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1.
Nat Med ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792459

RESUMO

How obesity and elevated androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect their offspring is unclear. In a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort and a clinical case-control study from Chile, we found that daughters of mothers with PCOS were more likely to be diagnosed with PCOS. Furthermore, female mice (F0) with PCOS-like traits induced by late-gestation injection of dihydrotestosterone, with and without obesity, produced female F1-F3 offspring with PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotypes. Sequencing of single metaphase II oocytes from F1-F3 offspring revealed common and unique altered gene expression across all generations. Notably, four genes were also differentially expressed in serum samples from daughters in the case-control study and unrelated women with PCOS. Our findings provide evidence of transgenerational effects in female offspring of mothers with PCOS and identify possible candidate genes for the prediction of a PCOS phenotype in future generations.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002986, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a critical period for bone mass accrual, and late puberty in boys is associated with reduced bone mass in adult men. The role of variations in pubertal timing within the normal range for adult fracture risk in men is, however, unknown. We, therefore, assessed the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV), an objective measure of pubertal timing, and fracture risk in adult men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the BMI Epidemiology Study Gothenburg, 31,971 Swedish men born between January 1, 1945, and December 31, 1961, with detailed growth data (height and weight) available from centrally archived school healthcare records and the conscription register were followed until December 31, 2016. Age at PHV was calculated according to a modified infancy-childhood-puberty model, and fracture information was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. The mean ± SD age at PHV was 14.1 ± 1.1 years. In total, 5,872 men (18.4%) sustained at least 1 fracture after 20 years of age and 5,731 men (17.9%) sustained a non-vertebral fracture after 20 years of age during a mean ± SD follow-up of 37.3 ± 11.7 years. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for birth year and country of origin revealed that age at PHV was associated with the risk of any fracture and non-vertebral fracture. Participants with age at PHV in the highest tertile (after 14.5 years of age) were at greater risk of any fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.22, P < 0.001) and non-vertebral fracture (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.24, P < 0.001) compared with those with age at PHV in the lowest tertile (at 13.6 years of age or younger). Additional adjustments for birthweight, childhood BMI, adult educational level, and young adult height did not attenuate the associations between age at PHV and adult fracture risk. Limitations of this study include the inability to adjust for important risk factors for fracture, inadequate power to assess the relation between pubertal timing and specific fracture types, and the limited generalizability to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that late pubertal timing was associated with increased adult fracture risk in men. These findings suggest that information on pubertal timing might aid in the identification of those men at greatest risk of fracture.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689143

RESUMO

Androgens exert important effects both in androgen-responsive tissues and in the intestinal tract. To determine the impact of the gut microbiota (GM) on intestinal androgen metabolism, we measured unconjugated (free) and glucuronidated androgen levels in intestinal contents from the small intestine, with a low bacterial density, and from cecum and colon, with a high bacterial density. Using a specific, sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we detected high levels of glucuronidated testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in small intestinal content of mice of both sexes, while in the distal intestine, we observed remarkably high levels of free DHT, exceeding serum levels by more than 20-fold. Similarly, in young adult men, high levels of unconjugated DHT, more than 70-fold higher than in serum, were detected in feces. In contrast to mice with a normal GM composition, germ-free mice had high levels of glucuronidated T and DHT, but very low free DHT levels, in the distal intestine. These findings demonstrate that the GM is involved in intestinal metabolism and deglucuronidation of DHT and T, resulting in extremely high free levels of the most potent androgen, DHT, in the colonic content of young and healthy mice and men.

5.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of pubertal BMI change in adult-onset concomitant asthma and allergic rhinitis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of childhood and young adult BMI, and pubertal BMI changes with adult-onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, and concomitant asthma and rhinitis in Swedish men. METHODS: The BMI Epidemiology Study in Gothenburg, Sweden, comprised of height and weight measures taken from school health records (6.5-9.5 years) and during military conscription (17.5-22 years) for all men born 1945-1961 (n = 37 652). Age-adjusted childhood BMI centred at 8 years and young adult BMI at 20 years were linked to high quality data on asthma and allergic rhinitis diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient Register. FINDINGS: High BMI (4th quartile vs the two median quartiles) at 8 years was associated with increased risk of concomitant asthma and allergic rhinitis (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.00-2.11). Overweight (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.12-1.89) and obesity (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.54) at 20 years were associated with increased risk of asthma without concomitant allergic rhinitis as main or auxiliary diagnosis. Pubertal BMI change showed a non-linear association, so that both low (1st quartile vs the two median quartiles) and high pubertal BMI changes were associated with increased risk of asthma (low: HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.11-1.68; high: HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.07-1.63) and asthma without concomitant allergic rhinitis (low: HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69; high: HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.07-1.74) as a main diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both low and high pubertal BMI changes are predictors of adult-onset asthma in men, particularly asthma without concomitant allergic rhinitis. Primary prevention of adult-onset asthma requires monitoring of changes in BMI during puberty.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626711

