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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 677648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568084

RESUMO

Vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV), is an important cause of premature birth in pregnant women. However, there is very little research on vaginal microbial distribution in AV compared to that in BV. This study aimed to analyze the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women with AV using microbial community analysis and identify the causative organism using each criterion of the AV scoring system. Also, we compared the quantification of aerobic bacteria using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and their relative abundances (RA) using metagenomics. This prospective case-control study included 228 pregnant Korean women from our previous study. A wet mount test was conducted on 159 women to diagnose AV using the AV scoring system. Vaginal samples were analyzed using metagenomics, Gram staining for Nugent score determination, conventional culture, and qPCR for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. The relative abundances (RAs) of eleven species showed significant differences among the three groups (Normal flora (NF), mild AV, and moderate AV). Three species including Lactobacillus crispatus were significantly lower in the AV groups than in the NF group, while eight species were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV. The decrease in the RA of L. crispatus was common in three criteria of the AV scoring system (Lactobacillary, WBC, and background flora grades), while it did not show a significant difference among the three grade groups of the toxic leukocyte criterion. Also, the RAs of anaerobes, such as Gardnerella and Megasphaera, were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV, while the RAs of aerobes were very low (RA < 0.01). Therefore, qPCR was performed for aerobes (Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterobacteriaceae); however, their quantification did not show a higher level in the AV groups when compared to that in the NF group. Therefore, AV might be affected by the RA of Lactobacillus spp. and the main anaerobes, such as Gardnerella spp. Activation of leukocytes under specific conditions might convert them to toxic leukocytes, despite high levels of L. crispatus. Thus, the pathogenesis of AV can be evaluated under such conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vaginite , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Vagina
2.
Front Public Health ; 8: 507024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194936

RESUMO

Abnormal vaginal microbiota (AVM), including bacterial vaginosis (BV), is caused by a microbiota imbalance. Nugent scoring is the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of BV; however, it is somewhat subjective to interpret, and challenging to distinguish bacteria. Hence, there is a need for improved technologies for the accurate diagnosis of AVM. To this end, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been shown to yield comprehensive information on the pathophysiology of AVM. Hence, to evaluate the relationship between microbiota composition and the pathophysiology of AVM and its clinical significance, we characterized vaginal swab samples from 212 pregnant Korean women using both Nugent scoring and NGS analysis. Of these, the Nugent scoring identified 175 subjects (82.5%; 175/212) with normal flora (NF), 20 (9.4%; 20/212) with intermediate flora (IF), and 17 (8.0%; 17/212) with BV. NGS analysis followed by the characterization of vaginal microbiota composition, as represented by alpha and beta diversity, revealed the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. Moreover, we identified all five predominant community state types (CSTs) along with three smaller CSTs. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota revealed the dominance of one or two Lactobacillus spp. in the NF group. Meanwhile, the IF and BV groups were dominated by the genera Gardnerella, Prevotella, and Atopobium. These two groups also showed higher alpha diversity than the NF group (p < 0.05). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that the NF group was significantly different from the AVM groups (p < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed between IF and BV groups (p = 0.25). Lastly, to investigate the characteristics of vaginal microbiota based on taxonomic composition, the IF and BV groups (AVM groups) were reclassified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering. Consequently, they were reclassified into BV1 (Lactobacillus iners-dominated), BV2-1 (Bifidobacterium breve-dominated), BV2-2 (Gardnerella vaginalis s1 or s2 and Atopobium vaginae-dominated), and BV3 [mixed population of G. vaginalis, L. iners, and other bacteria (p < 0.05)]. Collectively, these findings could serve to advance the current understanding regarding AVM pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Actinobacteria , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
3.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol ; 44(3): 429-433, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) and predictive factors for intrauterine infection in pregnant Korean women with preterm labor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 106 pregnant Korean women with preterm labor admitted to Eulji Medical Center between January 2006 and August 2011. The results of vaginal discharge tests and maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level at admission, placental biopsy, and perinatal outcomes were searched. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora was calculated. The perinatal outcomes and predictive factors for intrauterine infections were analyzed based on placental pathology and early-onset neonatal sepsis. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora was 75.4%. Ureaplasma urealyticunz (UU), intermediate flora, Candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and aerobic bacterial colonization were detected in 40.6%, 38.7%, 17%, 14.2%, and 11.3% of the women, respectively. The frequency of early-onset neonatal sepsis was significantly different between women with aerobic bacterial colonization and those with normal flora (p = 0.008). An elevated maternal serum CRP level was an independent intrauterine infection predictor (odds ratio, 1.918; 95% confidence interval, 1.102-3.338; p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Aerobic bacterial colonization may predict early-onset neonatal sepsis. An elevated maternal serum CRP level was an independent intrauterine infection predictor based on placental infections and early-onset neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 30(19): 2329-2333, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27756178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predominant Lactobacillus species types (LSTs) of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women by quantifying five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. METHODS: In all, 168 pregnant Korean women under antenatal care at Eulji University Hospital and local clinics were enrolled in the prospective cohort study during pregnancy (10-14 weeks). Vaginal samples were collected with Eswab for Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and stored in a -80 °C freezer. qPCR was performed for five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. To identify the predominant LSTs, quantifications were analyzed by the Cluster and Tree View programs of Eisen Lab. Also the quantifications were compared among classified groups. RESULTS: L. crispatus and L. iners were most commonly found in pregnant Korean women, followed by L. gasseri and L. jensenii; L. vaginalis was nearly absent. Five types (four predominant LSTs and one predominant anaerobe type without predominant Lactobacillus species) were classified. CONCLUSIONS: Five predominant LSTs were identified in vaginal microbiota of pregnant Korean women. L. crispatus and L. iners predominant types comprised a large proportion.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus crispatus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus gasseri/isolamento & purificação , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol ; 43(4): 609-611, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734560

