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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 10-13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917781

RESUMO

Tailoring communicable disease preparedness and response strategies to unique population movement patterns between an outbreak area and neighboring countries can help limit the international spread of disease. Global recognition of the value of addressing community connectivity in preparedness and response, through field work and visualizing the identified movement patterns, is reflected in the World Health Organization's declaration on July 17, 2019, that the 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (1). In March 2019, the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Uganda, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) Uganda and CDC, had previously identified areas at increased risk for Ebola importation by facilitating community engagement with participatory mapping to characterize cross-border population connectivity patterns. Multisectoral participants identified 31 locations and associated movement pathways with high levels of connectivity to the Ebola outbreak areas. They described a major shift in the movement pattern between Goma (DRC) and Kisoro (Uganda), mainly through Rwanda, when Rwanda closed the Cyanika ground crossing with Uganda. This closure led some travelers to use a potentially less secure route within DRC. District and national leadership used these results to bolster preparedness at identified points of entry and health care facilities and prioritized locations at high risk further into Uganda, especially markets and transportation hubs, for enhanced preparedness. Strategies to forecast, identify, and rapidly respond to the international spread of disease require adapting to complex, dynamic, multisectoral cross-border population movement, which can be influenced by border control and public health measures of neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação da Comunidade , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917783

RESUMO

On August 1, 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared its 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in an area with a high volume of cross-border population movement to and from neighboring countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda as the highest priority countries for Ebola preparedness because of the high risk for cross-border spread from DRC (1). Countries might base their disease case definitions on global standards; however, historical context and perceived risk often affect why countries modify and adapt definitions over time, moving toward or away from regional harmonization. Discordance in case definitions among countries might reduce the effectiveness of cross-border initiatives during outbreaks with high risk for regional spread. CDC worked with the ministries of health (MOHs) in DRC, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda to collect MOH-approved Ebola case definitions used during the first 6 months of the outbreak to assess concordance (i.e., commonality in category case definitions) among countries. Changes in MOH-approved Ebola case definitions were analyzed, referencing the WHO standard case definition, and concordance among the four countries for Ebola case categories (i.e., community alert, suspected, probable, confirmed, and case contact) was assessed at three dates (2). The number of country-level revisions ranged from two to four, with all countries revising Ebola definitions by February 2019 after a December 2018 peak in incidence in DRC. Case definition complexity increased over time; all countries included more criteria per category than the WHO standard definition did, except for the "case contact" and "confirmed" categories. Low case definition concordance and lack of awareness of regional differences by national-level health officials could reduce effectiveness of cross-border communication and collaboration. Working toward regional harmonization or considering systematic approaches to addressing country-level differences might increase efficiency in cross-border information sharing.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(3): 659-671, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675833

