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1.
Pain ; 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048529

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Co-occurring pain conditions that affect overlapping body regions are complicated by the distinction between primary versus secondary pain conditions. We investigate the occurrence of headache and painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a community-based, cross-sectional study of U.S. adults in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA-II) study. A specific goal was to determine if headache attributed to TMD is separable from primary headache.Using DC/TMD and ICHD-3 criteria, three groups of individuals were created: a) headache without TMD; b) headache comorbid with TMD; and c) headache attributed to TMD. Regression models compared study groups according to demographic and comorbid characteristics, and post-hoc contrasts tested for differences. Descriptive statistics and Cohen's d effect size were computed, by group, for each predictor variable. Differences in continuous predictors were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.Nearly all demographic and comorbid variables distinguished the combined headache and TMD groups from the group with headache alone. Relative to the reference group with primary headache alone, markers related to headache, TMD, somatic pain processing, psychosocial, and health conditions were substantially greater in both headache comorbid with TMD and headache attributed to TMD, attesting to their qualitative similarities. However, effect sizes relative to the reference group were large for headache comorbid with TMD and larger again for headache attributed to TMD, attesting to their separability in quantitative terms.In summary, the presence of overlapping painful TMD and headache adds substantially to the biopsychosocial burden of headache and points to the importance of comprehensive assessment and differential management.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013515, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a group of musculoskeletal disorders affecting the jaw. They are frequently associated with pain that can be difficult to manage and may become persistent (chronic). Psychological therapies aim to support people with TMDs to manage their pain, leading to reduced pain, disability and distress. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in people (aged 12 years and over) with painful TMD lasting 3 months or longer. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched six bibliographic databases up to 21 October 2021 and used additional search methods to identify published, unpublished and ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any psychological therapy (e.g. cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness) for the management of painful TMD. We compared these against control or alternative treatment (e.g. oral appliance, medication, physiotherapy). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We reported outcome data immediately after treatment and at the longest available follow-up. We used the Cochrane RoB 1 tool to assess the risk of bias in included studies. Two review authors independently assessed each included study for any risk of bias in sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting of outcomes, and other issues. We judged the certainty of the evidence for each key comparison and outcome as high, moderate, low or very low according to GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 22 RCTs (2001 participants), carried out between 1967 and 2021. We were able to include 12 of these studies in meta-analyses. The risk of bias was high across studies, and we judged the certainty of the evidence to be low to very low overall; further research may change the findings. Our key outcomes of interest were: pain intensity, disability caused by pain, adverse events and psychological distress. Treatments varied in length, with the shortest being 4 weeks. The follow-up time ranged from 3 months to 12 months. Most studies evaluated CBT.   At treatment completion, there was no evidence of a benefit of CBT on pain intensity when measured against alternative treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.03, confidence interval (CI) -0.21 to 0.28; P = 0.79; 5 studies, 509 participants) or control (SMD -0.09, CI -0.30 to 0.12; P = 0.41; 6 studies, 577 participants). At follow-up, there was evidence of a small benefit of CBT for reducing pain intensity compared to alternative treatment (SMD -0.29, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.08; 5 studies, 475 participants) and control (SMD -0.30, CI -0.51 to -0.09; 6 studies, 639 participants). At treatment completion, there was no evidence of a difference in disability outcomes (interference in activities caused by pain) between CBT and alternative treatment (SMD 0.15, CI -0.40 to 0.10; P = 0.25; 3 studies, 245 participants), or between CBT and control/usual care (SMD 0.02, CI -0.21 to 0.24; P = 0.88; 3 studies, 315 participants). Nor was there evidence of a difference at follow-up (CBT versus alternative treatment: SMD -0.15, CI -0.42 to 0.12; 3 studies, 245 participants; CBT versus control: SMD 0.01 CI - 0.61 to 0.64; 2 studies, 240 participants). There were very few data on adverse events. From the data available, adverse effects associated with psychological treatment tended to be minor and to occur less often than in alternative treatment groups. There were, however, insufficient data available to draw firm conclusions. CBT showed a small benefit in terms of reducing psychological distress at treatment completion compared to alternative treatment (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.15; 6 studies, 553 participants), which was maintained at follow-up (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.13; 6 studies, 516 participants). For CBT versus control, only one study reported results for distress and did not find evidence of a difference between groups at treatment completion (mean difference (MD) 2.36, 95% CI -1.17 to 5.89; 101 participants) or follow-up (MD -1.02, 95% CI -4.02 to 1.98; 101 participants). We assessed the certainty of the evidence to be low or very low for all comparisons and outcomes. The data were insufficient to draw any reliable conclusions about psychological therapies other than CBT. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found mixed evidence for the effects of psychological therapies on painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may reduce pain intensity more than alternative treatments or control when measured at longest follow-up,  but not at treatment completion. There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may be better than alternative treatments, but not control, for reducing psychological distress at treatment completion and follow-up. There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may not be better than other treatments or control for pain disability outcomes.  There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about alternative psychological therapeutic approaches, and there are insufficient data to be clear about adverse effects that may be associated with psychological therapies for painful TMD.  Overall, we found insufficient evidence on which to base a reliable judgement about the efficacy of psychological therapies for painful TMD. Further research is needed to determine whether or not psychological therapies are effective, the most effective type of therapy and delivery method, and how it can best be targeted. In particular, high-quality RCTs conducted in primary care and community settings are required, which evaluate a range of psychological approaches against alternative treatments or usual care, involve both adults and adolescents, and collect measures of pain intensity, pain disability and psychological distress until at least 12 months post-treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia
3.
Br Dent J ; 233(3): 232-233, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962105

