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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899229

RESUMO

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to liver carcinogenesis because of their pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative properties. Diet is a major source of AGEs, but there is sparse human evidence on the role of AGEs intake in liver cancer aetiology. We examined the association between dietary AGEs and the risk of hepatobiliary cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort (n=450,111). Dietary intake of three AGEs, Nε -[carboxymethyl]lysine (CML), Nε -[1-carboxyethyl]lysine (CEL), and Nδ -[5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl]-ornithine (MG-H1), was estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires linked to an AGEs database. Cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between dietary AGEs and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder, and biliary tract cancers were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. After a median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 255 cases of HCC, 100 cases of gallbladder cancer, and 173 biliary tract cancers were ascertained. Higher intakes of dietary AGEs were inversely associated with risk of HCC (per 1 standard deviation [SD] increment, HR-CML =0.87, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99, HR-CEL =0.84, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.96, and HR-MH-G1 = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.97). In contrast, positive associations were observed with risk of gallbladder cancer (per 1 SD, HR-CML =1.28, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.56, HR-CEL =1.17; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.40, HR-MH-G1 =1.27, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.54). No associations were observed for cancers of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. Our findings suggest that higher intakes of dietary AGEs are inversely associated with the risk of HCC and positively associated with the risk of gallbladder cancer.

2.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660232

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been associated with many diseases, including endometriosis. However, very few studies have been conducted on this topic in human. This study aimed to investigate the association between endometriosis and gut microbiota. Women with endometriosis (N=66) were identified at the Department of Gynaecology and each patient was matched with three controls (N=198) from the general population. All participants answered questionnaires about socioeconomic data, medical history, and gastrointestinal symptoms and passed stool samples. Gut bacteria were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and in total, 58 bacteria were observed at genus level in both patients with endometriosis and controls. Comparisons of the microbiota between patients and controls and within the endometriosis cohort were performed. Both alpha and beta diversities were higher in controls than in patients. With the false discovery rate q<0.05, abundance of 12 bacteria belonging to the classes Bacilli, Bacteroidia, Clostridia, Coriobacteriia, and Gammaproteobacter differed significantly between patients and controls. Differences observed between patients with or without isolated ovarian endometriosis, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal symptoms, or hormonal treatment disappeared after calculation with false discovery rate. These findings indicate that the gut microbiota may be altered in endometriosis patients.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525489

RESUMO

Dietary advice constitutes a treatment strategy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to examine the effect of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet (SSRD) on gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS patients, in relation to dietary intake and systemic inflammatory parameters. IBS patients (n = 105) were randomized to a 4-week SSRD intervention (n = 80) receiving written and verbal dietary advice focused on starch and sucrose reduction and increased intake of protein, fat and dairy, or control group (n = 25; habitual diet). At baseline and 4 weeks, blood was sampled, and participants filled out IBS-SSS, VAS-IBS, and Rome IV questionnaires and dietary registrations. C-reactive protein and cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 were analyzed from plasma. At 4 weeks, the intervention group displayed lower total IBS-SSS, 'abdominal pain', 'bloating/flatulence' and 'intestinal symptoms´ influence on daily life' scores (p ≤ 0.001 for all) compared to controls, and a 74%, responder rate (RR = ΔTotal IBS-SSS ≥ -50; RRcontrols = 24%). Median values of sucrose (5.4 vs. 20 g), disaccharides (16 vs. 28 g), starch (22 vs. 82 g) and carbohydrates (88 vs. 182 g) were lower for the intervention group compared to controls (p ≤ 0.002 for all), and energy percentages (E%) of protein (21 vs. 17 E%, p = 0.006) and fat (47 vs. 38 E%, p = 0.002) were higher. Sugar-, starch- and carbohydrate-reductions correlated weakly-moderately with total IBS-SSS decrease for all participants. Inflammatory parameters were unaffected. IBS patients display high compliance to the SSRD, with improved gastrointestinal symptoms but unaltered inflammatory parameters. In conclusion, the SSRD constitutes a promising dietary treatment for IBS, but needs to be further researched and compared to established dietary treatments before it could be used in a clinical setting.

