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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(3): e005894, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160790

RESUMO

Background Since the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were introduced, oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription patterns have rapidly changed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the evolving trends of OAC use in a large nationwide cohort and specifically examine the changes in patient profiles treated with warfarin or DOAC and whether the time trends in OAC use affected clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database, we divided OAC naive patients with AF into 3 groups according to the enrollment period between January 2015 and December 2017 (n=35 353 in cohort 1, n=36 631 in cohort 2, and n=44 819 in cohort 3). DOAC use increased from 59% to 89%, whereas warfarin use has decreased from 41% to 11% during the study period. Patients treated with warfarin were increasingly younger from cohort 1 to cohort 3 (mean age 68-65 years, P<0.001) with lower mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (3.3-2.9, P<0.001), whereas those with DOAC did not show a significant difference in clinical characteristics over the study period. Warfarin group had improved clinical outcomes over time, reflecting dynamic changes in patient characteristics. Compared with warfarin group, unadjusted hazard ratios of composite outcome for DOAC group have changed over time (hazard ratio 0.77 [95% CI, 0.69-0.85] in cohort 1, hazard ratio 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97] in cohort 2, and hazard ratio 1.00 [95% CI, 0.78-1.25] in cohort 3). After propensity score weighting between warfarin and DOAC groups in each cohort, DOAC showed consistently lower risks of the composite outcome by approximately 23% to 25% compared with warfarin across 3 different periods. Conclusions In contemporary clinical practice, OAC prescription patterns and characteristics of patients treated warfarin or DOAC have dynamically changed. Despite these changes, DOAC showed a consistent better net clinical benefit compared with warfarin across different periods.

2.
Korean Circ J ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is difficult to estimate the depth of the focal source by activation mapping. The present study was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of a simple maneuver in estimating the depth of the focal activation source (S). METHODS: A total of 44 sites (15 shallow, depth<3.5 mm; 29 deep, depth>5.5 mm) were analyzed in 3 canine left ventricles under general anesthesia. A custom-made bipolar needle electrode was used to simulate a focal activation source. A mapping catheter with an electrode tip size of 2 mm, band electrode size of 1 mm, and inter-electrode spacing of 2-10-2 mm was placed at the mapping area. The position of the center of the distal 2 electrodes was kept at the insertion site of the needle electrode. The time interval between distal and proximal electrodes of the mapping catheter (Ttachy) was measured during needle electrode pacing. The time interval between distal and proximal electrodes (Tpace) was measured during pacing with distal electrodes of a mapping catheter. Depth index (δ) was defined as Ttachy/Tpace. Using in vivo data, simulation was performed to evaluate the depth and δ. RESULTS: Ttachy was 24±7.7 ms and 15±5.6 ms for shallow source and deep source simulation, respectively (p<0.001). δ values were 0.86±0.21 and 0.55±0.21 for shallow source and deep source simulation, respectively (p<0.001). According to simulation data, if δ<0.52, the depth of the focal source will be >5.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Ttachy was shorter and δ was smaller for a deep S than for a shallow S.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35: e11, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An implantable loop recorder (ILR) is an effective tool for diagnosing unexplained syncope (US). We examined the diagnostic utility of an ILR in detecting arrhythmic causes of US and determining which clinical factors are associated with pacemaker (PM) implantation. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted from February 2006 to April 2018 at 11 hospitals in Korea. Eligible patients with recurrent US received an ILR to diagnose recurrent syncope and document arrhythmia. RESULTS: A total of 173 US patients (mean age, 67.6 ± 16.5 years; 107 men [61.8%]) who received an ILR after a negative conventional workup were enrolled. During a mean follow-up of 9.4 ± 11.1 months, 52 patients (30.1%) had recurrent syncope, and syncope-correlated arrhythmia was confirmed in 34 patients (19.7%). The ILR analysis showed sinus node dysfunction in 24 patients (70.6%), supraventricular tachyarrhythmia in 4 (11.8%), ventricular arrhythmia in 4 (11.8%), and sudden atrioventricular block in 2 (5.9%). Overall, ILR detected significant arrhythmia in 99 patients (57.2%) irrespective of syncope. Among patients with clinically relevant arrhythmia detected by ILR, PM implantation was performed in 60 (34.7%), an intra-cardiac defibrillator in 5 (2.9%), and catheter ablation in 4 (2.3%). In a Cox regression analysis, history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.12; P < 0.01) and any bundle branch block (BBB) (HR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.09-5.85; P = 0.03) were significantly associated with PM implantation. CONCLUSION: ILR is useful for detecting syncope-correlated arrhythmia in patients with US. The risk of PM is high in US patients with a history of PAF and any BBB.

