Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148499, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465050

RESUMO

The damaging effects of climate change on agricultural productivity are on the increase. Relevant adaptation strategies are important to cope with climate change risks and sustain agricultural productivity. This study employed descriptive statistics, multivariate probit (MVP) model and endogenous switching regression model (ESRM), to analyze the data collected using a survey questionnaire from four provinces in South Africa. The study estimated the determining factors influencing the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies and credit access among smallholder farmers in the study areas. The empirical results of the multivariate probit model showed that location, access to extension, non-farm income, farming experience, crop and livestock production, susceptibility, agricultural training and access to credit variables influenced the smallholder decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. On the other hand, the ESRM showed that location, age, marital status, gender among others, influenced the decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. The variables such as location, education, drought experience affected the smallholder farmers' access to credit. Thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers, stakeholders and government must cooperate and collaborate to improve the conditions under which farmers can gain access to climate change information and suitable agricultural credit as well as policy incentives to ensure overall sustainability of the agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Fazendas , Humanos , África do Sul
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141151, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738697

RESUMO

The study assessed the impact of climate change adaptation strategies on technical efficiency of smallholder rice farmers in South-west Nigeria. An endogeneity corrected stochastic frontier model which account for the endogeneity of adoption of adaptation strategies that is likely to depend on inefficiency was employed for the study. The result of the study revealed that adoption of adaption strategies is endogenously determined with rice productivity and hence, failure to account for endogeneity, the parameter efficiency estimates would be inconsistent. The empirical results from the model show that quantity of labour, herbicides and the interaction of labour with both farm size and insecticides were statistically significant in explaining the variations in the efficiency of rice production in the study area. In addition, the study identified the combined effects of climate change adaptation strategies and some socioeconomic characteristics such as age, gender, education, farming experience, access to credit, access to information, membership of farmers in agricultural based cooperative and location of rice farmers as sources of technical inefficiencies. The study concluded that increase implementation of climate change adaptation strategies could enhance rice productivity and technical efficiency of rice farmers through timely access to climate change information and other related institutional support. Based on farmers' knowledge and understanding of changes in climatic conditions and the adaptation strategies to mitigate its effect, it is therefore important for the government, stakeholders and donor agencies to involve farmers in the climate change adaptation planning process.

3.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 22(4): 274-279, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the practice. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was carried out in 38,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of FGC among respondents was almost 25%, most of whom (82%) had undergone the procedure when they were under 5 years of age. Traditional circumcisers performed 72.2% of all procedures. Type 2 was the common form (62.6%) of FGC. Almost a quarter of respondents (23.1%) wanted the practice to continue. Women aged 45-49 years were approximately twice as likely to have undergone FGC compared with women aged 15-19 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99, 2.92; p < .001). Women from parts of Nigeria other than the North East zone were significantly more likely to have experienced FGC (p < .001). Women of Yoruba ethnicity were significantly more likely to have experienced FGC compared with women of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity (OR 4.86; 95% CI 3.03, 8.12; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have programmatic implications for ending the practice of FGC in Nigeria. Elimination efforts should be intensified among women of Yoruba ethnicity. To instigate behavioural change, communication interventions should particularly target residents in parts of Nigeria other than the North East zone.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Med Insights Cardiol ; 10: 157-62, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27656092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a physiological process associated with an increased hemodynamic load and cardiac structural remodeling. Limited echocardiographic information exists on cardiac chambers, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions, and LV mass during trimesters of normal pregnancy among African women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echocardiography was done at the beginning of the second trimester, beginning of the third trimester, and middle of the third trimester for 100 normal pregnant women and at one visit for age-matched 100 nonpregnant women. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. Analysis of variance was used to compare within trimesters, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean (SD) ages of the patients and controls were 28.20 (±5.91) and 28.35 (±6.06) years, respectively (age range = 19-44 years, P = 0.86). Cardiac chambers, LV systolic function, and LV mass and its index increased significantly during pregnancy. A significant increase in A-wave velocity but slight increase in E-wave velocity and a reduction in tissue e' velocity at the septal margin but a progressive increase in a' velocity were also observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac chamber dimensions, LV wall thickness, and mass, most indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, though within normal range, were significantly higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant Nigerian women.