5.
Nutr Res ; 86: 23-36, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450656

RESUMO

Alterations in gut endocrine cells and hormone levels have been measured in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The hypothesis of the present study was that hormone levels would change after 4 weeks of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet (SSRD) intervention corresponding to decreased carbohydrate intake and symptoms. Among 105 IBS patients from primary and tertiary healthcare, 80 were randomized to SSRD, while 25 followed their ordinary diet. Food diaries, Rome IV, and IBS-symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) questionnaires were completed, and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Serum C-peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, leptin, luteinizing hormone, polypeptide YY, and glucose were measured, along with the prevalence of autoantibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone; its precursor, progonadoliberin-2, and receptor; and tenascin C. Carbohydrate intake was lower in the intervention group than in controls at week 4 (median: 88 [66-128] g vs 182 [89-224] g; P < .001). The change in carbohydrate intake, adjusted for weight, was associated with a decrease in C-peptide (ß: 14.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.12-24.75) and insulin (ß: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.32) levels. Glucose levels remained unchanged. The IBS-SSS scores were lower in the intervention group but not in controls (P < .001), without any association with changes in hormone concentrations. There was no difference in autoantibody prevalence between patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, the hypothesis that reduced carbohydrate intake corresponded to altered hormonal levels in IBS was accepted; however, there was no relationship between hormonal concentrations and symptoms.

6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222051

RESUMO

As cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so called missing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for the role of diet-microbiota associations, as microbiota patterns may be shared by family members. In the Malmö Offspring Study that started in 2013, we have so far been able to examine about 4700 subjects (18-71 years) representing children and grandchildren of index subjects from the first generation, examined in the Malmö Diet Cancer Study during 1991 to 1996. This will provide rich data and opportunities to analyse family traits of chronic disease across three generations. We will provide extensive genotyping and phenotyping including cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, also cognitive function will be assessed. A 4-day online dietary recall will be conducted and gut as well as oral microbiota analysed. The ambition is to provide one of the first large-scale European family studies with individual data across three generations, which could deepen our knowledge about the role of family traits for chronic disease and its underlying mechanisms.

7.
Skin Res Technol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathy is described in most patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility and may be found together with reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether three-dimensional (3d) imaging of skin biopsies could be used to examine various tissue components in patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four dysmotility patients of different etiology and two healthy volunteers were included. From each subject, two 3-mm punch skin biopsies were stained with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 or evaluated as a whole with two X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) setups, a laboratory µCT setup and a dedicated synchrotron radiation nanoCT end-station. RESULTS: Two patients had reduced IENFD, and two normal IENFD, compared with controls. µCT and X-ray phase-contrast holographic nanotomography scanned whole tissue specimens, with optional high-resolution scans revealing delicate structures, without differentiation of various fibers and cells. Irregular architecture of dermal fibers was observed in the patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and the patient with idiopathic dysmotility showed an abundance of mesenchymal ground substance. CONCLUSIONS: 3d phase-contrast tomographic imaging may be useful to illustrate traits of connective tissue dysfunction in various organs and to demonstrate whether disorganized dermal fibers could explain organ dysfunction.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(36): 5484-5497, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a technique has been developed to use magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) for the evaluation of small bowel motility. The hypothesis was that assessment of the motility index (MI) should reflect differences in motility between clinical conditions. AIM: To aim of the present observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of the MI in daily clinical practice. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged 18-70 years who were referred for MRE at the Department of Radiology during a 2-year period were asked to participate. Healthy volunteers were included as controls. MRE was prepared and conducted in accordance with clinical routines. On the day of examination, all the participants had to complete the visual analog scale for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and IBS-symptom severity scale. Maps of MI were calculated from dynamic MR images. ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in MI between groups, classified as healthy, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, IBS, other assorted disorders and dysmotility. Logistic and linear regression were applied to the MI values. All medical records were scrutinized for medical history. RESULTS: In all, 224 examinations were included (inclusion prevalence 76.3%), with 22 controls and 202 patients. There was a significant difference in the MI of the jejunum (P = 0.021) and terminal ileum (P = 0.007) between the different groups. The MI was inversely associated with the mural thickness of the terminal ileum in men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.063) after adjustments, and tended to be lower in men than in women (P = 0.056). Subjectively observed reduction of motility on MRI was accomplished by reduced MI of terminal ileum in men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.030). In women, diarrhea was inversely associated with the MI of the jejunum (P = 0.029), and constipation was positively associated with the MI of the terminal ileum (P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: Although MIs differ across diseases, a lower MI of the terminal ileum is mainly associated with male sex and an increased mural thickness. Symptoms are weakly associated with the MI.