4.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): 12-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The variability of metabolic parameters might have an impact on the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the variability of 4 metabolic components including systolic blood pressure (BP), glucose level, total cholesterol (TC) level, and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of AF in the healthy population without hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. METHODS: We identified 6,819,829 adult subjects without hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia who had ≥3 health checkups provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation between 2005 and 2012. Glucose level, BP, TC level, and BMI were measured at each visit. Variability was defined as variability independent of the mean (VIM), and VIM of each parameter was divided into 4 groups. High variability was defined as having values in the highest quartile of each parameter. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 1.1 years, 31,302 subjects were newly diagnosed with AF (0.86 per 1000 person-years). Subjects with the highest VIM quartile of BP, TC level, and BMI showed an increased risk of AF compared with those with the lowest VIM quartile, whereas glucose level variability had a marginal association. The composite of the high variability of metabolic parameters showed a graded risk of AF. After multivariable adjustment, subjects having 1, 2, 3, and 4 parameters of the highest VIM had an ∼7%, 13%, 20%, and 35% increased risk of AF compared with those without any highest variability of metabolic parameters. CONCLUSION: The variability of metabolic parameters showed a close association with the risk of AF in those without cardiovascular comorbidities.

5.
Stroke ; 51(2): 416-423, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813363

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Warfarin is associated with a better net clinical benefit compared with no treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and history of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There are limited data on nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in these patients, especially in the Asian population. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of NOACs to warfarin in a large-scale nationwide Asian population with AF and a history of ICH. Methods- Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database from January 2010 to April 2018, we identified patients with oral anticoagulant naïve nonvalvular AF with a prior spontaneous ICH. For the comparisons, warfarin and NOAC groups were balanced using propensity score weighting. Ischemic stroke, ICH, composite outcome (ischemic stroke+ICH), fatal ischemic stroke, fatal ICH, death from composite outcome, and all-cause death were evaluated as clinical outcomes. Results- Among 5712 patients with AF with prior ICH, 2434 were treated with warfarin and 3278 were treated with NOAC. Baseline characteristics were well-balanced after propensity score weighting (mean age 72.5 years and CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.0). Compared with warfarin, NOAC was associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.97]), ICH (HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.47-0.92]), and composite outcome (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). NOAC was associated with lower risks of fatal stroke (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.32-0.89]), death from composite outcome (HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.34-0.81]), and all-cause death (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]) than warfarin. NOAC showed nonsignificant trends toward to reduce fatal ICH compared with warfarin (HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.20-1.03]). Conclusions- NOAC was associated with a significant lower risk of ICH and ischemic stroke compared with warfarin. NOAC might be a more effective and safer treatment option for Asian patients with nonvalvular AF and a prior history of ICH.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 309-315, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838903

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but its association with atrial fibrillation (AF) is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and incident AF. This population-based cohort study used database from the Health Screening Cohort, which contained a complete set of medical claims and a biannual health checkup information of the Koran population. A total of 8 063 922 individuals who had at least 3 health checkups with blood pressure measurement between 2004 and 2010 were collected after excluding subjects with preexisting AF. Blood pressure variability was defined as variability independence of the mean and was divided into 4 quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 6.8 years, 140 086 subjects were newly diagnosed with AF. The highest blood pressure variability (fourth quartile) was associated with an increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 95% CI; systolic blood pressure: 1.06, 1.05-1.08; diastolic blood pressure: 1.07, 1.05-1.08) compared with the lowest (first quartile). Among subjects in the fourth quartile in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability, the risk of AF was 7.6% higher than those in the first quartile. Moreover, this result was consistent in both patients with or without prevalent hypertension. In subgroup analysis, the impact of high blood pressure variability on AF development was stronger in high-risk subjects, who were older (≥65 years), with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. Our findings demonstrated that higher blood pressure variability was associated with a modestly increased risk of AF.