RESUMO

Preclinical studies on the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in bone metabolism are contradictory. Regeneration models indicate an anabolic effect on bone healing, whereas models on physiologic bone remodeling indicate a catabolic effect on bone mass. No human studies on EPO and fracture risk are available. It is known that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) affects bone mineralization and that serum concentration of FGF23 is higher in men with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Recently, a direct association between EPO and FGF23 has been shown. We have explored the potential association between EPO and bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk, and FGF23 in humans. Plasma levels of EPO were analyzed in 999 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, MrOS Sweden. The mean ± SD EPO was 11.5 ± 9.0 IU/L. Results were stratified by eGFR 60 mL/min. For men with eGFR ≥60 mL/min (n = 728), EPO was associated with age (r = 0.13, p < 0.001), total hip BMD (r = 0.14, p < 0.001), intact (i)FGF23 (r = 0.11, p = 0.004), and osteocalcin (r = -0.09, p = 0.022). The association between total hip BMD and EPO was independent of age, body mass index (BMI), iFGF23, and hemoglobin (beta = 0.019, p < 0.001). During the 10-year follow-up, 164 men had an X-ray-verified fracture, including 117 major osteoporotic fractures (MOF), 39 hip fractures, and 64 vertebral fractures. High EPO was associated with higher risk for incident fractures (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43 per tertile EPO, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.63), MOF (HR = 1.40 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.08-1.82), and vertebral fractures (HR = 1.42 per tertile EPO, 95% CI 1.00-2.01) in a fully adjusted Cox regression model. In men with eGFR<60 mL/min, no association was found between EPO and BMD or fracture risk. We here demonstrate that high levels of EPO are associated with increased fracture risk and increased BMD in elderly men with normal renal function. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: IGF-I is anabolic for cartilage and important for cartilage integrity, which might suggest a connection between IGF-I and osteoarthritis (OA) development. However, the results of studies performed so far are conflicting and we aimed to clarify the role of endocrine IGF-I in rodent OA. METHODS: Male mice with inducible inactivation of circulating, liver-derived IGF-I (LI-IGF-I-/- mice, serum IGF-I reduced by ~80%) were used. Experimental OA was induced in young adult LI-IGF-I-/- and control mice by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM); age-related OA was also evaluated in 1-year-old mice. RESULTS: DMM-operated LI-IGF-I-/- mice had thinner lateral subchondral bone plate in tibia compared to control mice, whereas osteophyte volume and articular cartilage damage were unaffected at the medial side of the DMM-knee. However, the control mice but not the LI-IGF-I-/- mice also developed a mild OA on the lateral side of the DMM-knee compared to the un-operated knee. One-year-old LI-IGF-I-/- mice had lower mid-diaphyseal cortical bone area than the 1-year-old control mice, whereas analyses of joint tissues displayed smaller osteophyte volume and thicker calcified cartilage than the control mice. There was no difference in OA severity in the articular cartilage between old LI-IGF-I-/- and control mice. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to investigate whether there is an association between circulating IGF-I and OA in mice. We conclude that although an ~80% reduction of circulating IGF-I is associated with reduced amount of cortical bone, OA development is clearly not intensified, and may instead be slightly reduced, in male LI-IGF-I-/- mice.