9.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(10): 1261-1267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Light microscopical analysis in two dimensions, combined with immunohistochemistry, is presently the gold standard to describe the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our aim was to assess the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) imaging by X-ray phase-contrast tomography in evaluating the ENS of the human bowel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Myenteric ganglia were identified in full-thickness biopsies of the ileum and colon by hematoxylin & eosin staining. A1-mm biopsy punch was taken from the paraffin blocks and placed into a Kapton® tube for subsequent tomographic investigation. The samples were scanned, without further preparation, using phase-contrast tomography at two different scales: overview scans (performed with laboratory setups), which allowed localization of the nervous tissue (∼1µm effective voxel size); and high-resolution scans (performed with a synchrotron endstation), which imaged localized regions of 320x320x320 µm3 (176 nm effective voxel size). RESULTS: The contrast allowed us to follow the shape and the size changes of the ganglia, as well as to study their cellular components together with the cells and cellular projections of the periganglional space. Furthermore, it was possible to show the 3D network of the myenteric plexus and to quantify its volume within the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Phase-contrast X-ray tomography can be applied for volume analyses of the human ENS and to study tissue components in unstained paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies. This technique could potentially be used to study disease mechanisms, and to compare healthy and diseased tissues in clinical research.

10.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120946713, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), even when the disease is in remission, possibly due to abnormalities in GI motility. Small bowel motility can be assessed globally and in specific intestinal regions during magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) using a displacement mapping technique. PURPOSE: To investigate whether small bowel motility in MRE differs between patients with UC and controls, and if altered motility correlates with GI symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2016-2018, patients who were admitted for MRE, regardless of clinical indication, were consecutively invited to the study. Healthy volunteers were recruited. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding GI symptoms and relevant clinical data were reviewed in the medical records. The dynamic imaging series obtained during MRE were sent for motility mapping and a motility index (MI) was calculated in jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum in all participants. RESULTS: In total, 224 patients and healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Fifteen were diagnosed with UC and 22 were considered healthy controls. In UC, the prevalence of GI symptoms was higher than in controls (P < 0.001), both in remission and in active disease. There was no correlation between GI symptoms and small bowel motility in UC. Jejunal motility was lower in UC than in controls (P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Jejunal motility is decreased in UC compared with healthy controls, but there is no relationship between small bowel motility and GI symptoms in UC.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.

13.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 32(10): e13909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantified terminal ileal motility during magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has been suggested to be used as a biomarker of Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate this method in clinical practice. METHODS: Healthy volunteers and all consecutive patients referred to MRE during a 2-year period were asked to participate and complete the Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) to assess gastrointestinal symptoms. Medical records were scrutinized, and motility indices (MIs) were calculated from MR images. KEY RESULTS: Twenty-two healthy controls and 134 examinations with CD were included (inclusion rate: 76.3%). Patients with CD had increased mural thickness of the terminal ileum, increased fecal calprotectin, and more symptoms than controls. Patients with active CD had increased mural thickness of ileum and terminal ileum, higher MR activity indices, and signs of inflammation in laboratory analyses, but similar symptoms, compared with inactive disease. After exclusion of sole colon disease (n = 13), MI inversely correlated with mural thickness in terminal ileum, and MI was lower in active disease versus controls in ileum (P = .019) and terminal ileum (P = .005), and versus inactive disease in terminal ileum (P = .044). The area under the curve of MI in terminal ileum was 0.736 for active CD against healthy controls (P = .002) and 0.682 for active against inactive CD (P = .001). MIs were similar in controls and inactive CD. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERFERENCES: MI reflects inflammatory activity in the intestine. Alterations in MI did not explain symptomatology in inactive CD, without measurable inflammatory parameters in morphology or laboratory analyses.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Altered gut microbiota have been suggested as part of an etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but studies have shown contrasting results. Our aim was to examine gut microbiota composition in a large population-based cohort, with respect to presence and severity of bowel symptoms. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1988 participants of the Malmö Offspring Study (mean age 40 years, 53% women). From a questionnaire, 19% reported having bowel symptoms the last 2 weeks and 15% reported having IBS. Bowel symptoms were assessed by a validated set of questions with visual analog scales. Gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (300 bp*2 in V1-V3 region) from fecal samples. The association between abundance of bacteria at genus level and bowel symptoms was calculated by logistic regression or general linear model, adjusted for false discovery rate (q < 0.05). RESULTS: Self-reported bowel symptoms (P = 0.003) and IBS (P = 0.031) were associated with difference in overall gut microbiota composition (beta-diversity). Additionally, bowel symptoms and IBS were associated with increased abundance of Blautia, and bowel symptoms also with a genus in the SHA98 order and Butyricimonas. Pain was associated with increased abundance of Fusobacterium. Diarrhea was associated positively with [Prevotella] and Blautia and negatively with a genus in the SHA98 order and a genus in the Christensenellaceae family. CONCLUSION: Self-reported bowel symptoms are associated with differences in overall gut microbiota composition and abundancy of a few specific bacteria at genus level in a population-based cohort. Diarrhea is the individual symptom with most associations.