7.
Biomaterials ; 232: 119674, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865194

RESUMO

Many studies have shown the existence of cardiac stem cells in the myocardium and epicardial progenitor cells in the epicardium. However, the characteristics of stem cells in the endocardium has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the origin of newly identified cells in the blood and their therapeutic potential. The new population of cells, identified from human peripheral blood, was quite different from previously reported stem cells. These newly identified cells, which we named Circulating Multipotent Stem (CiMS) cells, were multipotent, and therefore differentiated into multiple lineages in vitro and in vivo. In order to determine the origin of these cells, we collected peripheral blood from a group of patients who underwent bone marrow, liver, heart, or kidney transplantation. We identified the endocardium as the origin of these cells because the Short Tandem Repeat profile of CiMS cells from the recipient had changed from the recipient's profile to the donor's profile after heart transplantation. CiMS cells significantly increased after stimuli to the endocardium, such as catheter ablation for arrhythmia or acute myocardial infarction. CiMS cells circulate in human peripheral blood and are easily obtainable, suggesting that these cells could be a promising tool for cell therapy.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18055, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792292

RESUMO

Although chronic kidney disease is known to increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), the impact of the variability of renal function on the risk of incident AF is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between variability of renal function and the risk of developing AF among the general population. We evaluated a total of 3,551,249 adults who had three annual health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service. The variability of renal function was defined as GFR-VIM, which is variability independent of the mean (VIM) of creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The study population was divided into four groups (Q1-4) based on the quartiles of GFR-VIM, and the risks of incident AF by each group were compared. During a mean of 3.2 ± 0.5 years follow-up, incident AF occurred in 15,008 (0.42%) subjects. The incidence rates of AF increased from Q1 to Q4 (0.98, 1.42, 1.27, and 1.63 per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Adjusting with multiple variables, Q4 showed an increased risk of incident AF compared to Q1 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.125, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.071-1.181). Variability of serum creatinine or other definitions of variability showed consistent results. On subgroup analyses, Q4 in males or those with a decreasing trend of eGFR had significantly increased risks of incident AF compared to Q1 (HR 1.127, 95% CI 1.082-1.175; and HR 1.115, 95% CI 1.059-1.173, respectively). High variability of eGFR was associated with an increased risk of incident AF, particularly in males or those with decreasing trends of eGFR during follow-up.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1881-1888, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668346

RESUMO

The relation of progression of type 2 diabetes and detailed fasting glucose level with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is not well known. A total of 6,199,629 subjects not diagnosed with AF who underwent health check-up in 2009 were included from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Risk of AF was compared among subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG), subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), patients with diabetes duration <5 years (early diabetes mellitus [DM]), and patients with diabetes duration ≥5 years (late DM). Next, risk of AF stratified by fasting glucose level per 10 mg/dL was assessed. During a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, the risk of AF significantly increased across the time course of type 2 diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.05 for IFG; aHR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.08 for early DM; aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.11 for late DM). The risk of AF was significantly higher in subjects who progressed to type 2 diabetes in the IFG group. Risk of AF increased with a 10 mg/dL increment of fasting blood glucose (p-for-trend <0.0001). However, there was a U-shape relationship between fasting blood glucose and risk of AF in those who received antidiabetic medication. In conclusion, the risk of AF increased with the time course of type 2 diabetes. However, low blood glucose in antidiabetic medication user was associated with an increased risk of AF.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(23): e012771, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771440

