Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 123
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cell Rep ; 32(1): 107861, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640227

RESUMO

Glucose hypometabolism in cortical structures after functional disconnection is frequently reported in patients with white matter diseases such as subcortical stroke. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly elucidated. Here we show, in an animal model of internal capsular infarct, that GABA-synthesizing reactive astrocytes in distant cortical areas cause glucose hypometabolism via tonic inhibition of neighboring neurons. We find that reversal of aberrant astrocytic GABA synthesis, by pharmacological inhibition and astrocyte-specific gene silencing of MAO-B, reverses the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism. Moreover, induction of aberrant astrocytic GABA synthesis by cortical injection of putrescine or adenovirus recapitulates cortical hypometabolism. Furthermore, MAO-B inhibition causes a remarkable recovery from post-stroke motor deficits when combined with a rehabilitation regimen. Collectively, our data indicate that cortical glucose hypometabolism in subcortical stroke is caused by aberrant astrocytic GABA and MAO-B inhibition and that attenuating cortical hypometabolism can be a therapeutic approach in subcortical stroke.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396545

RESUMO

Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative and is cheaper than Y-27632. It increased hPSC growth following thawing and passaging, like Y-27632, and did not affect pluripotency, differentiation ability, and chromosome integrity. Furthermore, fasudil promoted retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells (NCCs) during differentiation. It was also useful for single-cell passaging of hPSCs and during aggregation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem research.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(18): 8183-8193, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233474

RESUMO

Multiple pathogenic elements, including reactive oxygen species, amyloidogenic proteins, and metal ions, are associated with the development of neurodegenerative disorders. We report minimalistic redox-based principles for preparing compact aromatic compounds by derivatizing the phenylene moiety with various functional groups. These molecular agents display enhanced reactivities against multiple targets such as free radicals, metal-free amyloid-ß (Aß), and metal-bound Aß that are implicated in the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanistic studies reveal that the redox properties of these reagents are essential for their function. Specifically, they engage in oxidative reactions with metal-free and metal-bound Aß, leading to chemical modifications of the Aß peptides to form covalent adducts that alter the aggregation of Aß. Moreover, the administration of the most promising candidate significantly attenuates the amyloid pathology in the brains of AD transgenic mice and improves their cognitive defects. Our studies demonstrate an efficient and effective redox-based strategy for incorporating multiple functions into simple molecular reagents.

5.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192194

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of Picornaviridae family, is an important human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases, including myocarditis, pancreatitis, and meningitis. Although CVB3 has been well demonstrated to target murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), gene expression profiles of CVB3-infected human NPCs (hNPCs) has not been fully explored. To characterize the molecular signatures and complexity of CVB3-mediated host cellular responses in hNPCs, we performed QuantSeq 3' mRNA sequencing. Increased expression levels of viral RNA sensors (RIG-I, MDA5) and interferon-stimulated genes, such as IFN-ß, IP-10, ISG15, OAS1, OAS2, Mx2, were detected in response to CVB3 infection, while IFN-γ expression level was significantly downregulated in hNPCs. Consistent with the gene expression profile, CVB3 infection led to enhanced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, we show that type I interferon (IFN) treatment in hNPCs leads to significant attenuation of CVB3 RNA copy numbers, whereas, type II IFN (IFN-γ) treatment enhances CVB3 replication and upregulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 1/3 (SOCS) expression levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate the distinct molecular patterns of cellular responses to CVB3 infection in hNPCs and the pro-viral function of IFN-γ via the modulation of SOCS expression.

