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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(5): 1551-1557, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to possess antimicrobial properties. Although the antibiofilm activity of AgNPs has been demonstrated in humans, this activity has not yet been elucidated in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. METHODS: Ten isolates of S. pseudintermedius obtained from dogs with otitis externa were treated with AgNPs, and the antibiofilm activity was measured using a modified microtiter plate and Congo red agar (CRA) method and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: AgNPs displayed a significant dose-dependent antibiofilm activity and reduced biofilm formation at concentrations of 20 and 10 µg/ml (p < 0.05). S. pseudintermedius exposed to 20 µg/ml of AgNPs formed less bacterial slime compared to the controls on CRA plates. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the biofilm had few individually scattered cells along its surface when treated with AgNP concentrations of 20 and 10 µg/ml. Untreated surfaces showed an aggregated biofilm. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that AgNP may be a valuable alternative antibiofilm agent for canine otitis externa.

2.
J Safety Res ; 76: 16-29, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This research aims to investigate the perceptions and reactions of drivers regarding freeway merging situation, utilizing a new approach with the basis of a multilevel simulation platform which incorporates virtual reality (VR) technology. METHODS: A VR driving environment integrated with traffic micro-simulation was developed to evaluate driving behaviors and the impact of merging decisions in terms of traffic conflicts. The driving experiments were conducted under a variety of circumstances, including varying traffic flows and the presence of ramp metering. The Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM) was utilized to extract the number of conflicts from the micro-simulation results. RESULTS: The final results indicated that the probability of conflict has a positive correlation with traffic flow, while conflict frequency at freeway merges is affected by the presence of ramp metering due to its potentiality to enhance driver decisions and reduce the drivers' pressure when they make maneuvers. Practical Applications: The findings reveal that the proposed VR simulation platform is a useful tool to improve the safety of freeway merging. It has the potential to enhance driver skills and can also be used in the study of human-machine interaction.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Realidade Virtual , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(37): e313, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This nationwide study aimed to investigate the blood transfusion status of elderly hip fracture patients and to examine the effect of packed red blood cell transfusion on all-cause mortality. METHODS: From the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort consisting of 588,147 participants aged over 60 years in 2002, a total of 14,744 new-onset hip fracture patients aged 65-99 years were followed up for 11 years. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs), risk ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model and Poisson regression model. RESULTS: There were 10,973 patients (74.42%) in the transfusion group and 3,771 (25.58%) patients in the non-transfusion group. The mean volume of blood transfusion was 1,164.51 mL (± 865.25; median, 800 mL; interquartile range, 640-1,440). In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, the transfusion group had 1.34-fold more risk of all-cause mortality than the non-transfusion group (aHR, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.42). In the multivariate-adjusted Poisson regression model, hip fracture patients in the transfusion group were 1.43 (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87; P = 0.009) folds more likely to die within 30 days than those in the non-transfusion group. The mortality risk was highest at 90 days (aRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.40-1.93; P < 0.001) and slightly decreased at 180 days (aRR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.40-1.79; P < 0.001) and 1 year (aRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.31-1.58; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this nationwide representative cohort study, blood transfusion was performed in 75% of hip fracture patients. Even after adjusting for comorbidity and anticoagulant use, the postoperative results (hospitalization, mortality) of the transfusion group did not show significantly worse results than the non-transfusion group. Therefore, adequate patient blood management can only improve the patient's outcome after hip fracture surgery.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
Stem Cell Reports ; 14(1): 154-166, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902707

RESUMO

Rat embryonic stem cells (rESCs) are capable of contributing to all differentiated tissues, including the germ line in chimeric animals, and represent a unique, authentic alternative to mouse embryonic stem cells for studying stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal. Here, we describe an EGFP reporter transgene that tracks expression of the benchmark naive pluripotency marker gene Rex1 (Zfp42) in the rat. Insertion of the EGFP reporter gene downstream of the Rex1 promoter disrupted Rex1 expression, but REX1-deficient rESCs and rats were viable and apparently normal, validating this targeted knockin transgene as a neutral reporter. The Rex1-EGFP gene responded to self-renewal/differentiation factors and validated the critical role of ß-catenin/LEF1 signaling. The stem cell reporter also allowed the identification of functionally distinct sub-populations of cells within rESC cultures, thus demonstrating its utility in discriminating between cell states in rat stem cell cultures, as well as providing a tool for tracking Rex1 expression in the rat.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Ratos
5.
J Cell Sci ; 132(20)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519808