RESUMO

In January 2019, the United States National Academy of Medicine initiated a comprehensive study of the status of current knowledge and clinical practices associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The National Academy of Sciences, which includes the National Academy of Medicine, was chartered by the US Government in the late 1800s as a non-profit institution working outside of government in order to provide unbiased, objective opinions on matters including healthcare. In this brief paper, we will discuss the open access 2020 report Temporomandibular disorders: priorities for research and care, available online. While the main focus of this report was the situation of TMDs in the US, the evidence base, authorship, expertise and literature scope was international and the findings therefore are at least in part generalisable to and important for the UK.The authors of this commentary were directly involved in the National Academy process, with RO a panel member, JD a consultant and CG one of 15 reviewers of the draft report. There was a wide variety of clinical and research fields involved in gathering the evidence and constructing the report. In addition, there was extensive involvement from affected patients with TMDs and their families, which is critical because their perspective is typically omitted in textbooks and professional consensus meetings.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in pain regulation. This study sought to determine whether free PUFAs found in red blood cells also play a role in nociceptive processing. We examined associations between circulating PUFAs and nociceptive thresholds to noxious mechanical stimuli. We also determined whether nociceptive thresholds were associated with nociplastic pain conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used stored red bloods cells and data from 605 adult participants in the OPPERA-2 study of chronic overlapping pain conditions. In OPPERA-2 adults completed quantitative sensory testing in which pressure algometry measured deep muscular tissue sensitivity at six anatomical sites. Standardized protocols classified adults for presence or absence of five nociplastic pain conditions: temporomandibular disorder, headache, low back pain, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy quantified erythrocyte PUFAs. We conducted three sets of analyses. First, a multivariable linear regression model assessed the association between n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and the number of overlapping nociplastic pain conditions. Second, a series of 36 multivariable linear regression models assessed covariate-adjusted associations between PUFAs and nociceptive thresholds at each of six anatomical sites. Third, a series of 30 multivariable linear regression models assessed covariate-adjusted associations between nociceptive thresholds at six anatomical sites and each of five pain conditions. RESULTS: In multiple linear regression, each unit increase in n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was associated with more pain conditions (ß = 0.30, 95% confidence limits: 0.07, 0.53, p = 0.012). Omega-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were negatively associated with lower nociceptive thresholds at three and at five, respectively, anatomical sites. In contrast, omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio were not associated with nociceptive thresholds at any site. Pain cases had significantly lower nociceptive thresholds than non-case controls at all anatomical sites. CONCLUSION: A higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was associated with more pain conditions. Omega-6 PUFAs may promote a generalized upregulation of nociceptive processing.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Limiar da Dor
5.
J Pain ; 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697285

