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2.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by excessive desmoplasia and autophagy-dependent tumorigenic growth. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) as a predominant stromal cell type play a critical role in PDAC biology. We have previously reported that autophagy facilitates PSC activation, however, the mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the mechanism of autophagy in PSC activation. METHODS: We compared gene expression profiles between patient-derived PSCs from pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis using a microarray. The stromal expression of target gene in specimen of PDAC patients (n = 63) was analyzed. The effect of target gene on autophagy and activation of PSCs was investigated by small interfering RNAs transfection, and the relationship between autophagy and ER stress was investigated. We analyzed the growth and fibrosis of xenografted tumor by orthotopic models. RESULTS: In analysis of gene expression microarray, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) upregulated in cancer-associated PSCs was identified as the target gene. High stromal ERAP2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown of ERAP2 inhibited unfolded protein response mediated autophagy, and led to inactivation of PSCs, thereby attenuating tumor-stromal interactions by inhibiting production of IL-6 and fibronectin. In vivo, the promoting effect of PSCs on xenografted tumor growth and fibrosis was inhibited by ERAP2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of PSCs activation regulated by autophagy. ERAP2 as a promising therapeutic target may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of PDAC.

3.
J Adv Res ; 33: 127-140, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603784

RESUMO

Introduction: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is an aggressive malignancy, with a major mortality resulting from the rapid progression of metastasis. Unfortunately, no effective treatment strategy has been developed for PAAD metastasis to date. Thus, unraveling the mechanisms involved in PAAD metastatic phenotype may facilitate the treatment for PAAD patients. Objectives: PIK3CB is an oncogene implicated in cancer development and progression but less is known about whether PIK3CB participates in PAAD metastasis. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the mechanism(s) of PIK3CB in PAAD metastasis. Methods: In our study, we examined the PIK3CB expression pattern using bioinformatic analysis and clinical material derived from patients with PAAD. Subsequently, a series of biochemical experiments were conducted to investigate the role of PIK3CB as potential mechanism(s) underlying PAAD metastasis in vivo using nude mice and in vitro using cell lines. Results: We observed that PIK3CB was involved in PAAD progression. Notably, we identified that PIK3CB was involved in PAAD metastasis. Downregulation of PIK3CB significantly reduced PAAD metastatic potential in vivo. Furthermore, a series of bioinformatic analyses showed that PIK3CB was involved in cell adhesion in PAAD. Notably, PIK3CB depletion inhibited invasion potential specifically via suppressing cell adhesion to collagen I in PAAD cells. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings indicate that PIK3CB is involved in PAAD metastasis through cell-matrix adhesion. We proposed that PIK3CB is a potential therapeutic target for PAAD therapy.

4.
Oncol Lett ; 22(4): 744, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466156

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) are surrounded by an abundant stroma, which is produced by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). PSCs promote tumor cell proliferation and invasion. The objective of the current study was to identify compounds that suppress PSC activation. Gene expression profiles of cancer-derived fibroblasts and normal fibroblasts were used, and the pathway analysis suggested altered pathways that were chosen for validation. It was found that the 'neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction' pathway from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis was one of the altered pathways. Several compounds related with this pathway were chosen, and changes in PSC activity were investigated using fluorescence staining of lipid droplets, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blotting, and invasion and migration assays. Among these candidates, duloxetine, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was found to suppress PSC activation and disrupt tumor-stromal interaction. Thus, duloxetine may be a potential drug for suppressing PSC activation and pancreatic cancer growth.

5.
Cell ; 184(18): 4753-4771.e27, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388391

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by notorious resistance to current therapies attributed to inherent tumor heterogeneity and highly desmoplastic and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Unique proline isomerase Pin1 regulates multiple cancer pathways, but its role in the TME and cancer immunotherapy is unknown. Here, we find that Pin1 is overexpressed both in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and correlates with poor survival in PDAC patients. Targeting Pin1 using clinically available drugs induces complete elimination or sustained remissions of aggressive PDAC by synergizing with anti-PD-1 and gemcitabine in diverse model systems. Mechanistically, Pin1 drives the desmoplastic and immunosuppressive TME by acting on CAFs and induces lysosomal degradation of the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 and the gemcitabine transporter ENT1 in cancer cells, besides activating multiple cancer pathways. Thus, Pin1 inhibition simultaneously blocks multiple cancer pathways, disrupts the desmoplastic and immunosuppressive TME, and upregulates PD-L1 and ENT1, rendering PDAC eradicable by immunochemotherapy.