8.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434056

RESUMO

Estrogens may affect bone growth locally or systemically via the known estrogen receptors ERα, ERß and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1). Mouse and human growth plate chondrocytes have been demonstrated to express GPER-1 and ablation of this receptor increased bone length in mice. Therefore, GPER-1 is an attractive target for therapeutic modulation of bone growth, which has never been explored. To investigate the effects of activated GPER-1 on the growth plate, we locally exposed mouse metatarsal bones to different concentrations of the selective GPER-1 agonist G1 for 14 days ex vivo. The results showed that none of the concentrations of G1 had any direct effect on metatarsal bone growth when compared to control. To evaluate if GPER-1 stimulation may systemically modulate bone growth, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were treated with G1 or, ß-estradiol (E2). Similarly, G1 did not influence tibia and femur growth in treated mice. As expected, E2 treatment suppressed bone growth in vivo. We conclude that ligand stimulation of GPER-1 does not influence bone growth in mice.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 2132, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436027
10.
FASEB J ; 33(10): 11163-11179, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307226

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Currently used osteoporosis treatments substantially reduce vertebral fracture risk, whereas nonvertebral fracture risk, mainly caused by reduced cortical bone mass, has only moderately been improved by the osteoporosis drugs used, defining an unmet medical need. Because several wingless-type MMTV integration site family members (WNTs) and modulators of WNT activity are major regulators of bone mass, we hypothesized that NOTUM, a secreted WNT lipase, might modulate bone mass via an inhibition of WNT activity. To characterize the possible role of endogenous NOTUM as a physiologic modulator of bone mass, we developed global, cell-specific, and inducible Notum-inactivated mouse models. Notum expression was high in the cortical bone in mice, and conditional Notum inactivation revealed that osteoblast lineage cells are the principal source of NOTUM in the cortical bone. Osteoblast lineage-specific Notum inactivation increased cortical bone thickness via an increased periosteal circumference. Inducible Notum inactivation in adult mice increased cortical bone thickness as a result of increased periosteal bone formation, and silencing of Notum expression in cultured osteoblasts enhanced osteoblast differentiation. Large-scale human genetic analyses identified genetic variants mapping to the NOTUM locus that are strongly associated with bone mineral density (BMD) as estimated with quantitative ultrasound in the heel. Thus, osteoblast-derived NOTUM is an essential local physiologic regulator of cortical bone mass via effects on periosteal bone formation in adult mice, and genetic variants in the NOTUM locus are associated with BMD variation in adult humans. Therapies targeting osteoblast-derived NOTUM may prevent nonvertebral fractures.-Movérare-Skrtic, S., Nilsson, K. H., Henning, P., Funck-Brentano, T., Nethander, M., Rivadeneira, F., Coletto Nunes, G., Koskela, A., Tuukkanen, J., Tuckermann, J., Perret, C., Souza, P. P. C., Lerner, U. H., Ohlsson, C. Osteoblast-derived NOTUM reduces cortical bone mass in mice and the NOTUM locus is associated with bone mineral density in humans.

11.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329245

RESUMO

Importance: A secular trend for earlier menarcheal age has been established in girls but there are few studies of pubertal timing for boys. Objective: To determine if there is a secular trend for earlier pubertal timing among boys. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this population-based retrospective cohort study conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected heights and weights from school health records for boys born consecutively from January 1 and onwards in 1947 and every 5 years from 1951 to 1996 (n = 375 for each birth cohort from 1947-1991, n = 340 for the birth cohort in 1996, and n = 4090 for the total cohort). We estimated age at the peak height velocity (PHV), the maximum growth velocity during puberty, and childhood body mass index (BMI) at age 8 years for all study participants. The data were analyzed during 2018 and 2019. Boys were eligible if they had a complete personal identity number and data to calculate their age at PHV and childhood BMI. Approximately 2.4% of the original study population was excluded because they lacked a personal identity number, and in the remaining study population, 4090 (69%) had sufficient data to calculate childhood BMI and age at PHV. Exposures: The exposure was birth year and a potential confounding factor was childhood BMI. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was age at PHV. Results: Of the 4090 participants, most were white and the mean (SD) age at PHV was 13.9 (1.1) years. A linear regression model revealed a significant association between year of birth and age at PHV. Age at PHV was 1.5 months earlier for every decade increase in birth year (95% CI, -1.72 to -1.19; P < .001). After adjusting for childhood BMI, age at PHV was 1.2 months earlier per decade increase in birth year (95% CI, -1.41 to -0.89). All analyses were repeated in the subgroup of boys born in Sweden and with parents born in Sweden with similar results, indicating that the secular trend was not explained by demographic changes in the population between 1947 and 1996. Conclusions and Relevance: We provide evidence of a secular trend for earlier pubertal timing in boys that is partially explained by an increased childhood BMI, but other factors that are unknown contribute.

