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1.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. To ensure successful target attainment, therapeutic drug monitoring-informed dosage adjustment is recommended. However, it relies on the experience of the clinician and the frequency of drug measurements. This study aimed to design a new optimal dosing regimen of teicoplanin with a maintenance dosing strategy for neonates and children based on their physiological characteristics. METHODS: Data from teicoplanin-treated patients (n = 214) were collected from electronic medical records. Covariate analyses were performed using population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling with 399 serum teicoplanin concentrations from 48 neonates and 166 children. Multiple PK simulations were conducted to explore optimal dosing regimens that would allow control of the trough concentration to the target of 15-30 mg/L quicker than the current standard regimen. RESULTS: Allometrically scaled body weight, postmenstrual age (PMA), renal function, and serum albumin were implemented as substantial covariates for teicoplanin clearance in a two-compartment PK model. Covariate analyses and comprehensive simulation assessments recommended the following modifications to the current regimen: 1) decreased dose for premature babies (PMA ≤ 28 weeks), 2) decreased dose for children with renal dysfunction, and 3) increased dose for children (0.5-11 years) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: This study leverages real-world clinical information and proposes new optimal dosing regimens for teicoplanin in neonates and children through PK modeling and simulation analyses, taking into account the age, including PMA, and renal function of patients.

2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1327-1333, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497223

RESUMO

Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are caused by genetic mutations at loci associated with DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and ribosome function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can result in a permanent cure in transfusion-dependent patients if reduced-intensity conditioning and long-term screening for relapse can be successfully implemented. Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) arise from inborn errors of the host immune system and affected patients must protect themselves against intractable infections and immune system dysregulation. HSCT is curative in many pediatric patients; however, specific immunomodulatory therapies are now available for controlling autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory diseases. Advanced clinical sequencing technologies have continued to identify novel monogenic diseases that share the phenotype of hematological and immunological abnormalities, along with adult cases of IBMFS and/or PIDs. Importantly, genetic counseling is required for carrier detection while selecting sibling donors for HSCT. Here, we describe treatment strategies for IBMFS and/or PIDs and associated pitfalls.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Doenças da Medula Óssea/genética , Doenças da Medula Óssea/terapia , Criança , Síndrome Congênita de Insuficiência da Medula Óssea , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
3.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ultra-sensitive hormone assays have detected slight sex differences in blood estradiol (E2) levels in young children before adrenarche. However, the origin of circulating E2 in these individuals remains unknown. This study aimed to clarify how E2 is produced in young girls before adrenarche. DESIGN: This is a satellite project of the Japan Environment and Children's Study organized by the National Institute for Environmental Studies. METHODS: We collected blood samples from healthy 6-year-old Japanese children (79 boys and 71 girls). Hormone measurements and data analysis were performed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies and the Medical Support Center of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, respectively. RESULTS: E2 and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly higher in girls than in boys, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and testosterone (T) levels were comparable between the two groups. Girls showed significantly higher E2/T ratios than boys. In children of both sexes, a correlation was observed between E2 and T levels, and between T and DHEA-S levels. Moreover, E2 levels were correlated with FSH levels only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that in 6-year-old girls, circulating E2 is produced primarily in the ovary from adrenal steroids through FSH-induced aromatase upregulation. This study provides evidence that female-dominant E2 production starts several months or years before adrenarche. The biological significance of E2 biosynthesis in these young children needs to be clarified in future studies.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergic individuals and their responsiveness to routine vaccines has rarely been investigated. This study examined whether the seroprevalence of measles antibody differed between children with and without allergic diseases in the general pediatric population. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed within a prospective general birth cohort (a pilot study of the Japan Environment & Children's Pilot Study [JECS]) of children aged 8 years. The clinical history of allergic diseases, measles, and the concentration of measles immunoglobulin G titers in serum enzyme immunoassay were examined. Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the relationships between the allergic characteristics of the children and their measles antibody positivity rates. RESULTS: This study included 162 children. Any allergic disease was reported in 75 (46.3%). The measles antibody positivity rate was 94.7% among children with any allergic diseases and 92.0% among children without allergic diseases. Our results revealed no differences in measles antibody seropositivity between children with allergies and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergies mount and maintain a comparable immune response to the measles vaccine.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 209: 106922, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary brain tumor is a leading cause of death in cancer-bearing children. Acutely progressive patterns of electroencephalography (EEG) remain to be investigated for children with rapidly growing brain tumors. CASE REPORT: A 14-month-old boy was transferred to our department for prolonged seizures and unrecovered consciousness on his fifth day of illness. The EEG recording on admission showed highly disorganized background activity with high-voltage rhythmic delta waves. Serial EEG monitoring revealed a rapid transition of the background activity to the suppression-burst pattern, and then to generalized suppression of cortical activity within a few hours after admission. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a midline tumor at the pineal gland extending to the midbrain and pons. The tumor was pathologically confirmed as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) with absent expression of SMARCB1. He died of tumor progression on the 20th day after admission. CONCLUSION: AT/RT is an additional category of brain tumors that cause the clinically and electro-physiologically critical condition in a few days after the onset.