RESUMO

Preclinical studies demonstrate opposing effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites on inflammation and nociception. Omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs amplify both processes while omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs inhibit them. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between PUFAs in circulating erythrocytes and 2 chronic idiopathic pain conditions: temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and low back pain in a community-based sample of 503 U.S. adults. Presence or absence of TMD and low back pain, respectively, were determined by clinical examination and by responses to established screening questions. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantified PUFAs. In multivariable logistic regression models, a higher ratio of n-6/n-3 long-chain PUFAs was associated with greater odds of TMD (odds ratio ((OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.16, 2.64) and low back pain (OR = 1.63, 95% CL: 1.07, 2.49). Higher levels of the pronociceptive n-6 long-chain arachidonic acid (AA) were associated with a greater probability of both pain conditions for women, but not men. Higher levels of the antinociceptive long-chain n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were associated with a lower probability of both pain conditions for men, but not women. As systemic inflammation is not a hallmark of these conditions, PUFAs may influence idiopathic pain through other mechanisms. PERSPECTIVE: This cross-sectional clinical study found that a higher ratio of circulating n-6/n-3 long-chain PUFAs was associated with greater odds of 2 common chronic overlapping pain conditions. This suggests that the pro and antinociceptive properties of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, respectively, influence pain independently of their well-established inflammatory pathways.

8.
J Pain ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477107

RESUMO

Somatic symptom disturbance is among the strongest predictors of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Related psychological constructs, such as anxiety and depression, respond therapeutically to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in clinical trials. This cross-sectional study investigated associations between the omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio and somatic symptom disturbance and depressive symptoms in a community-based sample of 501 adults and determined whether these associations differed between adults with and without TMD or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantified PUFAs in circulating erythrocytes. Somatic symptoms and depression were quantified using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised subscales. Presence or absence of TMD and IBS, respectively, were determined by clinical examination and Rome III screening questions. The standardized beta coefficient for the omega-6/omega-3 long-chain PUFA ratio was 0.26 (95% confidence limits (CL): 0.08, 0.43) in a multivariable linear regression model in which somatic symptom disturbance was the dependent variable. When modelling depressive symptoms as the dependent variable, the standardized beta coefficient was 0.17 (95% CL:0.01, 0.34). Both associations were stronger among TMD cases and IBS cases than among non-cases. Future randomized control trials that lower the omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio could consider somatic or depressive symptoms as a therapeutic target for TMD or IBS pain. PERSPECTIVE: In people with TMD or IBS, a high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was positively associated with somatic symptom disturbance and depressive symptoms. Both measures of psychological distress were elevated in people with painful TMD and IBS. Future randomized clinical trials will determine whether lowering the n-6/n-3 ratio is therapeutic for pain.

9.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 36(1): 26-35, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298573