12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(10): 1824-1836, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170332

RESUMO

In bone, sclerostin is mainly osteocyte-derived and plays an important local role in adaptive responses to mechanical loading. Whether circulating levels of sclerostin also play a functional role is currently unclear, which we aimed to examine by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). A genetic instrument for circulating sclerostin, derived from a genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of serum sclerostin in 10,584 European-descent individuals, was examined in relation to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD; n = 32,744) in GEFOS and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) by heel ultrasound (n = 426,824) and fracture risk (n = 426,795) in UK Biobank. Our GWAS identified two novel serum sclerostin loci, B4GALNT3 (standard deviation [SD]) change in sclerostin per A allele (ß = 0.20, p = 4.6 × 10-49 ) and GALNT1 (ß = 0.11 per G allele, p = 4.4 × 10-11 ). B4GALNT3 is an N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase, adding a terminal LacdiNAc disaccharide to target glycocoproteins, found to be predominantly expressed in kidney, whereas GALNT1 is an enzyme causing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic instruments, MR revealed an inverse causal relationship between serum sclerostin and femoral neck BMD (ß = -0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.20 to -0.05) and eBMD (ß = -0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.10), and a positive relationship with fracture risk (ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21). Colocalization analysis demonstrated common genetic signals within the B4GALNT3 locus for higher sclerostin, lower eBMD, and greater B4GALNT3 expression in arterial tissue (probability >99%). Our findings suggest that higher sclerostin levels are causally related to lower BMD and greater fracture risk. Hence, strategies for reducing circulating sclerostin, for example by targeting glycosylation enzymes as suggested by our GWAS results, may prove valuable in treating osteoporosis. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1634-1641, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no curative treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), which is the most common form of arthritis. This study was undertaken to identify causal risk factors of knee, hip, and hand OA. METHODS: Individual-level data from 384,838 unrelated participants in the UK Biobank study were analyzed. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to test for causality for body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (BP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The primary outcome measure was OA determined using hospital diagnoses (all sites, n = 48,431; knee, n = 19,727; hip, n = 11,875; hand, n = 2,330). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: MR analyses demonstrated a robust causal association of genetically determined BMI with all OA (OR per SD increase 1.57 [95% CI 1.44-1.71]), and with knee OA and hip OA, but not with hand OA. Increased genetically determined femoral neck BMD was causally associated with all OA (OR per SD increase 1.14 [95% CI 1.06-1.22]), knee OA, and hip OA. Low systolic BP was causally associated with all OA (OR per SD decrease 1.55 [95% CI 1.29-1.87]), knee OA, and hip OA. There was no evidence of causality for the other tested metabolic factors or CRP level. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that BMI exerts a major causal effect on the risk of OA at weight-bearing joints, but not at the hand. Evidence of causality of all OA, knee OA, and hip OA was also observed for high femoral neck BMD and low systolic BP. However, we found no evidence of causality for other metabolic factors or CRP level.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 974-979, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of childhood and pubertal body mass index (BMI) for the risk of adult colorectal cancer is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent associations for childhood BMI and pubertal BMI change with risk of colorectal cancer in men. METHODS: We included 37,663 men born in 1946 to 1961 who had weight and height measured at 8 (childhood) and 20 (young adult age) years of age available from the BMI Epidemiology Study. Information on colorectal cancer was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register (257 cases of colon cancer and 159 cases of rectal cancer). RESULTS: Childhood BMI at 8 years of age [HR, 1.19 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.33], but not pubertal BMI change (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.15), was associated with increased risk of colon cancer. Due to a significant interaction between childhood BMI and pubertal BMI change (P < 0.001), we stratified the analyses according to the median of pubertal BMI change. Childhood BMI was associated with risk of colon cancer in individuals with a pubertal BMI change above, but not below, the median (above: HR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.26-1.74; below: HR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.80-1.12). Neither childhood BMI nor pubertal BMI change was associated with rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High childhood BMI was associated with increased risk of colon cancer only if it was followed by a pubertal BMI increase above the median. IMPACT: Further studies should evaluate prepubertal childhood BMI in relation to pubertal BMI change and BMI in middle age for the risk of colon cancer.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 90, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of high-risk individuals for fractures are needed. This study assessed whether level of physical activity (PA) and a musculoskeletal composite score could be used as fracture predictive tools, and if the score could predict fractures better than areal bone mineral density (aBMD). METHODS: MrOs Sweden is a prospective population-based observational study that at baseline included 3014 men aged 69-81 years. We assessed femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC), bone area, aBMD and total body lean mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, calcaneal speed of sound by quantitative ultrasound and hand grip strength by a handheld dynamometer. PA was assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire. We followed the participants until the date of first fracture, death or relocation (median 9.6 years). A musculoskeletal composite score was calculated as mean Z-score of the five measured traits. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the association between the musculoskeletal traits, the composite score and incident fractures (yes/no) during the follow-up period. Data are presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fracture for a + 1 standard deviation (SD) change (+ 1 Z-score) in the various musculoskeletal traits as well as the composite score. We used a linear regression model to estimate the association between level of PA, measured as PASE-score and the different musculoskeletal traits as well as the composite score. RESULTS: A + 1 SD higher composite score was associated with an incident fracture HR of 0.61 (0.54, 0.69), however not being superior to aBMD in fracture prediction. A + 1 SD higher PASE-score was associated with both a higher composite score and lower fracture incidence (HR 0.83 (0.76, 0.90)). CONCLUSIONS: The composite score was similar to femoral neck aBMD in predicting fractures, and also low PA predicted fractures. This highlights the need of randomized controlled trials to evaluate if PA could be used as a fracture preventive strategy.