RESUMO

Background While high levels of lipids and lipid variability are established risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, their roles in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) are unclear, with previous studies suggesting a "cholesterol paradox." Methods and Results A nationwide population-based cohort of 3 660 385 adults (mean age 43.4 years) from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, with ≥3 annual lipid measurements from 2009 to 2012 and without a history of AF or prescription of lipid-lowering medication before 2012, were identified. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were measured, and lipid variability was calculated using variability independent of the mean. The cohort was divided into quartiles by lipid levels and lipid variability and followed up for incident AF. During a median 5.4 years of follow-up, AF was newly diagnosed in 27 581 (0.75%). AF development was inversely associated with high lipid levels (for top versus bottom quartile; total cholesterol, HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.81; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.84; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.98; triglycerides, HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.92). Meanwhile, AF development was associated with high lipid variability (for top versus bottom quartile; total cholesterol, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.13; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12; triglycerides, HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08). Men showed greater risk reduction with high triglyceride levels and greater risk with high triglyceride variability for incident AF. Conclusions Low cholesterol levels and high cholesterol variability were associated with a higher risk of AF development.

12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2782-2789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The left atrium (LA), including the pulmonary vein antrum, is the main target of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there is a lack of data on the effect of extensive LA ablation on LA stiffness. This study sought to investigate the impact of extensive LA ablation on LA stiffness and dyspnea after the restoration of sinus rhythm. METHODS: In total, 97 patients with AF (80 patients who only underwent pulmonary vein isolation [PVI] and 17 patients who underwent extensive LA ablation) were investigated. Extensive LA ablation was defined as PVI plus at least two sets of LA linear-line ablation. LA stiffness was estimated using the ratio of E/e' to global longitudinal LA strain, as measured by echocardiography. The clinical outcomes we evaluated were AF recurrence and composite dyspnea, which we defined as newly prescribed diuretics or hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Patients were 59.3 ± 10.0 years old on average, and 68 (70.1%) were male. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics or echocardiographic parameters before ablation between the two groups. After ablation, LA stiffness was higher in the extensive ablation group compared with that in the PVI group (0.9 ± 0.6 vs 0.5 ± 0.3, respectively, P = .017). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that extensive ablation increased LA stiffness (ß = 0.363, P < .001). AF recurrence was similar in both groups; however, composite dyspnea outcomes were worse in the extensive ablation group (P = .003). CONCLUSION: Extensive LA ablation was associated with a worsening of LA stiffness. This might explain dyspnea despite the successful restoration of sinus rhythm.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15503, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664094

RESUMO

NTM infection demonstrates an increasing incidence and prevalence. We studied the impact of NTM in cardiovascular events. Using the Korean nationwide database, we included newly diagnosed 1,730 NTM patients between 2005 and 2008 and followed up for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke (IS), and death. Covariates-matched non-NTM subjects (1:5, n = 8,650) were selected and analyzed. Also, NTM infection was classified into indolent or progressive NTM for risk stratification. During 4.16 ± 1.15 years of the follow-up period, AF, MI, HF, IS, and death were newly diagnosed in 87, 125, 121, 162, and 468 patients. In multivariate analysis, NTM group showed an increased risk of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.307, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.560-3.412) and all-cause death (HR 1.751, 95% CI 1.412-2.172) compared to non-NTM subjects, whereas no significant difference in MI (HR 0.868, 95% CI 0.461-1.634), HF (HR 1.259, 95% CI 0.896-2.016), and IS (HR 1.429, 95% CI 0.981-2.080). After stratification, 1,730 NTM patients were stratified into 1,375 (79.5%) indolent NTM group and 355 (20.5%) progressive NTM group. Progressive NTM showed an increased risk of AF and mortality than indolent NTM group. Screening for AF and IS prevention would be appropriate in these high-risk patients.

