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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0056021, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851163

RESUMO

Serological tests are beneficial for recognizing the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify protective immunity, optimization of the chemiluminescent reduction neutralizing test (CRNT) is critical. Whether commercial antibody tests have comparable accuracy is unknown. Serum samples were obtained from COVID-19 patients (n = 74), SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (n = 179), and suspected healthy individuals (n = 229) before SARS-CoV-2 variants had been detected locally. The convalescent phase was defined as the period after day 10 from disease onset or the episode of close contact. The CRNT using pseudotyped viruses displaying the wild-type (WT) spike protein and a commercial anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody test were assayed. Serology for the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants was also assayed. Both tests concurred for symptomatic COVID-19 patients in the convalescent phase. They clearly differentiated between patients and suspected healthy individuals (sensitivity: 95.8% and 100%, respectively; specificity: 99.1% and 100%, respectively). Anti-RBD antibody test results correlated with neutralizing titers (r = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.38). Compared with the WT, lower CRNT values were observed for the variants. Of the samples with ≥100 U/mL by the anti-RBD antibody test, 77.8% and 88.9% showed ≥50% neutralization against the B.1.1.7 and the B.1.351 variants, respectively. Exceeding 100 U/mL in the anti-RBD antibody test was associated with neutralization of variants (P < 0.01). The CRNT and commercial anti-RBD antibody test effectively classified convalescent COVID-19 patients. Strong positive results with the anti-RBD antibody test can reflect neutralizing activity against emerging variants. IMPORTANCE This study provides a diagnostic evidence of test validity, which can lead to vaccine efficacy and proof of recovery after COVID-19. It is not easy to know neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 in the clinical laboratory because of technical and biohazard issues. The correlation of the quantitative anti-receptor-binding domain antibody test, which is widely available, with neutralizing test indicates that we can know indirectly the state of acquisition of functional immunity against wild and variant-type viruses in the clinical laboratory.

2.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : AAC0139521, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930035

RESUMO

After the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the global spread of multidrug resistant serotype 19A-ST320 strains became a public health concern. In Japan, the main genotype of serotype 19A was ST3111, and the identification rate of ST320 was low. Although the isolates were sporadically detected in both adults and children, their origin remains unknown. Thus, by combining pneumococcal isolates collected in three nationwide pneumococcal surveillance studies conducted in Japan between 2008 and 2020, we analyzed 56 serotype 19A-ST320 isolates along with 931 global isolates, using whole-genome sequencing to uncover the transmission route of the globally distributed clone in Japan. The clone was frequently detected in Okinawa Prefecture, where the U.S. returned to Japan in 1972. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolates from Japan were genetically related to those from the U.S.; therefore, the common ancestor may have originated in the U.S. In addition, Bayesian analysis suggested that the time to the most recent common ancestor of the isolates form Japan and the U.S. was approximately the 1990s to 2000, suggesting the possibility that the common ancestor could have already spread in the U.S. before the Taiwan 19F-14 isolate was first identified in a Taiwanese hospital in 1997. The phylogeographical analysis supported the transmission of the clone from the U.S. to Japan, but the analysis could be influenced by sampling bias. These results suggested the possibility that the serotype 19A-ST320 clone had already spread in the U.S. before being imported into Japan.

3.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106480, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plasmid-mediated bacterial colistin-resistant gene, mcr, is of global concern in clinical health care. However, there are few reports of surveillance for mcr in Japan. This study aimed to study the prevalence of colistin resistance by identifying nine mcr genes in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and CRE isolates in Japan. METHODS: We collected 273 ESBL and CRE clinical isolates from the patients in five tertiary hospitals between August 2016 to March 2017. MIC of colistin was measured using the microdilution method. PCR was performed to detect mcr-1 to mcr-9 genes in all strains. Additionally, if we identified a mcr-gene that had not been reported from patients in Japan, we performed a WGS analysis. RESULTS: The rate of colistin resistance was 7.7% in all strains. The rate of colistin resistance in the CRE strains was higher than that in the ESBL-producing strains (20.4% versus 1.1%). The mcr-5 and mcr-9 gene were detected in one ESBL-producing E. coli strain (1/273, 0.37%) and three CRE strains (3/273, 1.1%), respectively. Since the ESBL-producing E. coli strain was the first clinical strain with mcr-5 in Japan, whole-genome sequencing analysis was performed for the strain. The sequence type of the mcr-5 positive strain was ST1642 and it carried two distinct plasmids, ESBL gene-carrying pN-ES-6-1, and mcr-5.1-carrying pN-ES-6-2. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the frequency of colistin resistance and mcr-positive strains is not high in Japan. Since the MIC for colistin was low in the mcr-5.1 and mcr-9 gene-positive strain, continuous monitoring of mcr genes is necessary.