RESUMO

Reprogramming to induced pluripotency induces the switch of somatic cell identity to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the mediators and mechanisms of reprogramming remain largely unclear. To elucidate the mediators and mechanisms of reprogramming, we used a siRNA-mediated knockdown approach for selected candidate genes during the conversion of somatic cells into iPSCs. We identified Tox4 as a novel factor that modulates cell fate through an assay that determined the efficiency of iPSC reprogramming. We found that Tox4 is needed early in reprogramming to efficiently generate early reprogramming intermediates, irrespective of the reprogramming conditions used. Tox4 enables proper exogenous reprogramming factor expression, and the closing and opening of putative somatic and pluripotency enhancers early during reprogramming, respectively. We show that the TOX4 protein assembles into a high molecular form. Moreover, Tox4 is also required for the efficient conversion of fibroblasts towards the neuronal fate, suggesting a broader role of Tox4 in modulating cell fate. Our study reveals Tox4 as a novel transcriptional modulator of cell fate that mediates reprogramming from the somatic state to the pluripotent and neuronal fate.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/citologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(2): 333-350, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639215

RESUMO

Reprogramming female mouse somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) leads to X-chromosome reactivation. The extent to which increased X-chromosome dosage (X-dosage) in female iPSCs compared with male iPSCs leads to differences in the properties of iPSCs is still unclear. We show that chromatin accessibility in mouse iPSCs is modulated by X-dosage. Specific sets of transcriptional regulator motifs are enriched in chromatin with increased accessibility in XX or XY iPSCs. The transcriptome, growth and pluripotency exit are also modulated by X-dosage in iPSCs. To understand how increased X-dosage modulates the properties of mouse pluripotent stem cells, we used heterozygous deletions of the X-linked gene Dusp9. We show that X-dosage regulates the transcriptome, open chromatin landscape, growth, and pluripotency exit largely independently of global DNA methylation. Our results provide insights into how gene dosage modulates the epigenetic and genetic mechanisms that regulate cell identity.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Cromatina/genética , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosfatases da Proteína Quinase Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Vet Dermatol ; 29(6): 504-e169, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is associated with an imbalance between multiple T lymphocytes and cytokines. Ex vivo boosted immune cell (EBIC) therapy is the sequential administration of ex vivo cultured and activated lymphocytes to patients to improve immune function. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to assess the safety of EBIC therapy and demonstrate its efficacy as a novel treatment for cAD. ANIMALS: Ten dogs with AD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The phenotypes of the immune cells before and after ex vivo culture were analysed by flow cytometry. EBICs (1.0-5.0 × 108 cells/animal) were administered to dogs every two weeks, with a total of six injections. The cAD extent and severity index (CADESI)-03 and pruritus scores were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of EBIC therapy for cAD. For safety assessment, regular blood examination was conducted, and any adverse events recorded. The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-31 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were evaluated. RESULTS: The cells expanded by an average of 57.52-fold and the proportions of CD8+ cells and IFN-γ-producing cells significantly increased after ex vivo culture. Sequential EBIC therapy improved CADESI-03, and pruritus scores significantly. After stopping treatment the improvement rates increased for the CADESI score and were maintained for the pruritus score. There were no significant changes in cytokine levels. No significant adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: EBIC therapy is a safe and efficient treatment for cAD. This therapy could correct the immunological imbalance in dogs with AD by infusing activated T lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Imunoterapia/veterinária , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
8.
Mar Drugs ; 16(8)2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126169