14.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and weight gain are established risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bodyweight variability is also a risk factor for AF development. METHODS: A nationwide population-based cohort of 8,091,401 adults from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database without a history of AF and with ≥3 measurements of bodyweight over a 5-year period were followed up for incident AF. Intraindividual bodyweight variability was calculated using variability independent of mean, and high bodyweight variability was defined as the quartile with the highest variability (Q4) with Q1-Q3 as reference. RESULTS: During median 8.1 years of follow-up, each increase of 1 SD in bodyweight variability was associated with a 5% increased risk of AF development, and the quartile with the highest bodyweight variability showed 14% increased risk of AF development compared to the quartile with the lowest variability (hazard ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.15), after adjustment for baseline bodyweight, height, age, sex, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. High bodyweight variability was significantly associated with AF development in all baseline body mass index (BMI) groups except the very obese (BMI ≥30), and this association was stronger in subjects with lower bodyweight. High bodyweight variability was associated with increased risk of incident AF in all weight change groups, with a stronger association in those who lost weight. CONCLUSION: Bodyweight fluctuation was independently associated with an increased risk of AF development, especially in individuals with low bodyweight, and regardless of weight gain or loss.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) impact on outcomes for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart diseases (VHDs). METHODS: We identified patients with AF and associated Evaluated Heartvalves, Rheumatic or Artificial (EHRA) type 2 VHDs, and who had been naïve from the oral anticoagulants in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database between 2014 and 2016 (warfarin: n = 2671; NOAC: n = 3058). For analyzing the effect of NOAC on primary prevention, we excluded those with a previous history of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding events. To balance covariates, we used the propensity score weighting method. Ischemic stroke, ICH, GI bleeding, major bleeding, all-cause death, and their composite outcome and fatal clinical events were evaluated. RESULTS: During a follow-up with a mean duration of 1.4 years, NOACs were associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio (HR): 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.96), GI bleeding (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35-0.72), fatal ICH (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.07-0.83), and major bleeding (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45-0.80) compared with warfarin. Overall, NOACs were associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide Asian AF population with EHRA type 2 VHDs, NOAC use was associated with lower risks of ischemic stroke, major bleeding, all-cause death, and the composite outcome compared to warfarin use.

16.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2209-2216, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502330

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risk factors of embolic stroke (ES) after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation have not been fully elucidated especially among the Asian subjects, particularly regarding epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiac imaging. We aimed to assess the incidence of ES during a long-term follow-up period after AF ablation and to identify the risk factors associated with postablation ES, specifically focusing on EAT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled patients who experienced postablation ES and control subjects from a consortium of AF ablation registries from three institutes in Korea. EAT was assessed using multislice computed tomography before AF ablation. A total of 3464 patients who underwent AF ablation were recruited and followed-up. During a follow-up of 47.2 ± 36.4 months, ES occurred in 47 patients (1.36%) with a CHA2 DS2 -VASc score of 1.48 ± 1.39 and the overall annual incidence of ES was 0.34%. Compared with the control group (n = 190), the ES group showed significantly higher prior thromboembolism (TE) and AF recurrence rates, larger left atrium size, lower creatinine clearance rate (CCr), and greater total and peri-atrial EAT volume. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated larger peri-atrial EAT volume (hazards ratio, 1.065; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.128), in addition to a prior history of TE and lower CCr, was independently associated with postablation ES. When a cut-off value of peri-atrial EAT volume of ≥20.15 mL was applied, patients with smaller peri-atrial EAT volume showed significantly higher ES-free survival. CONCLUSION: Larger peri-atrial EAT volume, in addition to prior TE and lower CCr, was independently associated with postablation ES regardless of AF recurrence and CHA2 DS2 -VASc score. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03479073).