4.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774431

RESUMO

Genetic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the mainstay of diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it has not been fully investigated whether infectious viruses are contained in SARS-CoV-2 genome-positive specimens examined using the rRT-PCR test. In this study, we examined the correlation between the threshold Cycle (Ct) value obtained from the rRT-PCR test and virus isolation in cultured cells, using 533 consecutive clinical specimens of COVID-19 patients. The virus was isolated from specimens with a Ct value of less than 30 cycles, and the lower the Ct value, the more efficient the isolation rate. A cytopathic effect due to herpes simplex virus type 1 contamination was observed in one sample with a Ct value of 35 cycles. In a comparison of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells and VeroE6 cells used for virus isolation, VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells isolated the virus 1.7 times more efficiently than VeroE6 cells. There was no significant difference between the two cells in the mean Ct value of the detectable sample. In conclusion, Lower Ct values in the PCR test were associated with higher virus isolation rates, and VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were able to isolate viruses more efficiently than VeroE6 cells.

5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(6): 592-599, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790070

RESUMO

Genes conferring carbapenem resistance have spread worldwide among gram-negative bacteria. Subtyping of these genes has epidemiological value due to the global cross-border movement of people. Subtyping of blaIMP genes that frequently detected in Japan appears to be important in public health settings; however, there are few useful tools for this purpose. We developed a subtyping screening tool based on PCR direct sequencing, which targets the internal sequences of almost all blaIMP genes. The tool used bipartite multiplex primers with M13 universal sequences at the 5'-end. According to in silico analysis, among the 78 known IMP-type genes, except for blaIMP-81, 77 detected genes were estimated to be differentiated. In vitro evaluation indicated that sequences of amplicons of IMP-1, IMP-6, IMP-7, and IMP-20 templates were identical to their respective subtypes. Even if the amplicons were small or undetectable through the first PCR, sufficient amplicons for DNA sequencing were obtained through a second PCR using the M13 universal primers. In conclusion, our tool can be possibly used for subtype screening of blaIMP, which is useful for the surveillance of bacteria with blaIMP in clinical and public health settings or environmental fields.

6.
Sex Health ; 18(2): 197-199, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883062

RESUMO

In Japan, the increase in congenital syphilis (CS) notifications has become a public health concern. We conducted a case series study to describe the characteristics of CS patients and their mothers. Of the 13 mothers who consented to participate, seven had regular prenatal care visits, including four who had tested negative at their first trimester syphilis screening. Only three mothers noted that their partners were tested, with all three partners being diagnosed with syphilis. Raising awareness for syphilis prevention during pregnancy, partner testing, and considering additional syphilis testing at the third trimester of pregnancy during times of increased syphilis prevalence is imperative.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 617573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869075

RESUMO

Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a surface protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae that may be a candidate antigen for new pneumococcal vaccines. This study investigates the distribution of PspA clades of the causative strains of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Japan. Of the 1,939 strains isolated from cases of adult IPD during 2014-2019, the PspA clades of 1,932 (99.6%) strains were determined, and no pspA was detected in the remaining 7 strains (0.4%). PspA clades 1-6 were detected in 786 (40.5%), 291 (15.0%), 443 (22.8%), 369 (19.0%), 33 (1.7%), and 6 (0.3%) strains, respectively. New PspA clades (0.2%) were identified in two non-typeable and two serotype 35B pneumococci. The proportions of clade 1 and clade 2 showed significantly decreased and increased trends, respectively. Furthermore, the PspA clade of pneumococcal strains was partially serotype- and sequence type-dependent. The majority of strains belonging to serotypes contained in both the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) belonged to PspA clades 1 or 3. In contrast, the distribution of clades in non-vaccine serotypes was wider than that of vaccine serotype pneumococci. Our findings demonstrate that almost all pneumococcal strains from adult IPD express PspA clades 1-4, especially for non-vaccine serotypes. These results may be useful for the development of a new pneumococcal vaccine with PspA.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Proteínas de Bactérias , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Vacinas Conjugadas
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1108-1111, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865698