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) B exposure induces DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes skin photoaging through signaling pathways of inflammation and modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling proteins, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). As low molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF) has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, we examined the protective effects of LMF against UVB-induced photoaging. A UVB-irradiated mouse model was topically treated with myricetin or LMF at 2.0, 1.0 and 0.2 mg/cm² (LMF2.0, LMF1.0 and LMF0.2, respectively) once a day for 15 weeks. Wrinkle formation, inflammation, oxidative stress, MMP expression, and apoptosis in the treated regions were compared with those in a distilled water-treated photoaging model (UVB control). LMF treatments, particularly LMF2.0 and LMF1.0, significantly inhibited the wrinkle formation, skin edema, and neutrophil recruitment into the photo-damaged lesions, compared with those in the UVB control. While LMF decreased interleukin (IL)-1ß release, it increased IL-10. The LMF treatment inhibited the oxidative stresses (malondialdehyde and superoxide anion) and enhanced endogenous antioxidants (glutathione). Additionally, LMF reduced the mRNA expression of MMP-1, 9, and 13. The histopathological analyses revealed the anti-photoaging effects of LMF exerted via its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and MMP-9-inhibiting effects. These suggest that LMF can be used as a skin-protective remedy for photoaging.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Peso Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(9): 1380-1384, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089735

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among body condition score (BCS), radiography, and computed tomography (CT), and to establish a method for body fat assessment on CT in dogs. Thirty eight Beagles with 2 to 7 BCS were examined. Subcutaneous fat thickness (ST) on radiograph and body area (BA), total fat area (TA), subcutaneous fat area (SA), and visceral fat area (VA) on CT were measured at the level of L3 and L6 vertebra. Ratios of each value to the L6 length were obtained (rST, rTA, rSA, rVA) and the correlations with BCS were estimated. The value of VA/SA, VA/TA, TA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA were selected for measuring fat and the correlations with BCS were estimated. The rST, rTA, rSA, and rVA were significantly correlated with BCS, and the rTA and rSA were significantly correlated with rST. At the level of L3, rTA and rVA had stronger relationships with BCS than at L6 while rSA had a higher correlation with BCS at L6. The TA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA were significantly correlated with BCS, and the upper limits were 15.11, 6.31, and 8.92%, respectively. Our results showed that CT could be useful to assess body fat and TA/BA, VA/BA, and SA/BA are suitable criteria for measuring fat on CT. In addition, L3 was a more suitable location for evaluating total and visceral fat, and L6 was more suitable for evaluating subcutaneous fat.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Cães , Radiografia/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Radiografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
Vet Dermatol ; 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the principal pathogen causing bacterial skin infections in dogs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involving the combination of light and a topical photosensitizer is used to treat human skin infections. Although the antimicrobial effects of PDT have been demonstrated using in vivo and in vitro studies in humans, its effects on dogs and their pathogens are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the in vitro efficacy of PDT over a 465-470 nm spectrum to kill S. pseudintermedius using δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as the photosensitizer. METHODS: Six S. pseudintermedius isolates from canine skin were exposed to blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 465-470 nm, with or without ALA. The light doses were 18.4, 36.8 and 55.2 J/cm2 . The number of colony-forming units and optical densities of broth cultures were measured and then compared with Dunnett's test. Bacterial viability was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescence intensity values were compared with a paired Student's t-test. RESULTS: Blue light inhibited the growth of S. pseudintermedius; the effect significantly increased with the addition of ALA as a photosensitizer and with increasing light doses. Live/dead staining confirmed that PDT reduced bacterial viability and exerted an antibacterial effect. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Blue light has a strong antibacterial effect on S. pseudintermedius in a light dose-dependent manner. ALA alone did not exhibit bactericidal action, but its combination with blue light increased the effect of PDT compared to blue light alone.

11.
Manag Care ; 25(4): 41-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify prescription drug price increases over a span of 3 years (2012-2015), as well as extrapolate current reimbursement rates expected by independent retail pharmacies. In addition, we investigate potential reasons for these increasing drug costs. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis. METHODOLOGY: National average drug acquisition costs (NADAC) data published by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services were examined. Specifically, December 2012, 2013, and 2014, and July 2015 NADAC files were analyzed to identify generic and branded products with the highest percentage price increases. Percentage price differences were also calculated for 17 first-in-class drugs and their "me-too" competitors. The margin and margin percentage were calculated for claims adjudicated through four major payers. RESULTS: The top 50 generic drug price increases ranged from 474% to over 18,000% from December 2012 to July 2015. The top 50 branded drug price increases ranged from 63% to 391% during the same time period. The percentage price difference for the first-in-class drugs versus their me-too analogues ranged from -2.3% to 61,259%. The margin for generic drug claims adjudicated ranged from -$237.11 to-$1,105.96. The margin for branded drug claims adjudicated ranged from $272.42 to $360.17. CONCLUSION: Several potential reasons for the surge in prescription drug prices include manufacturer competition, industry consolidation, and capitalization on me-too drugs. This increase has compelled PBMs, health plan sponsors, and retail pharmacies to find novel ways to turn a profit, often at the expense of the consumer. Although there are no immediate solutions, legislation regulating PBM functions and the use of therapeutic interchange programs may offer health plans some assistance in managing drug costs.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/tendências , Estados Unidos
12.
Lab Anim Res ; 32(4): 217-223, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053615