17.
J Arrhythm ; 35(4): 593-601, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410229

RESUMO

Background: Studies have shown that the concomitant use of a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and an antiplatelet (APL) drug increased the bleeding risk and was less effective at preventing ischemic events. This study aimed to investigate the control status of international normalized ratio (INR) and the discontinuation rate of a VKA in patients taking VKA plus an APL drug compared with those taking a VKA alone. Methods: Data were extracted from the KORean Atrial Fibrillation Investigation II registry, a multicenter noninterventional prospective observational study. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with CHADS 2 scores ≥ 1 who newly started (within 3 months) a VKA were enrolled and followed up for 1 year. Results: A total of 866 NVAF patients (mean age, 67.7 years; 60.3% men) without a bleeding history were divided into the VKA+APL (n = 229) and VKA alone (n = 637) groups. During follow-up, mean INR level was lower in the VKA+APL group than in the VKA alone group (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.0005). INR levels were poorly controlled in both groups (66.1% and 64.7%, respectively). Patients in the VKA+APL group more frequently discontinued VKA than patients in the VKA alone group (28.8% vs 24.2%, P = 0.045). Major causes of VKA discontinuation were uncontrolled INR level and patient dissatisfaction or concerns. Conclusions: The conditions of NVAF patients were inadequately controlled with VKA with or without an APL. These findings suggest that other antithrombotic treatment options are warranted in NVAF patients to achieve INR control.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 106-111, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there is a paucity of information about whether Behçet's disease (BD) is associated with an increased risk of AF. This population-based study aimed to determine the risk of AF in patients with BD. METHODS: A total of 6636 newly diagnosed BD patients without a history of AF were included from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database between 2010 and 2014. Newly diagnosed non-valvular AF was identified using the claims data. An age- and sex-matched non-BD subjects were extracted at a ratio of 1:5 (n = 31,040). The incidence and risk of AF were compared between groups. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.6 ±â€¯1.5 years, AF was newly diagnosed in 173 patients (51 in the BD group, 122 in the control group). The incidence was 2.3 and 1.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment, the BD group showed a 1.8-fold higher risk of AF compared to the control group. Patients with BD aged ≤40 years had a higher risk of AF, while patients aged ≥65 years showed a similar risk. Men with BD had a 2.5-fold increased risk of AF, whereas women with BD did not. Severe BD had a higher risk for AF compared to non-severe BD and controls. CONCLUSIONS: BD was associated with an increased risk of AF, particularly in men and young patients. Active surveillance and treatment are needed in BD patients and those with arrhythmic symptoms.

19.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(9): 569-575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319428

RESUMO

We investigated the muscle activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid, as well as the ratio of the infraspinatus to posterior deltoid muscle activities, in response to 3 resistance intensities during prone external rotation (PER) and sitting external rotation (SITER) exercises. Fifteen healthy males participated; the subjects performed two exercises randomly at three resistance intensity levels: 1) low intensity (10-20%); 2) medium intensity (45-55%); 3) high intensity (60-70%). Surface electromyography was used to measure the activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles. The activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid increased significantly as the resistance intensity increased during both PER and SITER exercises (p<0.001). The infraspinatus-to-posterior deltoid activity ratio increased as the resistance intensity decreased. Whereas the muscle activity ratio was highest under low and medium intensity during PER and SITER, respectively, and the muscle activity ratio was significantly increased at medium intensity compared with high intensity during both PER (p=0.023) and SITER (p=0.001). Our results suggest that low to medium intensity is the appropriate resistance intensity for selective activation of the infraspinatus. In addition, our results suggest that PER and SITER are effective for strengthening the infraspinatus.


Assuntos
Músculo Deltoide/fisiologia , Exercício , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Manguito Rotador/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Rotação
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 879-885, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311662

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend oral anticoagulant (OAC) monotherapy without antiplatelet therapy (APT) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) of >1 year after myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention. More evidences are required for the safety and efficacy of OAC monotherapy compared with OAC plus APT. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched up to February 2019. Nonrandomized studies and randomized clinical trials comparing OAC monotherapy with OAC plus single APT (SAPT) for patients with stable CAD and nonvalvular AF. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of ischemic or thrombotic events) and secondary outcomes included major bleeding, stroke, all-cause death, and net adverse events (composite of ischemic, thrombotic, or bleeding events). From 6 trials, 8,855 patients were included. There was no significant difference in major adverse cardiovascular event in patients with AF treated using OAC plus SAPT compared with those treated with OAC monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92 to 1.29). OAC plus SAPT was associated with a significantly higher risk of major bleeding compared with OAC monotherapy (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.87), as well as in terms of net adverse event (HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.43). There were no significant differences in rates of stroke and all-cause death. In conclusion, in this meta-analysis, OAC monotherapy and OAC plus SAPT treatment showed similar effectiveness, but OAC monotherapy was significantly associated with a lower risk of bleeding compared with OAC plus SAPT in patients with nonvalvular AF and stable CAD.

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