17.
Endocrinology ; 160(5): 1057-1064, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888399

RESUMO

Both fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), by binding to FGF receptors (FGFRs), and activation of the gravitostat, by artificial loading, decrease the body weight (BW). Previous studies demonstrate that both the FGF system and loading have the capacity to regulate BW independently of leptin. The aim of the current study was to determine the possible interactions between the effect of increased loading and the FGF system for the regulation of BW. We observed that the BW-reducing effect of increased loading was abolished in mice treated with a monoclonal antibody directed against FGFR1c, suggesting interactions between the two systems. As serum levels of endocrine FGF21 and hepatic FGF21 mRNA were increased in the loaded mice compared with the control mice, we first evaluated the loading response in FGF21 over expressing mice with constant high FGF21 levels. Leptin treatment, but not increased loading, decreased the BW in the FGF21-overexpressing mice, demonstrating that specifically the loading effect is attenuated in the presence of high activity in the FGF system. However, as FGF21 knockout mice displayed a normal loading response on BW, FGF21 is neither mediating nor essential for the loading response. In conclusion, the BW-reducing effect of increased loading but not of leptin treatment is blocked by high activity in the FGF system. We propose that both the gravitostat and the FGF system regulate BW independently of leptin and that pharmacologically enhanced activity in the FGF system reduces the sensitivity of the gravitostat.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 777, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770815

RESUMO

Androgen receptor (AR) is regulated by SUMOylation at its transactivation domain. In vitro, the SUMOylation is linked to transcriptional repression and/or target gene-selective regulation. Here, we generated a mouse model (ArKI) in which the conserved SUMO acceptor lysines of AR are permanently abolished (ArK381R, K500R). ArKI males develop normally, without apparent defects in their systemic androgen action in reproductive tissues. However, the ArKI males are infertile. Their spermatogenesis appears unaffected, but their epididymal sperm maturation is defective, shown by severely compromised motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm. Fittingly, their epididymal AR chromatin-binding and gene expression associated with sperm maturation and function are misregulated. AR is SUMOylated in the wild-type epididymis but not in the testis, which could explain the tissue-specific response to the lack of AR SUMOylation. Our studies thus indicate that epididymal AR SUMOylation is essential for the post-testicular sperm maturation and normal reproductive capability of male mice.


Assuntos
Epididimo/metabolismo , Epididimo/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Epididimo/patologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Sumoilação/genética , Sumoilação/fisiologia
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