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PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057393


BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018-2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1-7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.