6.
Oncol Lett ; 22(2): 633, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267825

RESUMO

Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in desmoplastic stroma, which is a characteristic of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and they also enhance the malignancy of pancreatic cancer cells. Our previous study reported chloroquine's mitigating effects on PSC activation; however, the drug is known to induce adverse effects in clinical practice. The present study aimed to reduce chloroquine doses and develop a useful pre-treatment that targets PSCs using nanoparticles. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were used as carriers and loaded with indocyanine green (Nano-ICG) or chloroquine (Nano-CQ). Tumor accumulation of Nano-ICG was evaluated using an in vivo imaging system. The effects of chloroquine, Nano-CQ and/or chemotherapy drug gemcitabine were investigated in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Nano-ICG selectively accumulated in pancreatic tumors and persisted therein for over 7 days after administration. Additionally, Nano-ICG accumulated in the peritoneal metastasized regions, but not in the liver, kidney and normal pancreatic tissues. Nano-CQ reduced the density of activated PSCs at lower chloroquine doses and significantly restrained tumor progression in combination with gemcitabine. In conclusion, the PLGA nanosystem successfully delivered the drug to pancreatic tumors. Nano-CQ efficiently reduced PSC activation and may be a promising novel pre-treatment strategy for PDAC.

7.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(7): 2305-2313, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: T1 gastric cancer (GC) with seven or more metastatic lymph nodes is extremely rare, and very few clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the clinicopathological features of their recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of T1 GC and T2-4 GC patients who had multiple nodal metastases after radical surgery from 2006 to 2020. Propensity score matching was performed to compare the two groups of patients. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 18 of 22 patients in the T1 group and 36 of 144 patients in the T2-4 group were selected. Recurrence occurred in six patients (33.3%) in the T1 group. In the T1 group, the most common site of initial recurrence was bone (15.0%). The prevalence of bone recurrence was significantly higher in the T1 group than in the T2-4 group (P = 0.02). The median interval time between radical surgery and bone recurrence was 24 months, and the median survival time after bone recurrence was 14 months. CONCLUSION: Bone recurrence was more frequently identified as an initial recurrence site in T1 GC cases with multiple metastases after radical surgery compared with that in T2-4 GC cases. Careful attention should be paid to postoperative bone recurrence in the long-term postoperative course of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Linfonodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
8.
Cancer Lett ; 512: 15-27, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961925

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a desmoplastic reaction caused by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which provokes treatment resistance. CAFs are newly proposed to be heterogeneous populations with different functions within the PDAC microenvironment. The most direct sources of CAFs are resident tissue fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, however, the origins and functions of CAF subtypes remain unclear. Here, we established allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation models using spontaneous PDAC mice, and then investigated what subtype cells derived from BM modulate the tumor microenvironment and affect the behavior of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs). BM-derived multilineage hematopoietic cells were engrafted in recipient pancreas, and accumulated at the invasive front and central lesion of PDAC. We identified BM macrophages-derived CAFs in tumors. BM-derived macrophages treated with PCC-conditioned media expressed CAF markers. BM-derived macrophages led the local invasion of PCCs in vitro and enhanced the tumor invasive growth in vivo. Our data suggest that BM-derived cells are recruited to the pancreas during carcinogenesis and that the specific subpopulation of BM-derived macrophages partially converted into CAF-like cells, acted as leading cells, and facilitated pancreatic cancer progression. The control of the conversion of BM-derived macrophages into CAF-like cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress tumor growth.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are involved in abundant desmoplasia, which promotes cancer cell aggressiveness and resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, PSCs are suggested to be a promising therapeutic target by attenuating PSC activation to inhibit tumor-stromal interactions with pancreatic cancer cells. Here, we developed a screen to identify compounds that reduce the activity of PSCs and investigated the effect of candidates on pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Lipid droplet accumulation in PSCs was used to observe differences in PSC activity and a new high-throughput screening platform that quantified lipid droplets in PSCs was established. A library of 3398 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs was screened by this platform. Validation assays were performed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Thirty-two compounds were finally selected as candidate compounds by screening. These compounds decreased α-smooth muscle actin expression and inhibited autophagic flux in PSCs in vitro. Among the candidates, three drugs selected for validation assays inhibited the proliferation and migration of PSCs and invasion of cancer cells by disrupting tumor-stromal interactions. Production of extracellular matrix molecules was also decreased significantly by this treatment. In vivo testing in xenograft models showed that dopamine antagonist zuclopenthixol suppressed tumor growth; this suppression was significantly increased when combined with gemcitabine. CONCLUSIONS: A new screening platform that focused on the morphological features of PSCs was developed. Candidate drugs from this screening suppressed PSC activation and tumor growth. This screening system may be useful to discover new compounds that attenuate PSC activation.

