environments of 72 households. Sampling was performed twice from January to June 2018 and a total of 2,592 specimens were collected. The specimens collected from each household were streaked on CHROM agar S. aureus and the colonies grown on the medium were further identified using a mass spectrometry microbial identification system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Panton-Valentine-Leukocidin (PVL) gene PCR, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (spa) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the MRSA isolates. A total of 65 S. aureus strains (2.5%) were isolated and 49 (1.9%) of 65 strains were MRSA displaying cefoxitin-resistance with mecA carriage. MRSA strains were isolated from dogs (n=6, 9.2%), owners (n=27, 41.5%), and residential environments (n=16, 24.6%), respectively. Overall prevalence of non-duplicated MRSA was 16.7% (12/72 households) at household level. ST72-SCCmec IVc MRSA clones predominantly appeared in MRSA-positive families. Furthermore, PFGE analyses showed that ST72-SCCmec IVc-t324 is shared between dog owners and dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the sharing of ST72 MRSA between dogs and their owners.

5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e40, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476314

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from companion animals. A total of 931 clinical specimens were collected from diseased pets. The detection of mupirocin-resistant bacteria and plasmid-mediated mupirocin resistance genes were evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing analysis. Four-hundred and six (43.6%) bacteria were isolated and 17 (4.2%), including 14 staphylococci and 3 Corynebacterium were high-level mupirocin-resistant (MICs, ≥ 1,024 ug/mL) harboring mupA. Six staphylococci of HLMR strains had plasmid-mediated mupA-IS257 flanking regions. The results show that HLMR bacteria could spread in veterinary medicine in the near future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mupirocina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(5)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349336

RESUMO

The previous study suggested that the sulfated polysaccharides from Hizikia fusiforme (HFPS) possess strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study is to isolate fucoidan from HFPS and to investigate its antioxidant activity. A fucoidan (HFPS-F4) with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa was isolated from HFPS. HFPS-F4 contains 99.01% of fucoidan (71.79 ± 0.56% of carbohydrate and 27.22 ± 0.05% of sulfate content). The fucoidan increased the viability of H2O2-treated Vero cells by 5.41, 11.17, and 16.32% at the concentration of 12.5, 25, and 50 µg/mL, respectively. Further results demonstrated that this effect act diminishing apoptosis by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increasing the expression of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was induced by elevating total nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels. In addition, the in vivo test results displayed that the pretreatment of fucoidan improved the survival rates and decreased heart-beating rate, ROS, cell death, and lipid peroxidation in H2O2-stimulated zebrafish. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan isolated from HFPS has strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and it could be utilized in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical industries.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351490

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the distribution and characterization of fecal extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy companion animals and cohabiting humans. A total of 968 rectal swab samples from 340 participants, including healthy companion animals and cohabiting humans, were collected from 130 households in South Korea from 2018 to 2019. To determine the bacterial profiles of the participants, several experiments were performed as follows: antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR and direct sequencing for ESBL/AmpC production, PFGE, MLST, whole genome sequencing and qRT-PCR. A total of 24.9 and 21.5% of the E. coli isolates from healthy companion animals and cohabiting humans were ESBL/AmpC producers, respectively. The bla CTX-M- 14 gene was the most prevalent ESC resistance gene in both pets (n = 25/95, 26.3%) and humans (n = 44/126, 34.9%). The bla CMY- 2 gene was also largely detected in pets (n = 19, 20.0%). Overall, intrahousehold pet-human sharing of ESBL/AmpC E. coli isolates occurred in 4.8% of households, and the isolates were all CTX-M-14 producers. In particular, ten CMY-2-producing E. coli isolates from seven dogs and three humans in the different households belonged to the same pulsotype. The MIC values of cefoxitin and the transcription level in CMY-2-producing E. coli isolates were proportional to the bla CMY- 2 copy number on the chromosome. Our results showed that the clonal spread of fecal ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli households' isolates between healthy companion animals and cohabiting humans was rare, but it could happen. In particular, E. coli ST405 isolates carrying multiple bla CMY- 2 genes on the chromosome was sporadically spread between companion animals and humans in South Korea.