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of fermented red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer; FRG) on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of seven: normal control, NC; high-fat diet control, HFC; high-fat diet-0.5% FRG, HF-FRGL; and high-fat diet-1% FRG, HF-FRGH. All rats were fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks, except those in the NC group, while rats in the FRG treatment groups received drinking water containing 0.5% or 1% FRG. After eight weeks of treatment, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum were measured. The concentration of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat liver were evaluated. Histological analysis of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin. The high-fat diet markedly increased serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, TG, and LDL-C and hepatic MDA levels, while administration of FRG to the hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a significant decline in the levels of these parameters. Furthermore, the decline in the levels of serum HDL-C and hepatic SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px induced by the high-fat diet was attenuated by FRG treatment. In addition, histopathological analysis of liver sections suggested that FRG treatment also provided protection against liver damage. These results suggested that FRG improved lipid profiles, inhibited lipid peroxidation, and played a protective role against liver injury in hyperlipidemic rats.

13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 26(10): 1133-6, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22259017

RESUMO

A mixture of tiletamine, a dissociative anesthetic, and zolazepam, a minor tranquilizer, has been widely used as an anesthetic or an immobilizing agent in a variety of animal species. However, interestingly, their pharmacokinetic behaviors have been published only in polar bears and pigs. In this study, we introduce a sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for determining the two drugs in dog plasma. After simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile including midazolam (internal standard), the analytes were chromatographed on a reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of 10 m m ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile (1:4, v/v). The accuracy and precision of the assay were in accordance with FDA regulations for the validation of bioanalytical methods. This method was used to measure the concentrations of zolazepam and tiletamine in plasma after a single intramuscular 10 mg dose of each in beagle dogs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiletamina/sangue , Zolazepam/sangue , Animais , Cães , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tiletamina/química , Tiletamina/farmacocinética , Zolazepam/química , Zolazepam/farmacocinética
14.
Vet Dermatol ; 21(4): 367-72, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20042037

RESUMO

Trans epidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration status and pH were determined in 14 skin regions of five healthy male Beagle dogs (2-4 years) both before and after anaesthesia. Trans epidermal water loss was highest for the footpad and head and lowest for the inguinal region. Skin hydration status was higher in the ear but did not vary significantly in other regions. Skin pH was usually alkaline with the highest values on the lower back and tail. Following anaesthesia, TEWL and skin hydration were significantly lower on the head, upper back and footpad, and upper back and elbow respectively, while skin pH was unaffected by this procedure. While measurement of pH would seem to be valid anywhere on the body in anaesthetized dogs, regional factors should be considered when interpreting TEWL and skin hydration values and when treating regional skin diseases in veterinary practice.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Desidratação/veterinária , Capacitância Elétrica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Perda Insensível de Água/fisiologia
15.
J Vet Sci ; 9(4): 401-5, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19043316