10.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 14(6): 122, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936595

RESUMO

Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer (CC) is regarded as the standard treatment worldwide for outcome improvement and relapse prevention. Similarly, high-risk stage II CC requires adjuvant chemotherapy because of its high recurrence rate. Previous randomized controlled trials showed that oxaliplatin (OX), in addition to fluorinated pyrimidine-based therapy for patients with stage II/III CC, significantly improves cancer survival but it remains controversial as to which patient groups should receive OX-containing regimens. Among 1,150 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for stage II/III CC between 2009 and 2016 at two tertiary hospitals, 349 patients treated with only peroral (PO) fluorinated pyrimidine-based chemotherapy and 149 patients who received fluorinated pyrimidine-based chemotherapy with OX as adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Clinicopathological factors were more advanced in patients treated with OX than in patients treated only with PO fluorinated pyrimidine agents. Multivariate analysis for 5-year RFS showed that T4 [hazard ratio (HR), 2.947; P=0.0001], N2 (HR, 2.704; P=0.0075), vessel or lymphatic invasion (HR, 1.675; P=0.0437) and high cancer antigen (CA)19-9 (HR 3.367, P=0.0002) levels were independent risk factors of cancer relapse. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to match clinicopathological differences between the PO and OX groups. After matching, subgroup analysis of the patients showed that greater effects of OX on cancer survival were observed in patients in the OX group with high CA19-9 levels and tended to be associated with T4 and N2 compared with the PO group. Thus, OX-containing regimens should be recommended for patients with CC with these factors in an adjuvant setting.