6.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 49-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526430

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by red blood cell (RBC) aplasia with varied malformations in infants. Elevated activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been considered as a useful biomarker of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and ADA assay has been shown to be more sensitive than genetic diagnosis. Approximately, 80% of the examined patients showed elevated ADA activity, whereas genetic tests of ribosome subunit genes identified mutations in approximately 60% of the patients. We previously reported that reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in RBCs may serve as a biomarker of Diamond-Blackfan anemia. In this study, to confirm the universality of our data, we extended the analysis to seven RBC enzymes and GSH of 14 patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and performed a cross-analysis study using enzyme activity assay and recently reported proteome data. Statistical analysis revealed that both data exhibited high similarity, upregulation in the hexokinase and pentose-phosphate pathway, and downregulation in glycolytic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase, in the RBCs obtained from the subjects with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. The only discrepancy between enzyme activity and proteome data was observed in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), as increased G6PD activity showed no relation with the significant elevation in protein levels. These results suggest that our enzymatic activity data of Diamond-Blackfan anemia are universal and that the enzymatic activation of G6PD via a hitherto-unveiled mechanism is another metabolic feature of RBCs of Diamond-Blackfan anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/sangue , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Adolescente , Aminoidrolases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Regulação para Baixo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/sangue , Glutationa/sangue , Glicólise , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Regulação para Cima
7.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559885

RESUMO

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1)-deficiency is a rare combined immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, dermatitis and enteropathy. We herein investigate the immunological profiles of our patient and previously reported children with MALT1-deficiency. A mutation analysis was performed by targeted panel sequencing for primary immunodeficiency. Lymphocyte subset, activation and B cell differentiation were analyzed by flow cytometry and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Pneumocystis pneumonia developed in a 6-month-old Japanese infant with atopic dermatitis, enteritis and growth restriction. This infant showed agammaglobulinemia without lymphopenia. At 8 years of age, the genetic diagnosis of MALT1-deficiency was confirmed on a novel homozygous mutation of c.1102G>T, p.E368X. T cell stimulation tests showed impairments in the production of interleukin-2, phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and differentiation of B cells. In combination with the literature data, we found that the number of circulatory B cells, but not T cells, were inversely correlated with the age of patients. The hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) successfully reconstituted the differentiation of mature B cells and T cells. These data conceptualize that patients with complete MALT1-deficiency show aberrant differentiation and depletion of B cells. The early diagnosis and HCT lead to a cure of the disease phenotype associated with the loss-of-function mutations in human CARD11.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451964

RESUMO

The causal effects of vaccines on Kawasaki disease (KD) remain elusive. We aimed to examine the association between vaccines administered during infancy and the development of KD in Japan. We conducted a multicenter prospective case-control study using questionnaires and compared the vaccination status of infants (age: 6 weeks to 9 months) who developed KD (KD group; n = 102) and those who did not develop KD (non-KD group; n = 139). Next, we performed a case-crossover study of 98 cases in the KD group and compared the status of vaccinations between the case and control periods. We also compared the incidence of KD in children for each 5-year period before and after the addition of new vaccines (2012-2013) using data from the Nationwide Survey of KD. In the case-control study, the vaccination status of the KD and control groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. Multivariable analysis of the vaccination status and patient backgrounds showed no significant association between vaccination and KD development. In the case-crossover study, the status of vaccinations during the case and control periods did not differ to a statistically significant extent. In the analysis of data from the Nationwide Survey of KD, the incidence of KD in children of ages subject to frequent vaccination showed no significant increases in the latter five years, 2014-2018. Based on these prospective analyses, we confirmed that vaccination in early infancy did not affect the risk of KD.