7.
Cornea ; 39(4): 508-513, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the protective effects of cyclosporine A emulsion (Restasis: 0.05% cyclosporine A) (CsAE) and cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (Ikervis: 0.1% cyclosporine A) (CsACE) on cellular inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, and survival in an in vitro dry eye model. METHODS: The concentration of CsA in CsAE and CsACE was verified using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system. Human corneal epithelial cells were subjected to desiccation stress. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without 3 groups of cyclosporine A medium (CsAE 1:50, CsACE 1:50, and CsACE 1:100). p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα, Bax, Bcl-xL, p-Erk1/2, and p-Akt levels were determined using Western blots, and TNF-α levels were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The CsA concentration of CsACE 1:100 was nearly the same as that of CsAE 1:50. Compared with CsAE 1:50 (0.78 ± 0.19 fold), the p-NF-κB p65 level was further reduced in CsACE 1:50 (0.38 ± 1.20 fold) and 1:100 (0.29 ± 0.11 fold) as well as p-IκBα. Levels of TNF-α were also lower in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50. Induction of the apoptotic protein Bax was significantly decreased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 compared with CsAE 1:50, whereas that of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL was increased in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels were higher in CsACE 1:50 and 1:100 than in CsAE 1:50. CONCLUSIONS: CsACE had more potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects than CsAE in a transwell desiccation stress model. CsACE also enhanced proliferation and survival factors under desiccation stress compared with CsAE in this in vitro dry eye model.

8.
Curr Biol ; 30(2): 276-291.e9, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928877

RESUMO

Current pharmacological treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are focused on symptomatic relief, but not on disease modification, based on the strong belief that PD is caused by irreversible dopaminergic neuronal death. Thus, the concept of the presence of dormant dopaminergic neurons and its possibility as the disease-modifying therapeutic target against PD have not been explored. Here we show that optogenetic activation of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons alleviates parkinsonism in acute PD animal models by recovering tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the TH-negative dormant dopaminergic neurons, some of which still express DOPA decarboxylase (DDC). The TH loss depends on reduced dopaminergic neuronal firing under aberrant tonic inhibition, which is attributed to excessive astrocytic GABA. Blocking the astrocytic GABA synthesis recapitulates the therapeutic effect of optogenetic activation. Consistently, SNpc of postmortem PD patients shows a significant population of TH-negative/DDC-positive dormant neurons surrounded by numerous GABA-positive astrocytes. We propose that disinhibiting dormant dopaminergic neurons by blocking excessive astrocytic GABA could be an effective therapeutic strategy against PD.

9.
Viruses ; 12(1)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861492

RESUMO

The placenta is a unique mixed organ, composed of both maternal and fetal tissues, that is formed only during pregnancy and serves as the key physiological and immunological barrier preventing maternal-fetal transmission of pathogens. Several viruses can circumvent this physical barrier and enter the fetal compartment, resulting in miscarriage, preterm birth, and birth defects, including microcephaly. The mechanisms underlying viral strategies to evade the protective role of placenta are poorly understood. Here, we reviewed the role of trophoblasts and Hofbauer cells in the placenta and have highlighted characteristics of vertical and perinatal infections caused by a wide range of viruses. Moreover, we explored current progress and future opportunities in cellular targets, pathogenesis, and underlying biological mechanisms of congenital viral infections, as well as novel research models and tools to study the placenta.

10.
Curr Biol ; 29(20): 3386-3401.e8, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588000

RESUMO

Low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound (LILFU) is the next-generation, non-invasive brain stimulation technology for treating various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of LILFU-induced neuromodulation has remained unknown. Here, we report that LILFU-induced neuromodulation is initiated by opening of TRPA1 channels in astrocytes. The Ca2+ entry through TRPA1 causes a release of gliotransmitters including glutamate through Best1 channels in astrocytes. The released glutamate activates NMDA receptors in neighboring neurons to elicit action potential firing. Our results reveal an unprecedented mechanism of LILFU-induced neuromodulation, involving TRPA1 as a unique sensor for LILFU and glutamate-releasing Best1 as a mediator of glia-neuron interaction. These discoveries should prove to be useful for optimization of human brain stimulation and ultrasonogenetic manipulations of TRPA1.