8.
J Food Sci Technol ; 57(6): 2283-2292, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431354

RESUMO

In this study, the saponin-rich fractions of five individual (two Red and three Black) sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) in South Korea were investigated for their antiproliferative effect against HL-60, B16F10, MCF-7, and Hep3B tumor cell lines. The red sea cucumber saponin-rich fraction (SSC) from Jeju Island (JRe) decreased the growth of HL-60 with an IC50 value of 23.55 ± 3.40 µg/mL, which represented the strongest anticancer activity among the extracts. Further, SSC downregulated B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-xL), while upregulating, to different degrees, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and apoptotic bodies in cancer cells. Evidence for SSC inducing apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated pathway was found. The contents of SSCs were determined using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry to comparatively evaluate the regional influence. In West Sea, the total SSC content of A. japonicus was 15.5 mg/g, representing the highest content, while A. japonicus in the South Sea yielded the lowest content at 8 mg/g. The major saponin constituent in SSC was identified as Holotoxin A1, which may the anti-tumor compound in A. japonicus.

9.
Foods ; 9(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443419

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the health benefits of functional foods. A benefit that has been long sought is the control of hypertension through dietary approaches. Hypertension has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is therefore of clinical significance. Here, we aim to demonstrate the antihypertensive activity of novel peptides derived from surimi, a functional food ingredient made from refined fish myofibrillar proteins. Three peptides, Ile-Val-Asp-Arg (IVDR), Trp-Tyr-Lys (WYK), and Val-Ala-Ser-Val-Ile (VASVI), were isolated from surimi made from the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Our results show that IVDR, WYK, and VASVI exhibited high Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. These peptides are also shown to increase phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and significantly promote nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Oral administration of the peptides decreased blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), thereby confirming that the peptides derived from surimi perform antihypertensive activity via the Akt/eNOS pathway. These results indicate that surimi made from P. olivaceus contains novel antihypertensive peptides that could be used to enhance the health benefits of food ingredients.

10.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438702

RESUMO

Fucoidan is a fucose-enriched polysaccharide, obtained from brown algae, with demonstrated antioxidant properties. However, traditional extraction methods using water or chemical-based extraction methods have reduced yield and produced hazardous by-products. In this study, we isolated fucoidan at a high yield using enzyme-assisted extraction; the Celluclast enzyme assisted extract of Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (FCUS). To examine the antioxidant properties of FCUS, oxidative stress was induced with 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in Vero cells and zebrafish model. FCUS was composed of 30.4% sulfate and 52.3% fucose. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with FCUS dose dependently inhibited AAPH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, FCUS remarkably reduced cell death, ROS generation, and lipid peroxidation production in zebrafish larvae. Overall, these findings indicate that the sulfate-rich fucoidan of FCUS, obtained with an eco-friendly process, could be implemented as a beneficial antioxidant agent in the functional food industry.

11.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230927

RESUMO

Inflammation is a well-organized innate immune response that plays an important role during the pathogen attacks and mechanical injuries. The Toll-like receptors (TLR)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a major signal transduction pathway observed in RAW 264.7 macrophages during the inflammatory responses. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Octominin; a bio-active peptide developed from Octopus minor in RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Octominin was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated transcriptional activation of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 cells and dose-dependently decreased the mRNA expression levels of TLR4. Specifically, in silico docking results demonstrated that Octominin has a potential to inhibit TLR4 mediated inflammatory responses via blocking formation of TLR4/MD-2/LPS complex. We also demonstrated that Octominin could significantly inhibit LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-ß; IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL10) from RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Octominin repressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, inducible NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 in macrophages. These results suggest that Octominin is a potential inhibitor of TLRs/NF-κB signal transduction pathway and is a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

12.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111060

RESUMO

Particulate matters (PM), the main contributor to air pollution, have become a serious issue that threatens human's health. Skin is the largest organ in humans, as well as the primary organ exposed to PM. Overexposure of PM induces skin damage. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), an algal polyphenol with the potential of skin protection, has been isolated from the edible brown seaweed Ishige okamurae. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of DPHC against PM (ERM-CZ100)-induced skin damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) cells. The results indicated that DPHC significantly and dose-dependently reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in HDF cells. In addition, DPHC significantly induced collagen synthesis and inhibited collagenase activity in ERM-CZ100-stimulated HDF cells. Further study demonstrated that DPHC remarkably reduced the expression of human matrix metalloproteinases through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways in ERM-CZ100-stimulated HDF cells. This study suggested that DPHC is a potential candidate to protect skins against PM-induced damage, and it could be used as an ingredient in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 142: 545-550, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715243

