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2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435499

RESUMO

The autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) are a nonsyndromic group of cornification disorders that includes lamellar ichthyosis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and harlequin ichthyosis. To date mutations in ten genes have been identified to cause ARCI: TGM1, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, NIPAL4, CYP4F22, ABCA12, PNPLA1, CERS3, SDR9C7, and SULT2B1. The main focus of this report is the mutational spectrum of the genes ALOX12B and ALOXE3, which encode the epidermal lipoxygenases arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, i.e., 12R type (12R-LOX), and the epidermis-type lipoxygenase-3 (eLOX3), respectively. Deficiency of 12R-LOX and eLOX3 disrupts the epidermal barrier function and leads to an abnormal epidermal differentiation. The type and the position of the mutations may influence the ARCI phenotype; most patients present with a mild erythrodermic ichthyosis, and only few individuals show severe erythroderma. To date, 88 pathogenic mutations in ALOX12B and 27 pathogenic mutations in ALOXE3 have been reported in the literature. Here, we presented a large cohort of 224 genetically characterized ARCI patients who carried mutations in these genes. We added 74 novel mutations in ALOX12B and 25 novel mutations in ALOXE3. We investigated the spectrum of mutations in ALOX12B and ALOXE3 in our cohort and additionally in the published mutations, the distribution of these mutations within the gene and gene domains, and potential hotspots and recurrent mutations.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 527-538, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758447

RESUMO

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe multi-systemic inflammatory disease characterized by neutrophilic pustulosis and triggered by pro-inflammatory IL-36 cytokines in skin. While 19%-41% of affected individuals harbor bi-allelic mutations in IL36RN, the genetic cause is not known in most cases. To identify and characterize new pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GPP, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 31 individuals with GPP and demonstrated effects of mutations in MPO encoding the neutrophilic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). We discovered eight MPO mutations resulting in MPO -deficiency in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO mutations, primarily those resulting in complete MPO deficiency, cumulatively associated with GPP (p = 1.85E-08; OR = 6.47). The number of mutant MPO alleles significantly differed between 82 affected individuals and >4,900 control subjects (p = 1.04E-09); this effect was stronger when including IL36RN mutations (1.48E-13) and correlated with a younger age of onset (p = 0.0018). The activity of four proteases, previously implicated as activating enzymes of IL-36 precursors, correlated with MPO deficiency. Phorbol-myristate-acetate-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was reduced in affected cells (p = 0.015), and phagocytosis assays in MPO-deficient mice and human cells revealed altered neutrophil function and impaired clearance of neutrophils by monocytes (efferocytosis) allowing prolonged neutrophil persistence in inflammatory skin. MPO mutations contribute significantly to GPP's pathogenesis. We implicate MPO as an inflammatory modulator in humans that regulates protease activity and NET formation and modifies efferocytosis. Our findings indicate possible implications for the application of MPO inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases. MPO and affected pathways represent attractive targets for inducing resolution of inflammation in neutrophil-mediated skin diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Psoríase/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Adulto , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Armadilhas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Doenças Raras/enzimologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/patologia , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
4.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 102, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndrome of synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis (SAPHO) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) present two diseases of a dermatologic and rheumatologic spectrum that are variable in manifestation und therapeutic response. Genetic risk factors have long been assumed in both diseases, but no single reliable factor has been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to clinically characterize a patient group with syndrome of synovitis acne pustulosis hyperostosis osteitis (SAPHO) (n = 47) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)/ chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) (n = 9) and analyze a CRMO candidate gene. METHODS: Clinical data of all patients were collected and assessed for different combinations of clinical symptoms. SAPHO patients were grouped into categories according to the acronym; disease-contribution by pathogens was evaluated. We sequenced coding exons of FBLIM1. RESULTS: Palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (PPP) was the most common skin manifestation in CRMO/CNO and SAPHO patients; most SAPHO patients had sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis. The most common clinical category of the acronym was S_PHO (n = 26). Lack of pathogen detection from bone biopsies was more common than microbial isolation. We did not identify autosomal-recessive FBLIM1 variants. CONCLUSIONS: S_PHO is the most common combination of symptoms of its acronym. Genetic analyses of FBLIM1 did not provide evidence that this gene is relevant in our patient group. Our study indicates the need to elucidate SAPHO's and CRMO/CNO's pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hiperostose Adquirida/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Osteomielite/genética , Síndrome de Hiperostose Adquirida/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperostose/genética , Hiperostose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Psoríase/genética , Psoríase/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(3): 225-243, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115871