11.
Pathogens ; 8(4)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658769

RESUMO

Licensed live attenuated vaccines have been developed to prevent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, which causes chickenpox and shingles. The genomic sequences of both clinical- and vaccine-derived VZV strains have been analyzed previously. To further characterize the molecular signatures and complexity of wildtype (clinical) versus attenuated (vaccine-derived) VZV-mediated host cellular responses, we performed high-throughput next generation sequencing to quantify and compare the expression patterns of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) infected with wildtype (YC01 low passage) and attenuated (YC01 high passage, SuduVax, and VarilRix) VZV strains. 3D-multidimensional scaling of the differentially expressed genes demonstrated the distinct grouping of wildtype and attenuated strains. In particular, we observed that HDFs infected with attenuated strains had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the retinoic-acid inducible gene-I-like receptor and interferon-mediated signaling pathways compared with wildtype strains. Additionally, miRNA expression patterns were profiled following the infection of HDFs with VZV. Small RNA sequencing identified that several miRNAs were upregulated, including miR-146a-5p, which has been associated with other herpesvirus infections, whereas let-7a-3p was downregulated in both wildtype and attenuated VZV-infected cells. This study identified genes and miRNAs that may be essential in VZV pathogenesis.

12.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 5: 28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636922

RESUMO

Neuromodulation by ultrasound has recently received attention due to its noninvasive stimulation capability for treating brain diseases. Although there have been several studies related to ultrasonic neuromodulation, these studies have suffered from poor spatial resolution of the ultrasound and low repeatability with a fixed condition caused by conventional and commercialized ultrasound transducers. In addition, the underlying physics and mechanisms of ultrasonic neuromodulation are still unknown. To determine these mechanisms and accurately modulate neural circuits, researchers must have a precisely controllable ultrasound transducer to conduct experiments at the cellular level. Herein, we introduce a new MEMS ultrasound stimulation system for modulating neurons or brain slices with high spatial resolution. The piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (pMUTs) with small membranes (sub-mm membranes) generate enough power to stimulate neurons and enable precise modulation of neural circuits. We designed the ultrasound transducer as an array structure to enable localized modulation in the target region. In addition, we integrated a cell culture chamber with the system to make it compatible with conventional cell-based experiments, such as in vitro cell cultures and brain slices. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the functionality of the system by showing that the number of responding cells is proportional to the acoustic intensity of the applied ultrasound. We also demonstrated localized stimulation capability with high spatial resolution by conducting experiments in which cocultured cells responded only around a working transducer.

13.
J Hepatol ; 71(5): 970-985, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of hepatic models capable of long-term expansion with competent liver functionality is technically challenging in a personalized setting. Stem cell-based organoid technologies can provide an alternative source of patient-derived primary hepatocytes. However, self-renewing and functionally competent human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived hepatic organoids have not been developed. METHODS: We developed a novel method to efficiently and reproducibly generate functionally mature human hepatic organoids derived from PSCs, including human embryonic stem cells and induced PSCs. The maturity of the organoids was validated by a detailed transcriptome analysis and functional performance assays. The organoids were applied to screening platforms for the prediction of toxicity and the evaluation of drugs that target hepatic steatosis through real-time monitoring of cellular bioenergetics and high-content analyses. RESULTS: Our organoids were morphologically indistinguishable from adult liver tissue-derived epithelial organoids and exhibited self-renewal. With further maturation, their molecular features approximated those of liver tissue, although these features were lacking in 2D differentiated hepatocytes. Our organoids preserved mature liver properties, including serum protein production, drug metabolism and detoxifying functions, active mitochondrial bioenergetics, and regenerative and inflammatory responses. The organoids exhibited significant toxic responses to clinically relevant concentrations of drugs that had been withdrawn from the market due to hepatotoxicity and recapitulated human disease phenotypes such as hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our organoids exhibit self-renewal (expandable and further able to differentiate) while maintaining their mature hepatic characteristics over long-term culture. These organoids may provide a versatile and valuable platform for physiologically and pathologically relevant hepatic models in the context of personalized medicine. LAY SUMMARY: A functionally mature, human cell-based liver model exhibiting human responses in toxicity prediction and drug evaluation is urgently needed for pre-clinical drug development. Here, we develop a novel human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like liver organoid that is critically advanced in terms of its generation method, functional performance, and application technologies. Our organoids can contribute to the better understanding of liver development and regeneration, and provide insights for metabolic studies and disease modeling, as well as toxicity assessments and drug screening for personalized medicine.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(25): 12494-12499, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147466