RESUMO

Antioxidant and anti-wrinkle effects of sulfated polysaccharides from Celluclast-assisted extract of Hizikia fusiforme (HFPS) make it a good candidate for exploring its cosmeceutical potential. In order to further explore this premise, the anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenesis effects of HFPS were studied in the present study. HFPS significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) generation and improved the cell viability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. It also decreased the expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, HFPS also inhibited melanin synthesis in alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells by down-regulating of intracellular levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2 (TRP-1 and -2) via inhibiting microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. These results demonstrate that HFPS possesses strong in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-melanogenesis effects and can be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Sulfatos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 136: 110963, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715308

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun is the primary environmental factor that causes aging of the skin. Most skin diseases caused by UV are attributed to UVB (280-320 nm). The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), isolated from the marine brown alga, Ishige okamurae, against UVB-induced photodamage using both in vitro and in vivo models. Results indicate that DPHC remarkably inhibited commercial collagenase and elastase activities. It also reduced intracellular levels of ROS, improved cell viability and collagen content in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cells). In addition, DPHC significantly inhibited activities of intracellular collagenase and elastase and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These events occurred through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways in UVB-irradiated HDF cells. Furthermore, DPHC also protected against in vivo photodamage by decreasing cell death through reducing lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response via decreasing ROS levels in UVB-irradiated zebrafish. In conclusion, DPHC has strong in vitro and in vivo photoprotective effects and has the potential to be used as an ingredient in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Feófitas/química , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colagenases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635214

RESUMO

It has been reported that enzymatic digestion of algae could improve the yield and enhance the biological activity compared to water and organic extraction. Our previous research indicated that Celluclast-assisted extract of Sargassum fulvellum (SF) possessed higher carbohydrate content and stronger antioxidant activity compared to water and other enzyme-assisted extracts. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from SF (SFPS) in vitro in Vero cells and in vivo in zebrafish. SFPS was obtained by Celluclast-assisted hydrolysis and ethanol precipitation. Results showed that SFPS contained 74.55 ± 1.26% sulfated polysaccharides and effectively scavenged 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radicals. SFPS significantly and dose-dependently scavenged intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improved cell viability. Further studies indicated that SFPS reduced apoptotic body formation through downregulation of proapoptotic protein (Bax and cleaved caspase-3) levels and upregulation of antiapoptotic protein (Bcl-xL and PARP) levels in 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-treated Vero cells. In addition, SFPS showed strong protective effect against AAPH-stimulated oxidative stress in vivo in zebrafish, as demonstrated by the improved survival rate, reduced heart rate, and decrease in ROS, cell death, and lipid peroxidation levels. These results suggest that SFPS possesses strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity and can be a potential ingredient in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 30(44): 445706, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357184

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) core-shell structured graphene-silver nanowire (AgNW) hybrid fillers are prepared through facile spray drying and an optical welding process. The spray drying process enables formation of a core-shell structure with AgNWs attached onto the spherical graphene surface by van der Waals force and surface tension during evaporation. AgNW shell is optically welded for enhanced mechanical stability and interfacial resistance reduction. 3D core-shell structured graphene-AgNW hybrid fillers are partially embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fabricate highly stretchable and conductive nanocomposites. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites largely increases up to ∼116 S cm-1 and the electrical properties are well maintained under high stretchability of ∼140% strain with 100 stretching cycles despite small amount of AgNW. These enhancements are attributed to the formation of electrically conducting network by excellent dispersion property of spherical graphene core in PDMS matrix and low contact resistance of AgNW shell. We anticipate that 3D core-shell structured graphene-AgNW/PDMS nanocomposites have great potential for application in various stretchable electronic devices.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1371, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275286