11.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 133, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) occupy the majority of the pancreatic cancer microenvironment, contributing to aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs). Recently, anti-fibrotic agents have proven to be an effective strategy against cancer, but clinical trials have shown little efficacy, and the driving mechanism remains unknown. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is often used for pulmonary cystic fibrosis. Pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, was habitually used for type II diabetes, but recently reported to inhibit metastasis of PCCs. However, few studies have focused on the effects of these two agents on cancer-stromal interactions. METHOD: We evaluated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the number of lipid droplets in PSCs cultured with or without NAC. We also evaluated changes in invasiveness, viability, and oxidative level in PSCs and PCCs after NAC treatment. Using an indirect co-culture system, we investigated changes in viability, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs and PCCs. Combined treatment effects of NAC and Pioglitazone were evaluated in PSCs and PCCs. In vivo, we co-transplanted KPC-derived organoids and PSCs to evaluate the effects of NAC and Pioglitazone's combination therapy on subcutaneous tumor formation and splenic xenografted mouse models. RESULTS: In vitro, NAC inhibited the viability, invasiveness, and migration of PSCs at a low concentration, but not those of PCCs. NAC treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress level and expression of α-SMA, collagen type I in PSCs, which apparently present a quiescent-like state with a high number of lipid droplets. Co-cultured PSCs and PCCs mutually promoted the viability, invasiveness, and migration of each other. However, these promotion effects were attenuated by NAC treatment. Pioglitazone maintained the NAC-induced quiescent-like state of PSCs, which were reactivated by PCC-supernatant, and enhanced chemosensitivity of PCCs. In vivo, NAC and Pioglitazone's combination suppressed tumor growth and liver metastasis with fewer stromal components and oxidative stress level. CONCLUSION: NAC suppressed activated PSCs and attenuated cancer-stromal interactions. NAC induces quiescent-like PSCs that were maintained in this state by pioglitazone treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/metabolismo
12.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 14(3): 408-416, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The proportion of patients aged 75 years and over who undergo minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is increasing. However, the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in this age group is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate whether LG is safe and effective in patients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: The study included 728 patients with early and advanced gastric cancer who underwent curative LG between 2009 and 2017; 166 of these patients (22.8%) were aged 75 or over. All surgeries were performed laparoscopically. Selected clinical factors were compared between the 166 patients aged 75 years and over and the 562 patients aged under 75 years. RESULTS: There were significant differences in presence of comorbidity, respiratory function and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores between the older and younger groups. The older patients more frequently developed complications than the younger ones, particularly postoperative pneumonia. According to multivariate analyses of all participants, age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. Advanced stage and D2 lymphadenectomy were independent risk factors in the older group, whereas only COPD was an independent risk factor in the younger group. CONCLUSIONS: LG for gastric cancer can be safely performed in patients aged over 75 years with an acceptable complication rate. However, the present data suggest that care should be taken in selecting LG with D2 lymphadenectomy to treat advanced cancer in these patients because the risk of postoperative complications, especially postoperative pneumonia, increases.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia , Pneumonia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
13.
Surg Today ; 51(4): 619-626, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mutation profiles of Japanese pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was performed using FoundationOne® CDx on 17 PDAC patients who were treated by surgical resection at Kyushu University Hospital between February 2016 and January 2019. The tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability status were also assessed. RESULTS: There were 16 patients (94%) with KRAS mutations, 13 (76%) with TP53 mutations, three (18%) with SMAD4 mutations, and one (6%) with a CDKN2A mutation. All patients had at least one pathogenic variant or a likely pathogenic variant. No patient had targeted therapies that matched with any clinical benefit according to FoundationOne® CDx. An unresectable PDAC patient with BRCA2-mutant disease was successfully treated by conversion surgery using platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, FoundationOne® CDx might be difficult to use on PDAC patients, although further investigations with larger study populations are called for.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteína Smad4/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
Surg Case Rep ; 6(1): 303, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic cancer to the stomach is relatively rare. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a reliable biomarker used in the screening and management of patients with prostate cancer. However, it is difficult to definitively diagnose a PSA-negative metastatic gastric tumor of prostate cancer because the cancer sometimes resembles primary gastric cancer in clinical images. It is also difficult to distinguish metastatic cancer from primary cancer even in the pathological examination of biopsy samples when the lesion is poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. There is a possibility that the characteristics of the cancer are changed during treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Therefore, careful consideration is required for surgical indication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old male underwent radical prostatectomy and subsequent radiation therapy for advanced prostate cancer (pT3N1M0) 10 years previously, and hormone therapy was started for metachronous multiple bone metastasis 10 months before. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an irregular depressed lesion with a convergence of folds at the greater curvature of the upper gastric body. Biopsy showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma that was negative for PSA upon immunohistochemistry. He had high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (946.1 ng/ml) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) (465.1 U/ml) levels with no elevation of PSA (0.152 ng/ml). The tumor was diagnosed as primary gastric cancer based on the clinical imaging and pathological examination of the biopsy sample including the PSA staining. Based on the diagnosis, laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. However, pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma that was positive for other prostate markers such as androgen receptor. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with metastasized prostate cancer to the stomach. CONCLUSIONS: We report a case of metastatic gastric cancer of prostate cancer 10 years after radical prostatectomy. In the present case, it was difficult to diagnose a metastatic gastric tumor of prostate cancer preoperatively, because of its resemblance to primary gastric cancer without PSA expression and no serum PSA elevation. Although a rare case entity, it is important to consider the possibility of a metastatic gastric tumor when the surgical indication is determined in cases with another co-existing cancer.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(22): 10274-10289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929348

RESUMO

Rationale: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to manage and its poor prognosis stems from the lack of a reliable early disease biomarker coupled with its highly metastatic potential. Liver metastasis accounts for the high mortality rate in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying the acquisition of the metastatic potential in pancreatic cancer is highly desirable. Methods: Microarray analysis in wild-type and highly liver metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines was performed to identify gene expression signatures that underlie the metastatic process. We validated our findings in patient samples, nude mice, cell lines and database analysis. Results: We identified a metastasis-related gene, laminin subunit alpha 4 (LAMA4), that was upregulated in highly liver metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Downregulation of LAMA4 reduced the liver metastatic ability of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Furthermore, LAMA4 expression was positively correlated with tumor severity and in silico analyses revealed that LAMA4 was associated with altered tumor microenvironment. In particular, our in vitro and in vivo results showed that LAMA4 expression was highly correlated with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) level which may contribute to pancreatic cancer metastasis. We further found that LAMA4 had a positive effect on the recruitment and activity of CAFs. Conclusions: These data provide evidence for LAMA4 as a possible biomarker of disease progression and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Our findings indicate that LAMA4 may contribute to pancreatic cancer metastasis via recruitment or activation of CAFs.


Assuntos
Laminina/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
16.
Surg Today ; 50(11): 1418-1426, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of extraction site incisional hernia following gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its significant risk factors, including the subcutaneous fat area. METHODS: We reviewed data gathered prospectively on patients with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy between 2008 and 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. The subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using axial computed tomography at the level of the L4 and L3 transverse processes, and the L2-L3 intervertebral disc. The primary endpoint of the rate of extraction site incisional hernia was based on the computed tomography and clinical data including hospital follow-up reports. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 320 patients were included in this retrospective analysis: 3.1% (10/320) had extraction site incisional hernias after a mean follow-up of 11 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and the SFA were independent risk factors (age ≥ 70.5 years: P = .013, odds ratio: 9.116, 95% confidence interval 1.581-52.553; L4 SFA ≥ 124 cm2: P = .004, odds ratio: 13.752, 95% confidence interval 2.290-82.582). CONCLUSION: Age and the SFA were independent risk factors for extraction site incisional hernia in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Hérnia Incisional/etiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Gordura Subcutânea , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia
17.
Surg Case Rep ; 6(1): 92, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard surgical method for symptomatic submucosal tumors (SMTs) or tumors with unclear biological behavior is enucleation. Minimally invasive approaches are usually considered appropriate for surgical enucleation; thus, thoracoscopic and laparoscopic enucleation is performed widely and safely. However, it is sometimes difficult to enucleate large and complicated esophageal tumors using thoracoscopic surgery, and even if rare, there is the risk of requiring thoracotomy or esophagectomy. In the present case, we enucleated a large and complicated leiomyoma safely using a new combined method with endoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented to our hospital for a detailed examination of an abnormal finding in her health check-up chest X-ray images. She complained of upper abdominal pain after eating, and computed tomography revealed an esophageal tumor measuring 60 mm in length surrounding her lower thoracic esophagus. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a huge complicated SMT at the esophagogastric junction. Cytological examination with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed that the tumor was a leiomyoma. To enucleate this large and complicated esophageal SMT safely and without damaging the esophageal mucosa, we performed endoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. We created a submucosal tunnel, endoscopically, and then performed thoracoscopic surgery to enucleate the tumor completely from the esophageal muscularis. Using these combined procedures, we were able to easily mobilize even a complicated tumor of this size from the mucosa and completed the surgery thoracoscopically without difficulty. As a result, the tumor was dissected safely with a minimal defect in the muscularis and without damaging the mucosa. Finally, we closed the defect in the esophageal muscularis with continuous sutures, thoracoscopically, and closed the entry of the submucosal tunnel using clips, endoscopically. CONCLUSIONS: Using these combined procedures, we safely enucleated a huge complicated esophageal SMT. The increased mobility of the tumor after creating the submucosal tunnel contributed to the minimal defect in the muscular layer and prevented injury to the esophageal mucosa, possibly leading to fewer postoperative complications such as esophageal stenosis and local infection.

18.
Surg Today ; 50(10): 1290-1296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no definite evidence of the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) for patients who have undergone incomplete endoscopic resection (ER). We investigated the influence of ER prior to LDG by a propensity score matching analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of gastric cancer patients who underwent LDG with or without prior ER from 2000 to 2014. Propensity score matching was performed to compare the two groups of patients. RESULTS: After matching, 47 patients in the ER group and 94 patients in the non-ER group were selected from a total of 365 patients. A residual tumor was observed in 10 of 47 patients (21.3%). The mean number of dissected lymph nodes in the non-ER group (39.4 ± 14.5) was higher than that in the ER group (31.7 ± 13.5) (P = 0.003). However, other perioperative data, such as the operation time and blood loss volume were similar. The complication rate of the ER group (17.0%) and the non-ER group (9.6%) did not differ to a statistically significant extent (P = 0.2). Among these patients, 6 died during the 5-year follow-up period, but no patients showed signs of recurrence. CONCLUSION: ER prior to surgical resection showed no significant influence on postoperative complications or mortality. LDG can be safely performed to achieve radical resection after incomplete ER.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Reoperação , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Surg Case Rep ; 6(1): 30, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2018 Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines (ver. 5), a reduced extent of lymphadenectomy (D1 or D1+) is indicated for cT1 N0 tumors that do not meet the criteria for endoscopic resection. However, early gastric cancer with multiple lymph node metastases is not unknown, and cases have been reported. We report a case of a patient with early gastric cancer and numerous nodal metastases who underwent laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy based on a preoperative diagnosis of T1 N0. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman underwent emergent endoscopic hemostasis for massive hematemesis of the stomach, and endoscopic examination showed ulceration with a visible vessel. Pathological biopsy examination of the ulcer identified poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells. The patient was diagnosed with early gastric cancer that was not indicated for endoscopic resection because of the ulceration and histological type. Endoscopic ultrasound showed that the third layer was poorly demarcated at the ulcer scar, indicating invasion to the submucosal layer. Computed tomography did not reveal enlarged lymph nodes or distant metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was early gastric cancer of the fundus without nodal metastasis, and laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with D1+ lymphadenectomy was performed. The initial postoperative pathological diagnosis was intramucosal carcinoma without lymphovascular invasion; however, the presence of 26 lymph node metastases was revealed unexpectedly. Additional pathological examination of more resected specimens transected every 2-3 mm revealed that only one lesion contained a small number of cancer cells in the lymphatic duct below the muscularis mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: We report a case of early gastric cancer with 26 nodal metastases in which lymph node involvement was not identified prior to surgery. These findings indicate that the extent of lymphadenectomy and the surgical procedure should be carefully decided even in cT1 N0 early gastric cancer when several risk factors for lymph node metastasis are present.

20.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 13(4): 582-585, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097984

RESUMO

Recently, several scholars have demonstrated the efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). To treat abdominal or pelvic tumors by CIRT, it is necessary to separate the tumor from the adjacent organs. Surgical placement of a GORE-TEX sheet as a spacer has been reported as a separation method. Usually, surgical spacer placement is done by open surgery. Here, we report a case of surgical spacer placement undertaken by a "pure" laparoscopic procedure. A 47-year-old man with recurrent sacral chordoma was referred for surgical spacer placement before CIRT. Laparoscopic dissection of the rectum and placement of a GORE-TEX sheet as a spacer were successfully performed. Surgical spacer placement by a pure laparoscopic procedure was safe and effective, and it seems to play an important part before CIRT.


Assuntos
Cordoma , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados , Laparoscopia , Cordoma/radioterapia , Cordoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Sacro/cirurgia
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