RESUMO

A 68-year-old man experienced fever and cough and was referred to a hospital for day 4. He had a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. On day 12, his PaO2/FiO2 ratio worsened to 120 and he was transferred to Sapporo Medical University Hospital for treatment using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Venous blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, which were serotype 3, mucoid-type, and penicillin susceptible. Coinfections with coronavirus disease-2019 and invasive pneumococcal disease are rare; however, they are associated with a higher case fatality than either of the conditions manifesting alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Idoso , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916227

RESUMO

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction has reduced pneumococcal meningitis incidence. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project described the serotype distribution of remaining pneumococcal meningitis in countries using PCV10/13 for least 5-7 years with primary series uptake above 70%. The distribution was estimated using a multinomial Dirichlet regression model, stratified by PCV product and age. In PCV10-using sites (N = 8; cases = 1141), PCV10 types caused 5% of cases <5 years of age and 15% among ≥5 years; the top serotypes were 19A, 6C, and 3, together causing 42% of cases <5 years and 37% ≥5 years. In PCV13-using sites (N = 32; cases = 4503), PCV13 types caused 14% in <5 and 26% in ≥5 years; 4% and 13%, respectively, were serotype 3. Among the top serotypes are five (15BC, 8, 12F, 10A, and 22F) included in higher-valency PCVs under evaluation. Other top serotypes (24F, 23B, and 23A) are not in any known investigational product. In countries with mature vaccination programs, the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis caused by vaccine-in-use serotypes is lower (≤26% across all ages) than pre-PCV (≥70% in children). Higher-valency PCVs under evaluation target over half of remaining pneumococcal meningitis cases, but questions remain regarding generalizability to the African meningitis belt where additional data are needed.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1119-1121, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the standard method for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This PCR test can be positive even in patients who have recovered from the disease, and the duration for achieving viral clearance has not been clarified yet. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 3, 2020, and June 17, 2020, at the Toyama University Hospital and the Toyama Rehabilitation Home. We collected the data of patients with COVID-19, analyzing the duration until twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were enrolled. The median duration of the twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test was 29.0 d (interquartile range: 25.75-35.25). The longest duration of viral shedding was 73 d. The duration of viral clearance was significantly longer in the older (>65 years) group than in the younger group (34.5 d vs. 25.0 d, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that viral clearance tends to be sustained in the older adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 411-415, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518618

RESUMO

Several outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although trench fever cases have been decreasing worldwide, the disease was reported among the homeless population in developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. Blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples were obtained from homeless inpatients with body lice during emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January 2013 to March 2015. Patients were tested for B. quintana infections using the culture method, polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Among the 29 patients tested, the presence of Bartonella spp. was confirmed by genomic sequencing of DNA extracted from two samples from blood culture performed for 15 out of 29 patients and from body louse samples of 20 patients (69%). Immunoglobulin G against B. quintana was detected in 10 patients (34.5%) at a cut-off titer of 1:256 in IFA. B. quintana infection was detected in samples obtained between 2013 and 2015 in Tokyo and needs to be on the list of differential diagnoses performed for febrile homeless individuals.