15.
Biomed Rep ; 12(5): 211-221, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257184

RESUMO

The cytoplasmic protein AXIN1 is involved in the Wnt signalling pathway and its expression is increased in patients with endometriosis compared with healthy controls. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to further assess the levels of AXIN1 and other inflammatory biomarkers in patients with endometriosis. Patients with laparoscopy-verified endometriosis were recruited (n=172) and completed a questionnaire regarding socioeconomic factors, lifestyle habits and medical history. Plasma AXIN1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were analysed by ELISA. The levels of calprotectin were determined in the faeces, and the haemoglobin concentration and number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets were determined in the blood in a subgroup of 64 patients during clinical routine procedures. F-calprotectin expression was detected in 18 women (28.1%), who had more severe constipation and more frequently experienced incomplete evacuation when defecating, and 5 women (7.8%) exhibited elevated levels. P-AXIN1 levels were higher in patients who received hormonal treatment, and correlated inversely with faecal-calprotectin levels (P=0.003), B-haemoglobin levels (P=0.030) and the numbers of B-erythrocytes (P=0.033) and B-platelets (P=0.017), but were not correlated with hs-CRP levels (P=0.818). Higher levels of AXIN1 were associated with the duration of the gastrointestinal symptoms and with diarrhoea, constipation, vomiting and nausea and the intestinal symptoms' effect on quality of life, and tended to be associated with the duration of endometriosis. Hs-CRP expression was not associated with the clinical characteristics or symptoms of endometriosis, but higher levels were associated with obesity (P=0.002) and hormonal treatment (P=0.011). In conclusion, P-AXIN1 expression was negatively correlated with certain inflammatory biomarkers and was positively associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. P-AXIN1 levels were increased in patients who received hormonal treatment, highlighting the importance of obtaining native samples for future studies regarding its role in the development and presentation of endometriosis. However, hs-CRP and other studied biomarkers seemed to be of no value for the assessment and diagnosis of endometriosis.

16.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(3): 312-320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182146

RESUMO

Objectives: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are associated with an increased risk to develop anemia, cutaneous diseases, liver diseases, malignancy, osteoporosis, rheumatic diseases, thromboembolism and uveitis. The association between these diseases and microscopic colitis (MC) is not known. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine associations between MC and diseases observed in association with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.Material and methods: According to the review protocol, original articles which described the prevalence of abovementioned diseases in relation to MC, were searched for in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science.Results: After exclusion of duplicates, 928 articles remained. Based on relevancy of their title, abstract or type of article, 16 articles were ordered in full text and after assessment, nine articles could be included in the review. A second research strategy with individual diseases rendered further two articles. Seven articles covered malignancy/neoplasia, where four showed no association with malignancy and three a reduced association compared with controls. Four articles covering rheumatic diseases showed an association between these diseases and MC. One study showed an association between MC and osteoporosis, whereas one did not. One study showed an association between MC and cutaneous diseases, whereas anemia, eye diseases and thromboembolism showed no associations.Conclusions: Due to short follow-up time in small studies, with selection bias due to exclusion of former or prevalent malignancy in an older population, no conclusions can be drawn concerning the true association between MC and malignancy. Rheumatic diseases seem to be associated with MC.