RESUMO

Spontaneous antepartum rupture of the dividing membrane in monochorionic diamniotic twins with discordancy is extremely rare. The rupture is difficult to diagnose prenatally and has a poor outcome. The authors report a case of cord entanglement after spontaneous rupture of the dividing membrane within discordant monochorionic diamniotic twins. The subject was a 30-year-old woman pregnant with discordant monochorionic diamniotic twin at 27+4 gestational weeks. The relatively thin dividing membrane was sound until it passed parallel to the two umbilical cords where it then became ill-defined. The patient was managed cautiously due to the possibility of spontaneous rupture of the dividing membrane and potential cord entanglement. Upon delivery at 29+3 weeks due to fetal compromise, the patient presented with a monochorionic diamniotic placenta, a remnant of the disrupted dividing membrane, and entangled umbilical cords. The authors report this subject with literature review.


Assuntos
Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Cordão Umbilical/anormalidades , Adulto , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Ruptura Espontânea , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
6.
Obstet Gynecol Sci ; 58(3): 203-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine clinical practice patterns in the management of pregnant women admitted with threatened preterm labor (TPL) in Korea. METHODS: Data from women admitted with a diagnosis of TPL were collected from 22 hospitals. TPL was defined as regular uterine contractions with or without other symptoms such as pelvic pressure, backache, increased vaginal discharge, menstrual-like cramps, bleeding/show and cervical changes. Data on general patient information, clinical characteristics at admission, use of tocolytics, antibiotics, and corticosteroids, and pregnancy outcomes were collected using an online data collections system. RESULTS: A total of 947 women with TPL were enrolled. First-line tocolysis was administered to 822 (86.8%) patients. As a first-line tocolysis, beta-agonists were used most frequently (510/822, 62.0%), followed by magnesium sulfate (183/822, 22.3%), calcium channel blockers (91/822, 11.1%), and atosiban (38/822, 4.6%). Of the 822 women with first-line tocolysis, second-line tocolysis were required in 364 (44.3%). Of 364 with second-line, 199 had third-line tocolysis (37.4%). Antibiotics were administered to 29.9% of patients (284/947) with single (215, 22.7%), dual (26, 2.7%), and triple combinations (43, 4.5%). Corticosteroids were administered to 420 (44.4%) patients. Betamethasone was administered to 298 patients (71.0%), and dexamethasone was administered to 122 patients (29.0%). CONCLUSION: Practice patterns in the management of TPL in Korea were quite various. It is needed to develop standardized practice guidelines for TPL management.

7.
Infect Chemother ; 45(3): 299-307, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24396631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) among pregnant women and neonates in the Republic of Korea has increased. In addition, rates of resistance to antibiotics recommended for pregnant women allergic to penicillin, such as clindamycin and erythromycin, have increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate subject characteristics associated with GBS resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 418 clinical isolates from pregnant women in Korea were screened for antibiotic resistance from January 2006 to December 2011. Sociodemographic information, medical and obstetric history, and details of events during the previous 2 weeks were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The resistance rates were 39.5% for clindamycin and 23.0% for erythromycin. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the subject characteristic significantly associated with resistance to both antibiotics was a history of symptomatic sore throat in the 2 weeks before obtaining the specimen (erythromycin: odds ratio [OR]: 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 4.13; clindamycin: OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.42). Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) had an association of borderline significance. CONCLUSIONS: In the urgent treatment of GBS-colonized pregnant women, the subject's history of previous sore throat and PROM should be considered when choosing appropriate antibiotics.