12.
Pediatr Int ; 63(11): 1363-1368, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "Message order" and "active participation" could be effective as risk communication methods. "Anticipated regret" (AR) has also been recognized as affecting risk perception and vaccine uptake in vaccination risk communication. We aimed to evaluate the effects of message order and active participation and the interactions between these two interventions on AR for vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a 2 (message order: positive-negative or negative-positive) × 2 (message calendar: with or without planning) factorial design study among 81 study participants. The effects of message order and active participation of mothers, using a message calendar, were evaluated on mothers' decision-making regarding vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for their children. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate the AR of infection if unvaccinated (anticipated regret of inaction) and of side effects if vaccinated (anticipated regret of action, ARA) twice: immediately after interventions and 1 month later. RESULTS: An interaction between message order and active participation was significant with regard to anticipated regret of inaction immediately after interventions (P = 0.01), but this effect disappeared 1 month after interventions. The message order showed no main effect with regard to ARA. However, the main effect of active participation was marginally significant with regard to ARA 1 month after intervention (P = 0.09); AR over vaccine side effects was lower when vaccination was planned than in the condition without planning. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of message order was hardly detectable in a clinical setting. However, active participation induced by planning may affect AR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of active participation in decision-making for vaccination.


Assuntos
Intenção , Vacinas , Criança , Comunicação , Emoções , Humanos , Vacinação
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 560-566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of endemics of two rickettsial diseases, scrub typhus (ST) and Japanese spotted fever (JSF), in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive epidemiological assessment of cases notified via national surveillance from 2007-2016. RESULTS: Over the 10-year period, 4185 ST and 1765 JSF cases were notified; of these, 20 (0.48%) cases of ST and 16 (0.91%) cases of JSF were fatal at the time of reporting. The elderly had higher notification rates and fatalities. While the annual number of ST notifications was stable and cases were reported from a broad geographic range, the number of JSF reports increased three-fold, expanding from the southwest to the east. The seasonality of ST varied by region and was more common during spring/summer in the north and autumn/winter in the south; 78% of cases occurred during autumn/winter, mainly in the southern region. Most of the fatal ST cases occurred in the spring/summer and occurred in the northern region. CONCLUSION: Our analysis identified seasonal and regional variations in the distribution of rickettsiosis. These variations were most likely to be related to the ecology of the vectors and etiological agents. Knowing the recent epidemiological and clinical features of ST and JSF can support clinical diagnosis and guide preventative activities against these vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): 460-463, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antibody response after pneumococcal vaccines and their effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) deficiency have not been fully evaluated. Here, we evaluated pneumococcal serotype-specific opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) in IRAK4-deficient patients along with their clinical course. METHODS: We investigated 6 IRAK4-deficient patients in Japan, whose attending physicians could be contacted. We performed OPA measurements using stored and more recent serum samples obtained from these patients. RESULTS: All patients had received pneumococcal vaccination. Among the 3 patients who had IPD, 2 had an episode of pneumococcal meningitis and the other developed pneumococcal bacteremia 3 years after the occurrence of pneumococcal meningitis. Only one episode of invasive bacterial infection was caused by a Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine-type strain. An increased opsonization index was found in the sera after vaccination for all IRAK-deficient patients, including when the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was used. CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in levels of OPA against most of the pneumococcal vaccine antigens was observed for all IRAK4-deficient patients. However, IPD could not be prevented by pneumococcal vaccination alone. Therefore, adequate prophylaxis should be provided with antibiotics at least until 8 years of age, along with regular immunoglobulin therapy, particularly during the infantile period.

16.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(3): 480-485, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza remains a clinically heavy burden worldwide. The objective of this study was to clarify clinical manifestations of severely ill patients infected with influenza. METHODS: The clinical data for patients who were severely ill with influenza, and required hospitalization were gathered and analyzed between November 2014 and August 2019 (5 influenza seasons) using an internet-surveillance system. RESULTS: A total of 924 patients were enrolled and analyzed. The median age was 78 years (IQR, 67-84), and the patients in the 2015-2016 season were significantly younger than those in other seasons. Pneumonia was the most common disease indicated as a cause for hospitalization, followed by a poor general condition and exacerbation of underlying respiratory diseases. Antiviral drugs were administered in 97.0% of the patients with peramivir being the most-frequently use antiviral. In-hospital death was recorded for 44 patients (4.8%). Multivariate analysis indicated that nursing home resident (OR: 6.554) and obesity (OR: 24.343) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Complications of influenza infection remain a heavy burden especially among the elderly. Continuous nationwide surveillance will be required to grasp the actual situation of influenza epidemics. (UMIN000015989).