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is an increasingly important problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to describe a comparative molecular characterization of Enterobacteriaceae carrying ESC resistance genes, encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC, isolated from human stool samples, rectal swabs from companion animals, and swabs from the environment of veterinarian hospitals in South Korea, and to examine their possible dissemination and transmission. The ESC resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Isolates with the predominant ESC resistance genes were assessed for their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing. A total of 195 Escherichia coli and 41 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that exhibited ESC resistance were recovered on CHROMagar ESBL from human, companion animal, and the veterinary hospital environmental samples. In companion animals, most of the ESC resistance genes were bla CMY-2-like (26.4%), followed by bla CTX -M-55 (17.2%) and bla CTX-M-14 (16.1%), whereas bla CTX-M-15 (28.6%) was predominant in human samples. The epidemiological relatedness of isolates carrying ESC resistance genes, including 124 E. coli and 23 K. pneumoniae isolates carrying CMY-2-like, DHA-1-like, or/and CTX-M-type, were analyzed by PFGE. The pulsotypes of five E. coli isolates (three from dogs and two from humans) carrying bla CMY-2-like, which were attributed to sequence type 405, from different veterinary clinics showed >85% similarity. Our results indicate direct transmission and dissemination of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae between humans and companion animals.

18.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934943

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with several health complications and can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. Some of its deleterious consequences are related to insulin resistance, which adversely affects blood glucose regulation. At present, there is a growing concern regarding healthy food consumption, owing to awareness about obesity. Seaweeds are well-known for their nutritional benefits. The brown alga Ishige okamurae (IO) has been studied as a dietary supplement and exhibits various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive compounds isolated from IO extract are known to possess anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties, elicited via the regulation of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. This review focuses on IO extract and its bioactive compounds that exhibit therapeutic effects through several cellular mechanisms in obesity and diabetes. The information discussed in the present review may provide evidence to develop nutraceuticals from IO.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Feófitas/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/sangue
19.
Korean J Intern Med ; 34(4): 794-801, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have reported a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and a low rate of serious adverse events with the use of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection in real world. METHODS: We enrolled 278 patients (184 treatment-naïve patients) from five hospitals in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do. We evaluated the rates of rapid virologic response (RVR), end-of-treatment response (ETR), and SVR at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12). Furthermore, we investigated the rate of adverse events and predictive factors of SVR12 failure. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 59.5 ± 10.6 years, and 140 patients (50.2%) were men. Seventy-seven patients had cirrhosis. Baseline information regarding nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) sequences was available in 268 patients. Six patients presented with pretreatment NS5A resistance-associated variants. The RVR and the ETR rates were 96.6% (258/267) and 95.2% (223/232), respectively. The overall SVR12 rate was 91.6% (197/215). Adverse events occurred in 17 patients (7.9%). Six patients discontinued treatment because of liver enzyme elevation (n = 4) and severe nausea (n = 2). Among these, four achieved SVR12. Other adverse events observed were fatigue, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, loss of appetite, skin rash, and dyspnea. Univariate analysis did not show significant predictive factors of SVR12 failure. CONCLUSION: DCV and ASV combination therapy showed high rates of RVR, ETR, and SVR12 in chronic HCV genotype 1b-infected patients in real world and was well tolerated without serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(3): 344-349, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379599

RESUMO

The gene for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-5 (NDM-5) in Escherichia coli has been identified in many countries mainly from human clinical specimens. The isolates carrying this gene are even more rarely isolated from companion animals. In this study, four carbapenem-resistant isolates were recovered from four dogs in Korea. All isolates carried blaNDM-5 and exhibited resistance to meropenem and imipenem, and were susceptible to colistin. Epidemiological analysis showed that all four isolates were sequence type 410 (ST410) and shared 99% similarity as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Among the four isolates, the Z0117EC0033 strain was randomly selected for whole-genome sequencing, composed of a 4.7Mb circularized chromosome carrying the CMY-2 gene and two plasmids. The first plasmid of the IncFIB type had 83 coding sequences (CDS) in ca. 74 kb. The second smaller plasmid of the IncX3 type had 57 CDS and carried only the blaNDM-5 gene in ca. 46 kb. The plasmid structures were highly similar (> 99%) to those of the NDM-5 human-like IncX3 plasmid. This is the first report of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from companion animals in Korea. The human-like blaNDM-5 IncX3 plasmid identified in this study suggests a potential transmission route of the NDM-5 plasmid between humans and companion animals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Plasmídeos/genética , República da Coreia
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