9.
Int J Hematol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453685

RESUMO

Granulocyte transfusion (GTX) is a therapeutic option for patients with prolonged neutropenia suffering from severe infections. Efficient granulocyte collection by apheresis from donors requires clear separation of granulocytes from red blood cells (RBCs), and infusion of high-molecular-weight (MW) hydroxyethyl starch (HES) facilitates RBC sedimentation. Recent research has shown that apheresis with medium-MW HES may prevent adverse effects of high-MW HES on donors, but the rationale for collection with medium-MW HES has yet to be evaluated. To validate the use of medium-MW HES, we first performed experiments with whole blood samples to determine how efficiently high-, medium- and low-MW HES separated granulocytes from RBCs, and found that medium-MW HES was just as efficient as high-MW HES. We also reviewed clinical data of granulocyte apheresis at our institution to evaluate granulocyte yields. Retrospective analysis of granulocyte collection revealed that apheresis with medium-MW HES yielded sufficient granulocytes for GTX and that donor anemia reduced collection efficiency. These results collectively may help us to establish a safer method for apheresis targeting polymorphonuclear granulocytes as an alternative to high-MW HES.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415101

RESUMO

Trisomy 18 (T18) is one of the most commonly diagnosed aneuploidies leading to poor survival outcome. However, little is known about the dual risk of T18 and very low birth weight (VLBW, weighing <1500 g at birth). We aimed to investigate the survival and clinical features of VLBW infants with T18. In this observational cohort study, infants with T18 admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Kyushu University Hospital from 2000 to 2019 were eligible. Among 30 infants with T18 who were enrolled as study participants, 11 (37%) were born with VLBW. VLBW infants had lower gestational age (34.4 vs. 39.4 weeks, p < 0.01) and a higher incidence of esophageal atresia (64% vs. 11%, p < 0.01) than non-VLBW infants. The proportions of patients who underwent any surgery (55% vs. 5%, p < 0.01) and positive pressure ventilation (82% vs. 32%, p = 0.02) were higher in VLBW than non-VLBW infants. One-year overall survival rate (45% vs. 26%, p = 0.32 by log-rank test) did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, being born at VLBW may not be fatal for infants with T18 undergoing active interventions.

11.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(7): 801-808, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349065

RESUMO

Parental age at birth has been investigated in patients diagnosed with pediatric cancer. The Japan Children's Cancer Registry1985-2007 recruited 5,510 patients with leukemia and 8,782 with other cancers. The proportion of patients born to mother and father aged >40 years showed a higher trend in leukemia than that in other cancers (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, p=0.057), especially in <12-month-old infants born to mother aged >40 years (OR 2.55, p=0.031). We then divided 27,335 patients diagnosed in 1969-2006 into every 8-year birth cohorts to compare proportions of mothers with prenatal medical irradiation. The OR of leukemia was higher than that of other cancers in 1969-1976 (1.25) or 1977-1984 (1.39), which reached statistical significance. We have also studied caregiver's exposure to anticancer drugs. In 15 pediatric patients with cancer who received cyclophosphamide (CPM), the concentration was measured using mothers and medical staff's urine. Five of 7 infants' and 2 of 8 adolescent's mothers showed increased urine CPM levels. CPM was not detected in any medical staff's samples. Maternal exposure to anticancer drugs should also be considered. Efforts of reducing the genotoxicity in both infants and mothers are crucial for pediatric cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Gravidez
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714897, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421919

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 2-3% of the population worldwide. Although there is increasing evidence regarding the essential roles of the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis and dendritic cell (DC)-T cell crosstalk in the development of skin inflammation, the contributions of mitochondrial function to psoriasis are unclear. In a mouse model of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform skin inflammation, we found that hematopoietic cell-specific genetic deletion of p32/C1qbp, a regulator of mitochondrial protein synthesis and metabolism, protects mice from IMQ-induced psoriatic inflammation. Additionally, we demonstrate that p32/C1qbp is an important regulator of IMQ-induced DC activation, both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that p32/C1qbp-deficient DCs exhibited impaired production of IL-1ß, IL-23, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) after IMQ stimulation. Because the inhibition of mtROS suppressed IMQ-induced DC activation and psoriatic inflammation, we presume that p32/C1qbp and mtROS can serve as therapeutic targets in psoriasis.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e043202, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between breast feeding and infant development during the first year of life using sibling comparison. DESIGN: Nationwide prospective birth cohort study with sibling pair analysis. SETTING: 15 regional centres that participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 77 119 children (singleton, term birth and no malformation/severe diseases) whose mothers were registered between January 2011 and March 2014, including 3521 duos or trios of siblings. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was developmental delay at 6 and 12 months of age, assessed using the Japanese translation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, third edition. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for confounders were performed to estimate the risk ratios of delay associated with any or exclusive breast feeding. Pairs of siblings discordant for statuses were selected, and conditional regression analyses were conducted with a matched cohort design. RESULTS: Developmental delay was identified in 6162 (8.4%) and 10 442 (14.6%) children at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. Any breast feeding continued until 6 months or 12 months old was associated with reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age (adjusted risk ratio (95% CI): 0.81 (0.77 to 0.85) and 0.81 (0.78 to 0.84), respectively). Furthermore, exclusive breast feeding until 3 months was associated with reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age (adjusted risk ratio, 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.90)). In sibling pair analysis, the association between any breast feeding until 12 months and reduced developmental delay at 12 months of age persisted (adjusted risk ratio, 0.64 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.93)). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the association of continuous breast feeding with reduced developmental delay at 1 year of age using sibling pair analysis, in which unmeasured confounding factors are still present but less included. This may provide an argument to promote breastfeeding continuation.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Irmãos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456196

RESUMO

Background Tracking gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy makes it possible to optimize pregnancy outcomes and GWG growth curves are well suitable for this purpose. The GWG guidelines for Japanese were revised in 2021. However, currently, there are no GWG growth curves to guide women on how to gain weight to meet these guidelines.Methods Using data on 96,631 live births from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), we created descriptive GWG percentile curves estimated the trajectory of GWG required to meet the GWG guidelines stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) For both analyses, Bayesian mixed models with restricted cubic splines adjusted for maternal characteristics were used.Results GWG curves substantially differed by pre-pregnancy BMI, and were higher among multiparas and those with lower maternal age and with no previous disease. We estimated that underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese women who gain 8.4 to 11.1 kg, 6.4 to 9.1 kg, 3.8 to 6.5 kg, and <1.9 kg at 30 weeks of gestation are on the trajectory to reach the new guidelines at 40 weeks of gestation.Conclusions We provide GWG percentiles curves for Japanese women as well as GWG trajectory curves to meet the new GWG recommendations. These results may help pregnant women monitor weight during their pregnancy.

15.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 360, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between a slower physical growth and poorer neurodevelopment has been established in infants born preterm or small for gestational age. However, this association is inconsistent in term-born infants, and detailed investigations in infancy, when intervention is most beneficial for improving outcomes, are lacking. We therefore examined this association separately by sex during the first year of life in term-born infants. METHODS: Using data collected until children reached 12 months old in an ongoing prospective cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, we analyzed 44,264 boys and 42,541 girls with singleton term-birth. The exposure variables were conditional variables that disentangle linear growth from weight gain relative to linear growth, calculated from the length and weight at birth and 4, 7 and 10 months old. Neurodevelopmental delay was identified using the Japanese-translated version of Ages & Stages Questionnaires, third edition. RESULTS: A reduced risk of neurodevelopmental delay at 6 months old was observed in children with a higher birth weight (adjusted relative risks [aRRs]: 0.91 and 0.93, 95 % confidence intervals [95 % CIs]: 0.87-0.96 and 0.88-0.98 in boys and girls, respectively) and increased linear growth between 0 and 4 months old (aRRs: 0.85 and 0.87, 95 % CIs: 0.82-0.88 and 0.83-0.91 in boys and girls, respectively). A reduced risk at 12 months was found in children with an increased linear growth between 0 and 4 months (aRRs: 0.92 and 0.90, 95 % CIs: 0.87-0.98 and 0.84-0.96 in boys and girls, respectively), boys with an increased relative weight gain between 0 and 4 months (aRR: 0.90, 95 % CI: 0.84-0.97), and girls with a higher birth weight (aRR: 0.89, 95 % CI: 0.83-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a slow physical growth by four months old may be a predictor of neurodevelopmental delay during infancy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine erythroferrone (ERFE)-hepcidin iron regulation in premature infants under intensive care at risk of iron metabolic disorders. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort recruited 31 infants with a birth weight of <1500 g hospitalized in a tertiary center. Their hematological status was measured at birth and 2 and 4 weeks of life. RESULTS: ERFE was positively correlated with the reticulocyte hemoglobin content at 2 (r2 = 0.2374) and 4 weeks (r2 = 0.6005). An assumed negative correlation between ERFE and hepcidin was not determined during the neonatal period. Hepcidin was positively correlated with the leukocyte count (r2 = 0.3089) and ferritin (r2 = 0.7476) at birth and C-reactive protein (r2 = 0.3591) at 2 weeks and negatively correlated with the reticulocyte count (r2 = 0.2887) at 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: The vulnerability of the ERFE-hepcidin pathway within 4 weeks may contribute to iron imbalance in premature infants.