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate how trait anxiety and stress jointly affect the sensory and jaw motor responses to a tonic orofacial nociceptive stimulus. METHODS: Orthodontic separators were placed between the first molars in 45 adults with low (n = 14), intermediate (n = 17), and high (n = 14) trait anxiety. Tooth pain, occlusal discomfort, tooth clenching (as a jaw motor behavior), and situational stress were measured three times a day for 5 days using visual analog scales. Mixed-effects regression models were used to evaluate the sensory and motor outcome measures. RESULTS: Pain, discomfort, and frequency of tooth-clenching trajectories were affected by trait anxiety (P = .007, P < .001, and P = .055, respectively) and stress (P < .001, P < .001, and P = .044, respectively). Individuals with high anxiety reported their highest pain (17.7 ± 2.9 mm) and discomfort (35.2 ± 4.1 mm) 24 hours earlier than those with low anxiety (pain: 15.9 ± 2.6 mm, discomfort: 28.8 ± 3.7 mm). Tooth clenching decreased progressively in response to the stimulus (P < .001). CONCLUSION: A tonic orofacial nociceptive stimulus triggers an avoidance jaw motor behavior. Both trait anxiety and situational stress heighten the sensory response to such a stimulus, but weakly affect the motor response to it.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Nociceptividade , Adulto , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor , Estresse Psicológico
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(2): 144-157, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients often seek consultation with dentists for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The objectives of this article were to describe the methods of a large prospective cohort study of painful TMD management, practitioners' and patients' characteristics, and practitioners' initial treatment recommendations conducted by The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (the "network"). METHODS: Participating dentists recruited into this study treated patients seeking treatment for painful TMDs. The authors developed self-report instruments based on well-accepted instruments. The authors collected demographics, biopsychosocial characteristics, TMD symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, treatment adherence, and painful TMDs and jaw function outcomes through 6 months. RESULTS: Participating dentists were predominately White (76.8%) and male (62.2%), had a mean age of 52 years, and were general practitioners (73.5%) with 23.8% having completed an orofacial pain residency. Of the 1,901 patients with painful TMDs recruited, the predominant demographics were White (84.3%) and female (83.3%). Patients' mean age was 44 years, 88.8% self-reported good to excellent health, and 85.9% had education beyond high school. Eighty-two percent had pain or stiffness of the jaw on awakening, and 40.3% had low-intensity pain. The most frequent diagnoses were myalgia (72.4%) and headache attributed to TMDs (51.0%). Self-care instruction (89.4%), intraoral appliances (75.4%), and medications (57.6%) were recommended frequently. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of this TMD cohort include those typical of US patients with painful TMDs. Network practitioners typically managed TMDs using conservative treatments. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study provides credible data regarding painful TMDs and TMD management provided by network practitioners across the United States. Knowledge acquired of treatment recommendations and patient reports may support future research and improve dental school curricula.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adulto , Dor Facial/terapia , Feminino , Cefaleia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autocuidado , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia
13.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(3): 241-250.e10, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review was designed to evaluate the presence of comorbid conditions among patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors reviewed studies that reported the prevalence or incidence of chronic pain conditions or psychiatric disorders (anxiety, mood, personality disorders) among patients with any type of TMD. The authors calculated sample size-weighted prevalence estimates when data were reported in 2 or more studies for the same comorbid condition. RESULTS: A total of 9 prevalence studies and no incidence studies were eligible for review; 8 of the studies examined chronic pain comorbidities. Weighted estimates showed high prevalence of pain comorbidities across studies, including current chronic back pain (66%), myofascial syndrome (50%), chronic stomach pain (50%), chronic migraine headache (40%), irritable bowel syndrome (19%), and fibromyalgia (14%). A single study examined psychiatric disorders and found that current depression was the most prevalent disorder identified (17.5%). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is a high prevalence of comorbid chronic pain conditions among patients with TMDs, with more than 50% of patients reporting chronic back pain, myofascial syndrome, and chronic stomach pain. Psychiatric disorders among patients with different types of TMDs were studied less commonly in this pain population. Knowledge of the distribution of these and other comorbid disease conditions among patients with different types of TMDs can help dentists and other health care providers to identify personalized treatment strategies, including the coordination of care across medical specialties.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Fibromialgia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia
14.
J Oral Rehabil ; 49(5): 541-552, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike the psychosocial assessment established for adults in the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), a standardised psychosocial assessment for children and adolescents with TMD complaints has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: To develop a new standardised instrument set to assess the psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents by adapting the psychosocial status and pain-related disability (Axis II) of the adult DC/TMD and by including new instruments. METHODS: A modified Delphi method was used to survey 23 international TMD experts and four international experts in pain-related psychological factors for consensus regarding assessment tools for psychosocial functioning and pain-related disability in children and adolescents. The TMD experts reviewed 29 Axis II statements at round 1, 13 at round 2 and 2 at round 3. Agreement was set at 80% for first-round consensus level and 70% for each of the second and third rounds. The psychological experts completed a complementary Delphi survey to reach a consensus on tools to use to assess more complex psychological domains in children and adolescents. For the psychological experts, the first round included 10 open-ended questions on preferred screening tools for depression, anxiety, catastrophising, sleep problems and stress in children (ages 6-9 years old) and adolescents (ages 10-19 years old) as well as on other domains suggested for investigation. In the second round, the psychological experts received a 9-item questionnaire to prioritise the suggested instruments from most to least recommended. RESULTS: The TMD experts, after three Delphi rounds, reached consensus on the changes of DC/TMD to create a form to evaluate Axis II in children and adolescents with TMD complaints. The psychological experts added tools to assess depression and anxiety, sleep disorders, catastrophising, stress and resilience. CONCLUSION: Through international expert consensus, this study adapted Axis II of the adult DC/TMD to assess psychosocial functioning and pain-related disability in children and adolescents. The adapted Axis II protocols will be validated in the target populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Dor , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin J Pain ; 38(2): 119-131, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 1-month Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) commonly used in clinical studies has never been validated. This study compares the GCPS 1-month with the 6 months version for reliability and validity. METHODS: The Validation Project included 521 participants with at least one temporomandibular disorder for cross-sectional data and 74 participants for test-retest data. Internal reliability, stability, and construct validity were used for testing the 1-month version. Comparisons were made between the 2 versions for characteristic pain intensity (CPI), interference, and chronic pain grade (CPG). RESULTS: For GCPS 1-month, internal consistency for pain intensity and interference was high (Cronbach α=0.87 and 0.94, respectively), and temporal stability was high for CPI (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.91), interference (ICC=0.85), and CPG (weighted κ=0.88). ICC or κ between the 2 versions was 0.78 (CPI), 0.66 (interference), and 0.69 (CPG); high-impact pain, in contrast, was 0.50. Construct validity exhibited higher correlations with predictor variables for 1-month version attributes of CPI, interference, and CPG. Modified Bland-Altman plots indicated that both versions measure CPI well. DISCUSSION: Overall, reliability of the 1-month GCPS is equal to or better than the 6-months version for pain intensity, disability days, pain interference, CPG, and high-impact pain. However, consistency between versions is lower for measures of disability days and interference, and for the derived measures of CPG and high-impact pain; highly skewed distributions and increasing disagreement in reported status over the time periods affect the measures of function. Therefore, we recommend that GCPS-1 month only be used to calculate pain intensity and pain interference.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(10): 1099-1108, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many different types of oral overuse behaviours occur frequently in adult populations with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Less is known regarding these behaviours and their associations with TMDs in university students. OBJECTIVES: Test the association between frequency of different oral overuse behaviours evaluated by the Oral Behaviour Checklist (OBC) and the severity of painful TMDs. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1381 students from 19 universities in the Oporto District, Portugal, completed the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Personal History Questionnaire and the OBC, and they received an RDC/TMD clinical examination. The OBC sum score (ranging from 0 to 84 points) was classified as normal (0 ≤ 16 points), low overuse (17 ≤ 24) or high overuse (≥25). Painful TMD subtypes (myalgia, arthralgia or combined) were identified. Associations were tested using multivariable binary logistic regression models (α = .05), adjusted for age and sex, and referencing the normal parafunction group. RESULTS: University students with high overuse were more likely to have a painful TMD: myalgia (OR = 1.9, 95% CL: 1.3-3.0); arthralgia (OR = 2.2; 95% CL: 1.4-3.4), combined (OR = 5.0; 95% CL: 3.1-8.1). Students with low overuse were more likely to have only the combined painful TMD (OR = 2.4; 95% CL: 1.4-4.0) but not the individual painful disorders. Of the 21 different behaviours, 13 were reported at least 50% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: In this university student sample, oral overuse behaviours are widespread, and their overall extent exhibited a dose-response relationship with respect to severity of painful TMDs based on pain and chronicity. Only some behaviours were independently associated with painful TMDs, suggesting the value of further OBC instrument development.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Universidades , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dor Facial , Humanos , Mialgia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia
18.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(9): 996-1003, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between waking-state oral behaviours and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subgroups and to develop new scoring methods for the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC). METHODS: Patients with any TMD diagnosis, according to the diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD), were divided into subgroups: 'Dysfunctional-TMD' (n = 70), only mechanical dysfunction; 'Painful-TMD' (n = 204), only myalgia, arthralgia or both; and 'Painful-Dysfunctional TMD' (n = 95), combined pain and dysfunction. A group of individuals without TMD, 'Non-TMD' (n = 374), was used for testing associations. Participants completed the OBC. An exploratory factor analysis, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis of the OBC responses, identified 2 major factors, named non-functional activities (NFA) and functional activities (FA). Component total scores were computed. Differences among subgroups for OBC-MS (mean score) and NFA and FA factor scores were estimated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Significance was set at p < .05. RESULTS: The OBC-MS in Non-TMD, Painful-TMD and Painful-Dysfunctional TMD subgroups was higher than in the Dysfunctional-TMD subgroup (p ≤ .001). NFA in Painful-TMD and Painful-Dysfunctional TMD subgroups were higher than in the Non-TMD group (p < .05); NFA in the Dysfunctional-TMD subgroup were lower than in the Painful-TMD subgroup (p = .034). In contrast, FA in Painful-TMD, Dysfunctional-TMD and Painful-Dysfunctional TMD subgroups were lower than in the Non-TMD group (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: A new scoring method for the OBC results in item reduction and creation of meaningful subscales for functional and non-functional behaviours, which are differentially associated with painful and dysfunctional TMDs. This may help clinicians to better tailor treatment for the management of subtypes of TMD patients.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Artralgia , Dor Facial , Humanos , Mialgia
19.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 35(2): 105-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129655