RESUMO

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are primary progenitor cells in the early developmental stage in the brain that initiate a diverse lineage of differentiated neurons and glia. Radial glial cells (RGCs), a type of neural stem cell in the ventricular zone, are essential for nurturing and delivering new immature neurons to the appropriate cortical target layers. Here we report that Anoctamin 1 (ANO1)/TMEM16A, a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, mediates the Ca2+-dependent process extension of RGCs. ANO1 is highly expressed and functionally active in RGCs of the mouse embryonic ventricular zone. Knockdown of ANO1 suppresses RGC process extension and protrusions, whereas ANO1 overexpression stimulates process extension. Among various trophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activates ANO1, which is required for BDNF-induced process extension in RGCs. More importantly, Ano1-deficient mice exhibited disrupted cortical layers and reduced cortical thickness. We thus conclude that the regulation of RGC process extension by ANO1 contributes to the normal formation of mouse embryonic brain.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/embriologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Animais , Anoctamina-1/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
15.
Exp Neurobiol ; 28(2): 183-215, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138989

RESUMO

In the brain, a reduction in extracellular osmolality causes water-influx and swelling, which subsequently triggers Cl-- and osmolytes-efflux via volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). Although LRRC8 family has been recently proposed as the pore-forming VRAC which is activated by low cytoplasmic ionic strength but not by swelling, the molecular identity of the pore-forming swelling-dependent VRAC (VRACswell) remains unclear. Here we identify and characterize Tweety-homologs (TTYH1, TTYH2, TTYH3) as the major VRACswell in astrocytes. Gene-silencing of all Ttyh1/2/3 eliminated hypo-osmotic-solution-induced Cl- conductance (ICl,swell) in cultured and hippocampal astrocytes. When heterologously expressed in HEK293T or CHO-K1 cells, each TTYH isoform showed a significant ICl,swell with similar aquaporin-4 dependency, pharmacological properties and glutamate permeability as ICl,swell observed in native astrocytes. Mutagenesis-based structure-activity analysis revealed that positively charged arginine residue at 165 in TTYH1 and 164 in TTYH2 is critical for the formation of the channel-pore. Our results demonstrate that TTYH family confers the bona fide VRACswell in the brain.

16.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaav0316, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906861

RESUMO

Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of its association with aberrant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in reactive astrocytes. Although short-term treatment with irreversible MAO-B inhibitors, such as selegiline, improves cognitive deficits in AD patients, long-term treatments have shown disappointing results. We show that prolonged treatment with selegiline fails to reduce aberrant astrocytic GABA levels and rescue memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD, because of increased activity in compensatory genes for a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, diamine oxidase (DAO). We have developed a potent, highly selective, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor, KDS2010 (IC50 = 7.6 nM; 12,500-fold selectivity over MAO-A), which overcomes the disadvantages of the irreversible MAO-B inhibitor. Long-term treatment with KDS2010 does not induce compensatory mechanisms, thereby significantly attenuating increased astrocytic GABA levels and astrogliosis, enhancing synaptic transmission, and rescuing learning and memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , D-Aminoácido Oxidase/genética , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , D-Aminoácido Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Selegilina/efeitos adversos , Selegilina/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/biossíntese , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/genética
17.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 116(6): 1496-1508, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737956