17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 246: 99-105, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004880

RESUMO

Endometriosis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) are common conditions among young women of reproductive age. The etiologies to the diseases are uncertain, but multifactorial pathophysiology has been proposed for each of them. Many studies have examined the two conditions separately, but the literature on the associations between endometriosis and IBS is sparse. However, there is an increasing amount of research on how endometriosis patients are likely to also have a diagnosis of IBS. Furthermore, endometriosis shares several features with IBS, such as low-grade inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity. This systematic review summarized published original articles in English that have compared associations between endometriosis and IBS. The inclusion criteria for articles in the review were: i) endometriosis was diagnosed by surgical methods, ii) gastrointestinal symptoms were examined in a structured manner and iii) IBS was diagnosed by Rome criteria. From the initial 254 publications identified on PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE, 13 fulfilled the criteria and could finally be included in the summary. The findings from the review showed that women diagnosed with endometriosis seem to have a twofold or threefold risk to also fulfill the criteria for IBS. The summary risk estimate of the four studies included in the meta-analysis was 2.39 (95 % confidence interval: 1.83-3.11). In women initially diagnosed with IBS, some studies reported a threefold risk of having an endometriosis diagnosis. Despite the strong associations reported between the two conditions, this review also revealed a gap in adjusting for factors that may have affected the expression of gastrointestinal symptoms, e.g., phases of the menstrual cycle, medication and psychological aspects, which may have interpretation of the reviewed articles' results. The conclusion of this review is that there is a coexistence of gastrointestinal symptoms fulfilling the Rome criteria in patients with endometriosis, but it is uncertain whether there is a true comorbidity between endometriosis and IBS, or whether the gastrointestinal symptomatology in endometriosis depends on medication. Additionally, the adequacy of the Rome criteria to differentiate IBS from the shared symptomatology of other diseases with visceral hypersensitivity must be further evaluated.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 147(4): 1027-1039, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945199

RESUMO

Proinflammatory diets are associated with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), however, inconsistencies exist in subsite- and sex-specific associations. The relationship between CRC and combined lifestyle-related factors that contribute toward a low-grade inflammatory profile has not yet been explored. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory potential and an inflammatory profile and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. This cohort included 476,160 participants followed-up of 14 years and 5,991 incident CRC cases (3,897 colon and 2,094 rectal tumors). Dietary inflammatory potential was estimated using an Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD). An Inflammatory Profile Score (IPS) was constructed, incorporating the ISD, physical activity level and abdominal obesity. The associations between the ISD and CRC and IPS and CRC were assessed using multivariable regression models. More proinflammatory diets were related to a higher CRC risk, particularly for colon cancer; hazard ratio (HR) for highest versus lowest ISD quartile was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.27) for CRC, 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.41) for colon cancer and 0.99 (95% CI 0.83-1.17) for rectal cancer. Associations were more pronounced in men and not significant in women. The IPS was associated with CRC risk, particularly colon cancer among men; HRs for the highest versus lowest IPS was 1.62 (95% CI 1.31-2.01) for colon cancer overall and 2.11 (95% CI 1.50-2.97) for colon cancer in men. Our study shows that more proinflammatory diets and a more inflammatory profile are associated with higher risk of CRC, principally colon cancer and in men.

19.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998505

RESUMO

Neuropathy should be considered as a possible etiological factor in patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, without signs of disease on routine investigations. Examinations of the autonomic and peripheral nervous systems may be helpful to select the patients who should be investigated with full-thickness intestinal biopsy, and to give appropriate care.

20.
J Obes ; 2020: 2070297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998533

RESUMO

Sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits affect body weight and body composition. A new syndrome, called normal-weight obesity (NWO), is found in individuals with normal weight and excess body fat in contrast to lean and overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking and alcohol habits and lower versus higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) and to examine whether categorization into lean, NWO, and overweight leads to further information about sociodemographic and lifestyle associations, compared with the common categorization defined by BMI. A cohort of 17,724 participants (9,936 females, 56.1%) from the EpiHealth study, with a median age of 61 (53-67) years, was examined. The participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, and weight and fat percentage were measured. Associations between sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits and lower versus higher BMI, and lean versus NWO or lean and NWO versus overweight were calculated by binary logistic regression. Male sex, age, sick leave/disability, married/cohabitating, divorced/widowed, former smoking, and a high alcohol consumption were associated with higher BMI, whereas higher education and frequent alcohol consumption were inversely associated (all p < 0.001). The associations were similar to associations with lean versus overweight and NWO versus overweight, except for age in the latter case. Associations with lean versus NWO differed from those of lower versus higher BMI, with an association with retirement, an inverse association with male sex (OR, 0.664; 95% confidence interval, 0.591-0.746), and no associations with marital status, smoking, and alcohol consumption frequency. Associations with age and occupation were sex dependent, in contrast to other variables examined. Thus, sociodemographic and lifestyle habits showed similar associations with lower versus higher BMI as with lean and NWO versus overweight, whereas lean versus NWO showed different directions of associations regarding sex, marital status, occupation, smoking, and frequency of alcohol consumption.

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