RESUMO

Tracheal ultrasonography was performed to measure the width of the tracheal ring shadow and to assess the clinical relevance of these measurements for identifying tracheal collapse. The first tracheal ring width (FTRW) and thoracic inlet tracheal ring width (TITRW) were measured on both expiration and inspiration. The mean of the FTRW width (129 dogs) was greater in expiration (10.97 plusmn; 1.02 mm, p = 0.001) than that in inspiration (9.86 plusmn; 1.03 mm). For 51 normal dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (9.05 plusmn; 1.52 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (8.02 plusmn; 1.43 mm). For 78 tracheal collapse dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (15.89 plusmn; 1.01 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (14.85 plusmn; 1.17 mm). The TITRW/FTRW ratio of the normal dogs was higher (p = 0.001) in expiration (0.81 plusmn; 0.09) than that in inspiration (0.79 plusmn; 0.10). When compared between the normal and tracheal collapse dogs, the TITRW/FTRW ratio was also increased (p = 0.001) both in expiration (1.54 plusmn; 0.09) and inspiration (1.47 plusmn; 0.08), respectively. Based on these results, the cutoff level of the TITRW/FTRW ratio was statistically analyzed according to the receiver operating characteristic curve and it could be set at 1.16 in expiration and at 1.13 in inspiration. We have demonstrated that tracheal ultrasonography is a useful technique for the evaluation of tracheal collapse and it can be a supportive tool together with the radiographic findings for making the correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Traqueia/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico , Estenose Traqueal/patologia , Estenose Traqueal/veterinária , Ultrassonografia
16.
J Vet Sci ; 7(1): 25-9, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16434845

RESUMO

This study was to determine the daily fluctuation of serum thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in healthy dogs. Thyroid function of these dogs was evaluated on the basis of results of TSH response test. Samples for the measurement of serum tT4, fT4, and T3 concentrations were obtained at 3- hour intervals from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00. Serum tT4, fT4, and T3 concentrations were measured by the enzyme chemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Mean T3 concentrations had no significant differences according to the sample collection time during the day. Mean tT4 and fT4 concentrations at 11 : 00 were 3.28 +/- 0.86 microg/dl and 1.30 +/- 0.37 ng/dl, respectively and mean tT4 and fT(4) at 14:00 were 3.54 +/- 1.15 microg/dl and 1.35 +/- 0.12 ng/dl, respectively. These concentrations were significantly high compared with tT4 and fT4 concentrations at 8:00, which were 1.75 +/- 0.75 microg/dl and 0.97 +/- 0.25 ng/dl, respectively (p < 0.05). According to the sample collection time, mean tT4 and fT4 concentrations changed with similar fluctuation during the day. Based on these results, it was considered that measurement of serum tT4 and fT4 concentrations from 11 : 00 to 14 : 00 might more easily diagnose the canine hypothyroidism in practice.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Masculino , Testes de Função Tireóidea/veterinária
17.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 47(1): 94-8, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16429993

RESUMO

Ultrasonographic imaging of the canine external ear canal, tympanic membrane, and tympanic bulla was described in five healthy beagle dogs before and after infusion of saline into the ear canal. Saline served as an acoustic window. With this method, the external ear canal, and tympanic bulla were visible in the same imaging plane and the integrity of the tympanic membrane could be evaluated indirectly by confirming an intact tympanic membrane, which appeared at the end of the ear canal as a hyperechoic line with reverberation. Experimentally, perforated tympanic membrane could be evaluated by identifying anechoic saline in the tympanic bulla lumen. The air and fluid-filled tympanic bulla were also visualized. Ultrasonography with saline as an acoustic window appears to be helpful for the evaluation of the external ear canal, tympanic membrane, and tympanic bulla and it may have the potential to be a useful clinical tool in evaluation of integrity of the tympanic membrane.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Meato Acústico Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Membrana Timpânica/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Meato Acústico Externo/anatomia & histologia , Membrana Timpânica/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia
18.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 46(1): 80-2, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15693566

RESUMO

Ultrasonographic examination of both stifle joints of five clinically and radiographically normal adult dogs was performed before and after surgical transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). At pre- and postsurgery, the hyperechoic patellar ligament and the infrapatellar fat interfered with sonographic visualization of the CrCL. When the stifle joint, however, was imaged via dynamic intra-articular saline injection, the hyperechoic ligament was visualized because of the separation of the infrapatellar fat and the CrCL and the contrasting effect of anechoic saline. When the stifle joint was imaged by real-time scanning after the transection of the CrCL, flutter of the ligament and an anechoic area between the bone and the CrCL were identified. The increased diameter of the ligament and the increased thickness of the joint space were identified as well. Ultrasonographic examination via dynamic saline injection into the joint space has potential as a diagnostic tool for assessing CrCL rupture.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães/lesões , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária , Animais , Injeções Intra-Articulares/veterinária , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ruptura/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura/veterinária , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
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