5.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 43 Suppl: 21-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26949777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the world and Africa has approximately one quarter of the world's cases. One of the greatest challenges facing most TB programmes is the non-compliance to TB treatment among TB patients. AIM: This study aimed at determining the challenges of management of tuberculosis (TB) across selected Osun State health facilities. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 102 TB patients in the health facilities. The instrument measured socio-demographic variables, patient related factors, socio-economic variables, health care system related factors to TB disease and treatment. METHODS: Data were analysed and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was placed at p < 0.05. RESULTS: TB patients who had no formal education (χ2 = 12.941, p < 0.05), who were smoking during treatment (χ2 = 13.194, p < 0.001), who consumed alcohol during TB treatment (χ2 = 6.371, p < 0.05) and those who were HIV positive (χ2 = 23.039, p < 0.001) significantly failed to comply with TB treatment. TB patients who waited for one hour or more at heath facilities (χ2 = 21.761, p < 0.001), who reported that TB treatment should be stopped before six month (χ2 = 9.804, p < 0.05) or when patient felt better (χ2 = 35.185, p < 0.001) and travelled for 10 km or more (χ2 = 13.610, p < 0.001) significantly failed to comply with TB treatment. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that non-compliance rate to tuberculosis treatment among TB patients in this study is high. Both health facility and patient-related factors were largely responsible.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23983371

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries has long been an issue of major concern. Nanotechnology has become an eye opener for the intervention on multiple drug resistance organisms. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial potentials of Silver Nitrate (nanorods) solution used in managing infectious diseases, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the product against microbial isolates were determined using standard microbiological techniques. The mean MIC and MBC of silver nitrate solution on fungi (0.16 µg/ml and 0.29 µg/ml respectively) was significantly lower than that of Gram positive organisms (2.35µg/ml and 2.62µg/ml) and Gram negative organisms (2.05 µg/ml and 2.10 µg/ml). Of all the Gram positive organisms, Staphylococcus spp recorded the lowest mean MIC and MBC while in the Gram negative organisms group, E. coli isolates showed the lowest mean MIC and MBC of the silver nitrate solution, though not significantly different from the other isolates. In conclusion, results from this study revealed that Silver Nitrate(nanorods) may have be broad spectrum in activity, but with higher antifungal potentials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrato de Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotubos
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 16(4): 251-5, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20037619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence, pattern of presentation and management of complications resulting from unsafe abortion as well as the associated demographic variables at the Lagos Island Maternity Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey of all cases with complicated induced abortion was carried out between 1st August 2005 and 31st January 2007. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were young 21.7% were teenagers between 14 and 19 years while 32.6% were in the 20-24 year age group. The majority (64.0%) were single while 30.9% were married, 1.7% were divorced, while 3.4% were separated. Teenagers and single women were more likely to obtain their abortion late (above 12 weeks gestation). 81.2% of the patients knew about modern methods of contraception but only 34.5% had ever used contraception and only 8.6% were using contraception when they became pregnant. Medical doctors were the abortionists in 46.9% of the cases, followed by nurses (17.7%) and traditional practitioners. Retained products of conception was the commonest complication (77.1%) followed by anaemia (48.6%) and sepsis (44.6%). Evacuation of the uterus was the commonest surgical procedure done. There were 16 maternal deaths giving a case fatality rate of 9.14%. Sepsis was the commonest cause of death. CONCLUSION: Unsafe abortion remains a serious concern to the health of women. Efforts need to be maximised at preventing unwanted pregnancy by making contraceptive services easily accessible to women. Effective post abortion care services need to be put in place.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Maternidades , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Incidência , Estado Civil , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med ; 7(2): 149-52, 2009 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21304626

RESUMO

Herbal antimalarials still remain an alternative to our traditional communities who can not afford orthodox antimalarials. This study was aimed at investigating the microbial quality of six herbal antimalarials using standard microbiological methods. Of the six preparations analyzed, "schnapps", palm wine and water were the media of preparation; the water base preparations recorded higher microbial load. The mean microbial load was 159.5 × 10(5) cfu/ml and 217.4 × 10(2)cfu/ml in water and alcohol base preparations respectively. The microbial profile of the preparations showed that the schnapps base preparations were predominantly contaminated with Bacillus sp (Aerobic spore bearers) and Mucor spp. The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor spp. Conclusively, this study underlines the public health importance of these preparations given the high burden of such human pathogen as Ecoli O157H7, Ps aeruginosa, Stahp aureus, etc. in the preparations.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Etanol , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Marketing , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Nigéria , Fitoterapia , Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...