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Adulto , Idoso , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano
18.
Vaccine ; 38(46): 7278-7283, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012606

RESUMO

On 12 February 2015, a local health department (LHD) in Shizuoka prefecture identified two reported rubella cases in its jurisdiction as employees of the same company. As other employees at the company resided both inside and outside of the health department's jurisdiction, it began collaborating with two additional LHDs and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases to investigate and respond to the outbreak, which subsequently identified cases in two additional companies. We obtained epidemiological, clinical, and outbreak response information from the national epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease system's database, the local health departments, and the associated companies. One specimen for genetic sequencing was collected from each of the three companies. The outbreak included a total of twenty-five cases, with seventeen confirmed and eight probable cases from three companies. Among them, 24 (96%) were male, 22 (88%) were employees of one company (Company X), and none had rubella vaccination history. The median age was 45 years (interquartile range: 40-51). Epidemiological information did not reveal the source of infection nor transmission route. All rubella viruses sequenced from the three specimens were classified into genotype 1E. The nucleotide sequences in the 739 bp-window region were completely identical in two specimens, with only one nucleotide difference in the third specimen. According to phylogenetic analysis, these strains were closely related to the Southeast and East Asian lineage. This rubella outbreak at three companies, ranging in size from small- to medium-size, in Japan occurred among unvaccinated employees aged at least 30 years, most of whom were male. Virologic analyses suggest all cases were infected with the same viral strain imported from Southeast Asia. Similar to these companies, most employees at small- and medium-size businesses in Japan are males with no vaccination history for rubella, which poses a serious risk for associated cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).


Assuntos
Vírus da Rubéola , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/genética
19.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(13): 1272-1281, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059539

RESUMO

In response to an increase in heterosexual syphilis notifications in Tokyo, we conducted a questionnaire-based case-control study among women aged ≥20 years and sexually active in the past six months who sought a syphilis test in Tokyo during 2017-2018. Cases were women diagnosed as recent syphilis infection based on serological tests. Controls were serologically non-reactive or those with only a past syphilis infection. We described cases and assessed for risk factors of recent syphilis using logistic regression. A total of 524 women (60 cases, 464 controls) were enrolled. Notably, among cases, 10 (16.7%) were students, 3 (5.0%) had a history of syphilis, and 14 (23.3%) had a single sex partner in the past six months. Female sex worker (FSW) status was strongly associated with syphilis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-5.90). In multivariable analysis, recent syphilis was associated with inconsistent condom use for vaginal/anal sex among FSWs (adjusted OR [aOR] = 3.42; 95%CI = 0.92-12.70) and among non-FSWs, with younger age (aOR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.19-0.70; increase per category from 20-24, 25-29 to ≥30 years) and ≤high school education (aOR = 5.24; 95%CI = 1.95-14.10). A notable proportion of cases were those with first time infection and those with only a single partner. Moreover, risk factors differed between FSWs and non-FSWs, and a multi-pronged approach to prevent syphilis is required.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Preservativos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis
20.
Vaccine ; 38(47): 7479-7484, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is one of the candidates of the novel pneumococcal protein vaccines. The seroepidemiology of naturally acquired anti-PspA immunoglobulin G (IgG) by clades, across a wide range of ages has not been investigated. METHODS: We examined the concentrations of anti-PspA IgG by clades (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) in 397 sera from persons aged 0-≥70 years by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and determined the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) by age group. The relationships between concentrations of anti-PspA IgG antibody for each clade for each person were also assessed. RESULTS: GMC of anti-PspA IgG was lowest, highest, and plateaued in those aged 6-11 months, 5-9-years, and 20-49 years, respectively. It gradually declined in those aged > 70 years. GMCs patterns in different age groups were similar for all clades. Correlations were found especially within the same PspA family (between clades 1 and 2 or clades 4 and 5). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that most people acquired anti-PspA IgG across clades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 during childhood. These results would be a fundamental data of clade-specific anti-PspA IgG antibodies.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Criança , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Streptococcus pneumoniae
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