RESUMO

Ichthyoses comprise a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders of keratinization characterized by a highly varied clinical picture. A distinction is made between common hereditary ichthyoses (ichthyosis vulgaris and X-linked ichthyosis), which usually manifest themselves in the first year of life, and rare, sometimes severe congenital ichthyoses. Patients with very mild symptoms often do not even realize they have ichthyosis. The diagnosis is usually based on clinical evaluation. Molecular genetic testing as well as histological and electron microscopic studies may aid in confirming the diagnosis. Mapping a family tree is also diagnostically useful. Besides skin manifestations, important aspects of the clinical examination and history include disease onset, presence of a collodion membrane at birth as well as the presence of hair anomalies and extracutaneous signs and symptoms. Rigorous hydration of the skin (several times a day) and balneotherapy are the mainstay of ichthyosis treatment. For patients with severe disease, systemic acitretin treatment should be considered on a case-by-case basis. While ichthyoses are generally limited to the skin, there are syndromic forms that may affect other organs and that require interdisciplinarity cooperation. Although ichthyoses remain incurable, they can be managed well with symptomatic treatment. However, such treatment is frequently time consuming and expensive. In the future, novel therapeutic approaches might include enzyme replacement and gene therapies as well as antiinflammatory drugs.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2318-2333, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347739

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) belongs to a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization. To date, 10 genes have been identified to be causative for ARCI. NIPAL4 (Nipa-Like Domain-Containing 4) is the second most commonly mutated gene in ARCI. In this study, we present a large cohort of 101 families affected with ARCI carrying mutations in NIPAL4. We identified 16 novel mutations and increase the total number of pathogenic mutations in NIPAL4 to 34. Ultrastructural analysis of biopsies from six patients showed morphological abnormalities consistent with an ARCI EM type III. One patient with a homozygous splice site mutation, which leads to a loss of NIPAL4 mRNA, showed additional ultrastructural aberrations together with a more severe clinical phenotype. Our study gives insights into the frequency of mutations, a potential hot spot for mutations, and genotype-phenotype correlations.


Assuntos
Ictiose/genética , Ictiose/patologia , Mutação , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1305-1313, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011118

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of rare disorders of keratinization characterized by generalized abnormal scaling of the skin. Ten genes are currently known to be associated with ARCI: TGM1, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN), ABCA12, CYP4F22, PNPLA1, CERS3, SDR9C7, and SULT2B1. Over a period of 22 years, we have studied a large patient cohort from 770 families with a clinical diagnosis of ARCI. Since the first report that mutations in the gene CYP4F22 are causative for ARCI in 2006, we have identified 54 families with pathogenic mutations in CYP4F22 including 23 previously unreported mutations. In this report, we provide an up-to-date overview of all published and novel CYP4F22 mutations and point out possible mutation hot spots. We discuss the molecular and clinical findings, the genotype-phenotype correlations and consequences on genetic testing.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ictiose/diagnóstico , Ictiose/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura
17.
Case Rep Dermatol Med ; 2018: 3140473, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693114

RESUMO

Bathing suit ichthyosis (BSI) is a rare variant of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) due to transglutaminase-1 gene (TGM1) mutations leading to a temperature sensitive phenotype. It is characterized by dark-grey or brownish scaling restricted to the "bathing suit" areas. We report two Indian girls with bathing suit ichthyosis and mutations in TGM1 (patient 1: homozygous for c.1147G>A; patient 2: compound heterozygous for c.832G>A, c.919C>G).

19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 102(5): 586-592, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101124

RESUMO

Congenital ichthyoses (CI) are rare genetic skin keratinisation diseases characterised by generalised scaling and a variable degree of erythema and hyperkeratosis. Ocular involvement includes the eyelids, conjunctiva and all layers of the cornea. Ophthalmic input should include regular slit lamp review with the primary aim to prevent a corneal epithelial defect, secondary bacterial infection, scarring or perforation. This review highlights the current literature regarding ophthalmic findings and management of CI.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Ictiose/complicações , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Humanos , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/uso terapêutico , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Retinoides/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Pele/métodos
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