8.
Epidemiol Health ; 33: e2011010, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22111030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify obstetric and maternal factors related to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women in Korea. METHODS: The study was conducted between the years 2006-2008 in four hospitals, Cheil and Eulji hospital in Seoul, and Motae and Eulji hospital in Daejeon. We recruited 2,644 pregnant women between 35 to 37 weeks of gestation who had visited for antenatal care. Participants completed a questionnaire, and urine, vaginal and rectal specimens were obtained and cultured using selective broth media. After delivery, medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: GBS colonization was significantly associated with hospital, age group, education, frequency of pregnancy, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM, more than 18 hours). After adjustment for other variables, Cheil hospital (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.52), and the first pregnancy (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.81) remained significant. History of vaginitis showed marginal significance (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98-2.29). CONCLUSION: To prevent GBS infection of neonates, clinicians should be alert to the potentially higher risk of GBS colonization in pregnant women in their first pregnancy, and women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (18 hours+) or who have a history of vaginitis.

9.
Microb Drug Resist ; 17(1): 121-4, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21166574

RESUMO

Our objective was to characterize 46 unique, erythromycin-sensitive, and clindamycin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strains from S. Korea that displayed a novel phenotype in double-disk diffusion assay. We used polymerase chain reaction to determine presence of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance genes, disc diffusion assays to determine resistance phenotype, and microbroth dilution to determine minimal inhibitory concentration. We detected a novel phenotype in the double-disk diffusion assay for inducible resistance among 46 S. agalactiae strains that were both erythromycin sensitive and clindamycin resistant. Thirty-two strains with the novel phenotype tested positive for erm(B) by DNA-DNA hybridization; sequencing of the erm(B) gene revealed mutations in the ribosomal binding site region in the erm(B) open reading frame, which is consistent with a lack of erythromycin resistance phenotype. Although identified from patients at multiple hospitals, genotyping suggested that the strains are closely related. The new phenotype shows increased sensitivity to clindamycin in the presence of erythromycin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 36(4): 726-32, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20666936

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1), and soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) genes in healthy normotensive and pre-eclamptic placentas of Korean women. METHODS: We investigated 12 healthy normotensive pregnant women and 10 pre-eclamptic pregnant women at Eulji University Hospital. The obtained placental tissues were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The sFlt-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level was elevated 2.6 times more in pre-eclamptic placentas than in normal control placentas. However, the VEGF mRNA level of pre-eclamptic placentas was decreased. There was no difference in the Flt-1 mRNA level between control and pre-eclamptic placentas. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that expressions of genes relating to angiogenesis were altered in Korean pre-eclamptic placentas. These results suggest that the alteration in expressions of sFlt-1 and VEGF genes might be associated with the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 25(6): 817-23, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20514299

RESUMO

The prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) among pregnant women and disease burdens in neonates and adults are increasing in Korea. Colonizing isolates, collected by screening pregnant women (n=196), and clinical isolates collected from clinical patients throughout Korea (n=234), were serotyped and screened for antibiotic resistance. Serotype III (29.8%) and V (27.7%) predominated, followed by Ia (17.0%). Antibiotic resistance was higher among clinical than colonizing isolates for erythromycin (35.1% and 26.9%; P=0.10) and for clindamycin (49.4% and 42.1%; P=0.17). erm(B) occurred in 91.9% of erythromycin resistant isolates, and 84.0% of isolates resistant to clindamycin. Only five isolates (4.2%) resistant to erythromycin were susceptible to clindamycin; by contrast, and unique to Korea, 34% of isolates resistant to clindamycin were erythromycin susceptible. Among these 60 erythromycin-susceptible & clindamycin-resistant isolates, 88% was serotype III, and lnu(B) was found in 89% of strains. Four fifths of the serotype V isolates were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. Further characterization of the genetic assembly of these resistance conferring genes, erm(B) and lnu(B), will be useful to establish the clonal lineages of multiple resistance genes carrying strains.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sorotipagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
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