17.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(10): 2456-2463, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the neurophysiological properties of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) and evaluate limb-based motor outcomes. METHODS: Nerve conduction studies (NCS) in 49 patients (21 females, 28 males; median age = 52 m) with AFM (median = 7 d after onset; range 1-122 d) were reviewed. Neurophysiological findings, together with treatment and prognosis, and neurophysiology-neuroimaging correlations were analyzed. RESULTS: The findings indicated that 64% of paralytic limbs during the acute stage (≤14 d after onset) showed diminished or absent compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), 79% showed normal motor nerve conduction velocities, 55% showed decreased persistence or absent F-waves, and 95% showed normal sensory nerve conduction velocities. The rate of CMAP abnormalities increased from 41% on days 1-2 to 83% on days 13-14. The reduction in CMAP amplitude was correlated with weaker muscle strength at both the peak neurological deficit and the last follow-up. The baseline limb-based muscle strength at nadir and anterior horn-localized magnetic resonance imaging lesions at recovery stage (>14 d) were strong predictors of outcome at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AFM typically shows neurophysiological features of neuronopathy. SIGNIFICANCE: NCS is probably useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of AFM.

18.
Brain Dev ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy in childhood leukemia potentially induces brain lesions and neurological sequelae. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is known as a treatment-associated complication; however, the full clinical spectra of PSH remain to be elusive. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M5. After the intensification therapy, she developed recurrent symptoms of episodic tachycardia, hypertension and perspiration lasting for several hours per day. The low-frequency-high-frequency ratio on Holter electrocardiography was rapidly increased from 0.84 to 2.24 at the onset of the paroxysmal event, whereas the video-monitoring electroencephalography (EEG) never identified ictal patterns of epileptiform discharges during the episodes. Thus, the diagnosis of PSH was given at 7 years of age. Myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures frequently appeared from 10 years of age, which poorly responded to anticonvulsants. EEG showed diffuse slow-wave bursts with multifocal spikes. Serial head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse cerebral and hippocampal atrophy, but not inflammatory lesions in the limbic system. CONCLUSION: We first demonstrate a pediatric case with PSH who developed drug-resistant epilepsy 3 years after the onset of PSH. Our data suggest the pathophysiological link of persistent PSH with chemotherapy-associated brain damage.

19.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; : 21501351211002769, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308716

RESUMO

We performed a second puncture of the extracardiac conduit in an 11-year-old Fontan patient to assess the patency of the stent previously deployed in the left pulmonary vein. For the first puncture, a mechanical Brockenbrough needle was selected to puncture the Gore-Tex conduit, an electrical insulator. For the second puncture, the location of that previous hole was detected as an indentation covered with atrial tissue, which is an electrical conductor. The second puncture was performed safely using a radiofrequency transseptal needle.

20.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are often exposed to hazardous agents and are at risk for adverse health consequences that affect not only themselves but also their infants. This study aimed to examine whether such occupational exposure increased the risk of childhood cancer in offspring. METHODS: We used the dataset of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, a nationwide birth cohort involving over 100,000 mother-child pairs. Information was obtained via successive questionnaires that were completed until the child turned 1 year of age. The parents were asked whether they occupationally handled medical agents during pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 26 infants developed neoplasms: neuroblastoma, leukemia, and brain tumor. The incidence of neuroblastoma was significantly higher in infants whose mothers were exposed to radiation (3/2142: 140.1 per 100,000 population) than in those who were not (12/90,384: 13.3 per 100,000 population). Multivariable regression analyses revealed a close association between maternal irradiation and the development of neuroblastoma (adjusted incident rate ratio: 10.68 [95% confidence interval: 2.98‒38.27]). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, a potential association between maternal occupational exposure and the occurrence of neuroblastoma in offspring. Further studies involving the large pediatric cancer registries are needed to confirm these preliminary results. IMPACT: Healthcare workers are often exposed to hazardous agents and are at risk for adverse health consequences that affect not only themselves but also their infants. This study examined the association between such occupational exposure and offspring's cancers that developed until the age of 1 year. Maternal exposure to ionizing radiation was associated with infantile neuroblastoma in offspring. Further studies involving the large pediatric cancer registries are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

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