RESUMO

Spheroids, a widely used three-dimensional (3D) culture model, are standard in hepatocyte culture as they preserve long-term hepatocyte functionality and enhance survivability. In this study, we investigated the effects of three operation modes in 3D culture - static, orbital shaking, and under vertical bidirectional flow using spheroid forming units (SFUs) on hepatic differentiation and drug metabolism to propose the best for mass production of functionally enhanced spheroids. Spheroids in SFUs exhibited increased hepatic gene expression, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity during the differentiation period (12 days). SFUs advantages include facilitated mass production and a relatively earlier peak of CYP3A4 activity. However, CYP3A4 activity was not well maintained under dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-free conditions (13-18 days), dramatically reducing drug metabolism capability. Continued shear stimulation without differentiation stimuli in assay conditions markedly attenuated CYP3A4 activity, which was less severe in static conditions. In this condition, SFU spheroids exhibited dedifferentiation characteristics, such as increased proliferation and Notch signaling genes. We found that the dedifferentiation could be overcome by using the serum-free medium formulation. Therefore, we suggest that SFUs represent the best option for the mass production of functionally improved spheroids and so the serum-free conditions should be maintained during drug metabolism analysis.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202323, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118525

RESUMO

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major contributing factor to premature aging (photoaging) and skin cancer. In vitro models of cellular senescence have proven to be very useful for the study of slow and progressive accumulation of damage resulting in the growth arrest of aging skin cells. In this study, we compared UVA-induced cellular responses in non-senescent (NS) vs. senescent (S) human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). HDFs were irradiated with a single dose of UVA (7.5 J/cm2) and QuantSeq 3' mRNA sequencing was performed to assess differential gene expression. Both NS and S HDFs expressed similar numbers of differentially expressed genes, although distinct sets of genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. Higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway genes, such as TLR4, MyD88, and CXCL-8, was detected in S HDFs as compared with NS HDFs, and UVA exposure led to a downregulation of collagen genes, such as COL8A2 and COL5A3. Consistent with gene expression profiling, enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was observed in S HDFs compared with NS HDFs, in response to UVA. Furthermore, we show that TLR4-mediated ERK pathway is responsible for the UVA-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction as well as increased secretion of MMP-1 and IL-8 in S HDFs. Taken together, our results demonstrate the UVA-induced common and distinct molecular patterns of cellular responses between NS and S HDFs and suggest TLR4/ERK pathways as candidate targets to reduce senescent phenotypes.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Derme/efeitos da radiação , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos da radiação , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Derme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Transcriptoma
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3039, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072687

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived intestinal organoids (hIOs) form 3D structures organized into crypt and villus domains, making them an excellent in vitro model system for studying human intestinal development and disease. However, hPSC-derived hIOs still require in vivo maturation to fully recapitulate adult intestine, with the mechanism of maturation remaining elusive. Here, we show that the co-culture with human T lymphocytes induce the in vitro maturation of hIOs, and identify STAT3-activating interleukin-2 (IL-2) as the major factor inducing maturation. hIOs exposed to IL-2 closely mimic the adult intestinal epithelium and have comparable expression levels of mature intestinal markers, as well as increased intestine-specific functional activities. Even after in vivo engraftment, in vitro-matured hIOs retain their maturation status. The results of our study demonstrate that STAT3 signaling can induce the maturation of hIOs in vitro, thereby circumventing the need for animal models and in vivo maturation.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Intestinos/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/citologia
20.
Exp Neurobiol ; 27(2): 120-128, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731678

RESUMO

µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored. Here, we determine the cellular and subcellular distribution of MOR in different cell types of the hippocampus by utilizing MOR-mCherry mice and two different antibodies against MOR. Consistent with previous findings, we demonstrate that MOR expression in the CA1 pyramidal layer is co-localized with axon terminals from GABAergic inhibitory neurons but not with soma of pyramidal neurons. More importantly, we demonstrate that MOR is highly expressed in CA1 hippocampal astrocytes. The ultrastructural analysis further demonstrates that the astrocytic MOR is localized in soma and processes, but not in microdomains near synapses. Lastly, we demonstrate that astrocytes in ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens also express MOR. Our results provide the unprecedented evidence for the presence of MOR in astrocytes, implicating potential roles of astrocytic MOR in addictive behaviors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA