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1.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21949, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591339

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in children. The serum level of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is a useful AD index to reflect disease severity; however, it requires blood collection from young children. In comparison, urine samples are easier to collect in a pediatric clinical setting. Here, we analyzed the lipids excreted in urine to identify a diagnostic biomarker for AD. We generated a murine dermatitis model by repeated topical application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) or tape-stripping the dorsal skin. Lipid metabolites excreted in the urine were comprehensively analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To corroborate our findings, we also analyzed urine samples from patients with AD. DNFB application induced AD-like skin lesions, including epidermal thickening, infiltration of eosinophils and T cells, and an increase in Th2 cytokine levels. Assessment of lipids excreted in urine showed a dominance of prostaglandins (PGs), namely, a PGF2α metabolite (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-tetranor-PGF1α ), a PGE2 metabolite (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-tetranor-PGE2 ), and a PGD2 metabolite (13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGJ2 ). mRNA and protein expression of PGF2α , PGE2 , and PGD2 synthase was upregulated in DNFB-treated skin. The tape-stripping model also caused dermatitis but without Th2 inflammation; urine PGF2α and PGD2 metabolite levels remained unaffected. Finally, we confirmed that the urinary levels of the aforementioned PG metabolites, as well as PGI2 metabolite, 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro-PGF1α and arachidonic acid metabolite, 17-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17-HETE) increased in patients with AD. Our data highlights the unique urinary lipid profile in patients with AD, which may provide insight into novel urinary biomarkers for AD diagnosis.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257721, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergic individuals and their responsiveness to routine vaccines has rarely been investigated. This study examined whether the seroprevalence of measles antibody differed between children with and without allergic diseases in the general pediatric population. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed within a prospective general birth cohort (a pilot study of the Japan Environment & Children's Pilot Study [JECS]) of children aged 8 years. The clinical history of allergic diseases, measles, and the concentration of measles immunoglobulin G titers in serum enzyme immunoassay were examined. Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the relationships between the allergic characteristics of the children and their measles antibody positivity rates. RESULTS: This study included 162 children. Any allergic disease was reported in 75 (46.3%). The measles antibody positivity rate was 94.7% among children with any allergic diseases and 92.0% among children without allergic diseases. Our results revealed no differences in measles antibody seropositivity between children with allergies and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergies mount and maintain a comparable immune response to the measles vaccine.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ultra-sensitive hormone assays have detected slight sex differences in blood estradiol (E2) levels in young children before adrenarche. However, the origin of circulating E2 in these individuals remains unknown. This study aimed to clarify how E2 is produced in young girls before adrenarche. DESIGN: This is a satellite project of the Japan Environment and Children's Study organized by the National Institute for Environmental Studies. METHODS: We collected blood samples from healthy 6-year-old Japanese children (79 boys and 71 girls). Hormone measurements and data analysis were performed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies and the Medical Support Center of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, respectively. RESULTS: E2 and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly higher in girls than in boys, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and testosterone (T) levels were comparable between the two groups. Girls showed significantly higher E2/T ratios than boys. In children of both sexes, a correlation was observed between E2 and T levels, and between T and DHEA-S levels. Moreover, E2 levels were correlated with FSH levels only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that in 6-year-old girls, circulating E2 is produced primarily in the ovary from adrenal steroids through FSH-induced aromatase upregulation. This study provides evidence that female-dominant E2 production starts several months or years before adrenarche. The biological significance of E2 biosynthesis in these young children needs to be clarified in future studies.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444921

RESUMO

Vitamin D (VitD) may affect immune system modulation and result in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, published findings have remained controversial. We investigated the association between early-life 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and AD risk at childhood with a birth cohort. The data were obtained from "the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS)" and "the Sub-Cohort study of JECS" performed with children aged 2 years. "Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry" was used to measure VitD. The information on AD was obtained from parents' answers to a questionnaire when their children were aged 3 years. In order to explain the seasonal effects on VitD levels, a deseasonalized continuous variable was further calculated. The logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the effect of VitD on childhood AD. The study included 4378 children with complete data on VitD and AD. The results from models indicated that low VitD at 2 years was not a risk factor for the development of AD at 3 years, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, there was no U-shape relationship between deseasonalized VitD and childhood AD. Overall, early-life 25(OH)D levels were not link to the increased risk of developing childhood AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

7.
J Dermatol ; 48(10): 1602-1606, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318531

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) mostly develops in early childhood and tends to resolve with age. However, its time course in severity before and after adolescence varies widely among patients. To investigate the course of disease severity from birth to 19 years old of adult patients with AD, we conducted a nationwide Web-based survey of 3090 Japanese adult subjects diagnosed with AD, using a questionnaire to choose a pattern that most resembled their own out of 10 courses of AD severity. Patients in the 20s and 30s age groups tended to choose the option "gradually improved" or "improved by the age of 12", but patients in the 40s or older age group tended to choose the option "aggravation between the age of 12 and 19". Those who chose "AD development at age 20 or older" increased as the generation was older. This survey revealed that the time course of AD severity from birth to 19 years old varies depending on the generation targeted in this study. It is presumed that the acquired factors affecting the natural history of AD have changed over the past 50 years in Japan.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(9): 3339-3349.e8, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has increased rapidly and has been well characterized. However, no nationwide survey has been conducted regarding non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (non-EoE EGIDs), and they remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features and natural histories of non-EoE EGIDs and EoE by using the same questionnaire, for all ages. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide hospital-based survey of patients who visited hospitals from January 2013 through December 2017. We randomly selected 10,000 hospitals that perform endoscopy. We analyzed the demographics, symptoms, gastrointestinal histology, treatments, and natural histories of EoE and non-EoE EGIDs. RESULTS: A total of 2906 hospitals responded to the questionnaire. We identified 1542 patients and obtained detailed data for 786 patients, consisting of 39% EoE and 61% non-EoE EGIDs. The clinical characteristics were analyzed for patients who met the "definite" criteria that excluded comorbidities. Non-EoE EGIDs showed no gender difference, whereas EoE was male-predominant. Tissue eosinophilia was often seen in the small intestine (62%) and stomach (49%). The frequency of hypoproteinemia was high (27%) in childhood. Children also had more serious symptoms and complications than adults: restriction of daily life activity (P = .009), failure to grow/weight loss (P = .008), and surgery (P = .01). For both diseases, the most common natural history was the continuous type: 66% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58-74) in EoE and 64% (95% CI: 55-72) in non-EoE EGIDs. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of persistent patients with non-EoE EGIDs was almost the same as those with EoE. Complications were more frequent in children than in adults.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 63, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of dietary supplements are commercially available. However, the efficacy and safety of dietary supplement use in children are not well established. Understanding dietary supplement use is important for developing public health policy regarding dietary supplements. This study aimed to investigate the types of dietary supplements used and characteristics of dietary supplement users among Japanese elementary school children. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire study. Dietary supplement use, socio-demographics, and health-related behaviors were assessed through mother-reported questionnaire. Types of dietary supplements were identified based on ingredient using product barcodes and brand names. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the socio-demographics and health-related behaviors associated with supplement use. RESULTS: Among 4933 children, 333 (6.8%) were identified as dietary supplement users. The most common supplement was amino acids or protein (1.4%), followed by n-3 fatty acids or fish oil (1.0%), probiotics (1.0%), multivitamins (0.9%), multivitamin-minerals (0.8%), and botanicals (0.8%). Overall, any dietary supplement use was significantly associated with the highest frequency of sports participation (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-4.02), highest household income (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13-3.10), highest maternal educational level (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.31-2.52), and male sex (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.75). The highest frequency of sports participation was significantly associated with higher odds of use of amino acids or protein (OR, 6.06; 95% CI, 1.78-20.6) and multivitamins (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.11-11.5), compared to the lowest frequency of sports participation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that Japanese children primarily use non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements. Non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements should thus be included in future studies aimed at monitoring dietary supplement use. We also found that dietary supplement use in children was associated with sports participation. Guidelines for dietary supplement use for children, in particular sport participants, are needed.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Adulto , Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with allergic clinical manifestations tend to have behavioral or emotional problems such as hyperactivity or worse mental health. However, previous studies on this association did not adequately adjust for confounders like parenting stress, demographic characteristics, or allergy presentation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood allergic clinical manifestations and behavioral problems, adjusting for confounders such as demographic characteristics, parenting stress, and allergy-related variables. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey among caregivers of children aged 2-6 years (n = 633). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine children's behavioral characteristics as the primary outcome. Allergic clinical manifestations, wheeze, rash, and nose symptoms were the exposure variables. Associations were estimated using logistic regression analyses with propensity scores to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: We analyzed 633 caregivers of children aged 2-6 years (valid rate, 61.5%). Univariate analyses showed that wheezing was associated with conduct problems (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.01-2.16), a behavioral component of the SDQ. Rash was also associated with hyperactivity (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.02-2.57). Furthermore, nose symptoms were associated with conduct problems (OR = 1.65, 95% CI:1.16-2.33) and emotional symptoms (OR=1.62, 95% CI:1.06-2.45). After adjusting for potential confounders, wheezing (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI:1.04-2.75) and nose symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34) remained associated with conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that a history of wheezing and nose symptoms in children is associated with an increased risk of behavioral problems, in particular, conduct problems.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852622

RESUMO

Allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with pollen allergy has been prevalent worldwide and Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) refers to individuals with pollen allergy who develop oral allergy syndrome (OAS) on consuming fruits and vegetables. The prevalence of PFAS varies by region and that in Japanese adolescents remains to be elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the epidemiological characteristics of PFAS in a general population of Japanese adolescents according to pollen allergy, OAS, and IgE component sensitization. Participants comprised adolescents, at age 13 years, from a prospective birth cohort study in Japan. We administered questionnaires to collect information from parents regarding pollen allergy, PFAS and OAS at each child's age 13 years. ImmunoCAP ISAC was used to assess IgE component sensitization. Among 506 participants with a complete questionnaire and ISAC measurement results, 56.5% had a history of hay fever, 16.0% had a history of OAS, 51.0% had pollen allergy, and 11.7% had a history of PFAS; additionally, 72.7% were sensitized to one or more tree, grass, and/or weed allergens. The most common sensitization (95.7%) among adolescents with pollen allergy was to Japanese cedar (Cry j 1). The most common causal foods were kiwi and pineapple (both 39.0%). Knowledge levels about PFAS were poor among affected adolescents. We found a high prevalence of PFAS among adolescents in Japan. Although it affects approximately 1/10 adolescents in the general population, public awareness regarding PFAS is poor. Interventional strategies are needed to increase knowledge and to prevent PFAS in the general population.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Adolescente , Alérgenos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Reações Cruzadas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas/imunologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pólen/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Síndrome , Verduras/imunologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804474

RESUMO

Few epidemiologic studies have examined the role of maternal iron status in allergic diseases in offspring and findings have been inconsistent. We used a large birth cohort in Japan to explore the association of the markers for maternal iron status (maternal hemoglobin, hematocrit and dietary iron intake during pregnancy) with allergy development in offspring during early childhood. We analyzed information on children age 0-3 years from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). We used logistic models and generalized estimating equation models to evaluate the effect of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and dietary iron intake on allergies in children. Models were also fitted with propensity score-matched datasets. Data were collected for a total of 91,247 mother-child pairs. The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of low hemoglobin and hematocrit was 14.0% (13.7-14.2%) and 12.5% (12.3-12.8%), respectively. After adjusting confounders, low hemoglobin and hematocrit during pregnancy were not associated with childhood allergic outcomes. Findings from models with propensity score-matched datasets also indicated that children born to mothers with low hemoglobin or hematocrit levels during pregnancy did not have a higher risk of developing allergic conditions at 3 years old. We found no meaningful associations between low energy adjusted maternal dietary iron intake and allergies in children. In conclusion, using birth cohort data, we found no evidence supporting an association of low maternal hemoglobin, hematocrit and low dietary iron intake with allergy symptoms during early childhood. Further studies with more suitable proxy markers for blood iron status are needed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(4): 1462-1471, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838839

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disorder, present in about 12% of children worldwide. Optimizing management of severe atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients is critical to reduce signs of inflammation, alleviate pruritus and sleep disturbance, minimize the development and/or impact of comorbidities, and improve the patient and caregiver's quality of life. Evaluating the longitudinal severity of pediatric atopic dermatitis is an important component of measuring therapeutic response and long-term management, and is different in clinical practice versus clinical trials. This article describes when and how to use different treatments for pediatric patients with severe atopic dermatitis, including topical medications, phototherapy, and systemic medical therapies (traditional immunosuppressants, biologics, and small molecule inhibitors). It also provides recommendations useful in clinical practice for nonpharmacologic interventions for pediatric patients with severe atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Prurido/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(7): 650-662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported that maternal asthma increases the risk of preterm birth. We hypothesized that inflammatory reactions caused by allergic diseases might affect the uterine environment and, subsequently, perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between allergic features among mothers and preterm pregnancy outcomes in a nationwide birth cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from pregnant women obtained from the Japanese Environment and Children's Study (JECS), a nationwide general birth cohort study. We used binomial and multinomial logistic regression models to examine the associations between maternal allergic features and preterm birth, threatened preterm labor (TPL), and preterm premature rupture of the membrane (PPROM). RESULTS: A total of 97,683 pregnant women were included. Prevalence of preterm birth, TPL, and PPROM was 4.7, 19.6, and 1.2%, respectively. Maternal history of allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, food allergy, drug allergy, and contact dermatitis) increased the risk of TPL(adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.11 [95% CI: 1.06-1.17], aOR = 1.12 [1.08-1.16], aOR = 1.10 [1.04-1.16], aOR = 1.17 [1.09-1.26], aOR = 1.35 [1.23-1.48], and aOR = 1.34 [1.20-1.49], respectively). Although some maternal allergic features showed a negative association with preterm birth, the variables affecting preterm birth differed according to the gestational age of the fetus (22-33 weeks vs. 34-36 weeks). There were no significant associations between maternal allergic features and PPROM. CONCLUSION: Maternal allergic disease, except atopic dermatitis, may increase the risk of TPL. Comorbidity of maternal allergic disorders and perinatal adverse outcomes require further investigation.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
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