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the relationship between hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and painful symptoms, particularly those associated with headache and painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). METHODS: Data from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) prospective cohort study were used. During the 2.5-year median follow-up period, quarterly health update (QHU) questionnaires were completed by 1,475 women aged 18 to 44 years who did not have TMD, menopause, hysterectomy, or hormone replacement therapy use at baseline. QHU questionnaires evaluated HC use, symptoms of headache and TMD, and pain of ≥ 1 day duration in 12 body regions. Participants who developed TMD symptoms were examined to classify clinical TMD. Headache symptoms were classified based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD-3). Associations between HC use and pain symptoms were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and Cox models. RESULTS: HC use, endorsed in 33.7% of QHU questionnaires, was significantly associated with concurrent symptoms of TMD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.35) and headache (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.43). HC use was also significantly associated with concurrent pain of ≥ 1 day duration in the head (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.63), face (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.83), and legs (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.47), but not elsewhere. Initiation of HC use was associated with increased odds of subsequent TMD symptoms (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.66) and pain of ≥ 1 day in the head (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.85). Discontinuing HC use was associated with lower odds of subsequent headache (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.99). HC use was not significantly associated with subsequent onset of examiner-classified TMD. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that HC influences craniofacial pain, and that this pain diminishes after cessation of HC use.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Dor Facial , Dor Facial/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 42, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Headache attributed to Temporomandibular Disorder (HATMD) is a secondary headache that may have features resulting in diagnostic overlap with primary headaches, namely, tension-type (TTH) or migraine. This cross-sectional study of people with both chronic myogenous TMD and primary headaches evaluated characteristics associated with HATMD. METHODS: From a clinical trial of adults, baseline data were used from a subset with diagnoses of both TMD myalgia according to the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and TTH or migraine according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. HATMD was classified based on the DC/TMD. Questionnaires and examinations evaluated 42 characteristics of facial pain, headache, general health, psychological distress, and experimental pain sensitivity. Univariate regression models quantified the associations of each characteristic with HATMD (present versus absent), headache type (TTH versus migraine), and their interaction in a factorial design. Multivariable lasso regression identified the most important predictors of HATMD. RESULTS: Of 185 participants, 114 (61.6%) had HATMD, while the numbers with TTH (n = 98, 53.0%) and migraine (n = 87, 47.0%) were similar. HATMD was more likely among migraineurs (61/87 = 70.1%) than participants with TTH (53/98 = 54.1%; odds ratio = 2.0; 95%CL = 1.1, 3.7). In univariate analyses, characteristics associated with HATMD included pain-free jaw opening and examination-evoked pain in masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints (TMJ) as well as frequency and impact of headache, but not frequency or impact of facial pain. Lowered blood pressure but not psychological or sensory characteristics was associated with HATMD. Multiple characteristics of facial pain, headache, general health, and psychological distress differed between TTH or migraine groups. Few interactions were observed, demonstrating that most characteristics' associations with HATMD were consistent in TTH and migraine groups. The lasso model identified headache frequency and examination-evoked muscle pain as the most important predictors of HATMD. CONCLUSIONS: HATMD is highly prevalent among patients with chronic myogenous TMD and headaches and often presents as migraine. In contrast to primary headaches, HATMD is associated with higher headache frequency and examination-evoked masticatory muscle pain, but with surprisingly few measures of facial pain, general health, and psychological distress. A better understanding of HATMD is necessary for developing targeted strategies for its management. TRIAL IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION: SOPPRANO; NCT02437383 . Registered May 7, 2015.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dor Facial , Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/complicações , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia
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