RESUMO

In March 2016, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) was identified in Kabale district, southwestern Uganda. A comprehensive outbreak investigation was initiated, including human, livestock, and mosquito vector investigations. Overall, four cases of acute, nonfatal human disease were identified, three by RVF virus (RVFV) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and one by IgM and IgG serology. Investigations of cattle, sheep, and goat samples from homes and villages of confirmed and probable RVF cases and the Kabale central abattoir found that eight of 83 (10%) animals were positive for RVFV by IgG serology; one goat from the home of a confirmed case tested positive by RT-PCR. Whole genome sequencing from three clinical specimens was performed and phylogenetic analysis inferred the relatedness of 2016 RVFV with the 2006-2007 Kenya-2 clade, suggesting previous introduction of RVFV into southwestern Uganda. An entomological survey identified three of 298 pools (1%) of Aedes and Coquillettidia species that were RVFV positive by RT-PCR. This was the first identification of RVFV in Uganda in 48 years and the 10th independent viral hemorrhagic fever outbreak to be confirmed in Uganda since 2010.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gado , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Culicidae/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 548, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 28 March, 2016, the Ministry of Health received a report on three deaths from an unknown disease characterized by fever, jaundice, and hemorrhage which occurred within a one-month period in the same family in central Uganda. We started an investigation to determine its nature and scope, identify risk factors, and to recommend eventually control measures for future prevention. METHODS: We defined a probable case as onset of unexplained fever plus ≥1 of the following unexplained symptoms: jaundice, unexplained bleeding, or liver function abnormalities. A confirmed case was a probable case with IgM or PCR positivity for yellow fever. We reviewed medical records and conducted active community case-finding. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between case-patients and asymptomatic control-persons, frequency-matched by age, sex, and village. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to evaluate risk factors. We also conducted entomological studies and environmental assessments. RESULTS: From February to May, we identified 42 case-persons (35 probable and seven confirmed), of whom 14 (33%) died. The attack rate (AR) was 2.6/100,000 for all affected districts, and highest in Masaka District (AR = 6.0/100,000). Men (AR = 4.0/100,000) were more affected than women (AR = 1.1/100,000) (p = 0.00016). Persons aged 30-39 years (AR = 14/100,000) were the most affected. Only 32 case-patients and 128 controls were used in the case control study. Twenty three case-persons (72%) and 32 control-persons (25%) farmed in swampy areas (ORadj = 7.5; 95%CI = 2.3-24); 20 case-patients (63%) and 32 control-persons (25%) who farmed reported presence of monkeys in agriculture fields (ORadj = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.1-8.6); and 20 case-patients (63%) and 35 control-persons (27%) farmed in forest areas (ORadj = 3.2; 95%CI = 0.93-11). No study participants reported yellow fever vaccination. Sylvatic monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes were identified in the nearby forest areas. CONCLUSION: This yellow fever outbreak was likely sylvatic and transmitted to a susceptible population probably by mosquito bites during farming in forest and swampy areas. A reactive vaccination campaign was conducted in the affected districts after the outbreak. We recommended introduction of yellow fever vaccine into the routine Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization and enhanced yellow fever surveillance.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haplorrinos/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Uganda/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 68: 88-93, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most geographically widespread tick-borne viral infection. Outbreaks of CCHF in sub-Saharan Africa are largely undetected and thus under-reported. On November 9, 2015, the National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory at the Uganda Virus Research Institute received an alert for a suspect VHF case in a 33-year-old male who presented with VHF compatible signs and symptoms at Mengo Hospital in Kampala. METHODS: A blood sample from the suspect patient was tested by RT-PCR for CCHF and found positive. Serological testing on sequential blood specimens collected from this patient showed increasing anti-CCHFV IgM antibody titers, confirming recent infection. Repeat sampling of the confirmed case post recovery showed high titers for anti-CCHFV-specific IgG. An epidemiological outbreak investigation was initiated following the initial RT-PCR positive detection to identify any additional suspect cases. RESULTS: Only a single acute case of CCHF was detected from this outbreak. No additional acute CCHF cases were identified following field investigations. Environmental investigations collected 53 tick samples, with only 1, a Boophilus decoloratus, having detectable CCHFV RNA by RT-PCR. Full-length genomic sequencing on a viral isolate from the index human case showed the virus to be related to the DRC (Africa 2) lineage. CONCLUSIONS: This is the fourth confirmed CCHF outbreak in Uganda within 2 years after more than 50 years of no reported human CCHF cases in this country. Our investigations reaffirm the endemicity of CCHFV in Uganda, and show that exposure to ticks poses a significant risk for human infection. These findings also reflect the importance of having an established national VHF surveillance system and diagnostic capacity in a developing country like Uganda, in order to identify the first cases of VHF outbreaks and rapidly respond to reduce secondary cases. Additional efforts should focus on implementing effective tick control methods and investigating the circulation of CCHFV throughout the country.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Carrapatos/virologia , Uganda , Células Vero
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(6): 1001-1004, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28518032

RESUMO

In September 2014, a single fatal case of Marburg virus was identified in a healthcare worker in Kampala, Uganda. The source of infection was not identified, and no secondary cases were identified. We describe the rapid identification, laboratory diagnosis, and case investigation of the third Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/epidemiologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/prevenção & controle , Marburgvirus/genética , Filogenia , Adulto , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Marburgvirus/classificação , Marburgvirus/isolamento & purificação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 42(2): 149-54, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16760796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Africa, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are hindered by limited uptake by women and their male partners. Routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT) during labor has been proposed as a way to increase PMTCT uptake, but little data exist on the impact of such intervention in a programmatic context in Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS: In May 2004, PMTCT services were established in the antenatal clinic (ANC) of a 200-bed hospital in rural Uganda; in December 2004, ANC PMTCT services became opt-out, and routine opt-out intrapartum HCT was established in the maternity ward. We compared acceptability, feasibility, and uptake of maternity and ANC PMTCT services between December 2004 and September 2005. RESULTS: HCT acceptance was 97% (3591/3741) among women and 97% (104/107) among accompanying men in the ANC and 86% (522/605) among women and 98% (176/180) among their male partners in the maternity. Thirty-four women were found to be HIV seropositive through intrapartum testing, representing an 12% (34/278) increase in HIV infection detection. Of these, 14 received their result and nevirapine before delivery. The percentage of women discharged from the maternity ward with documented HIV status increased from 39% (480/1235) to 88% (1395/1594) over the period. Only 2.8% undocumented women had their male partners tested in the ANC in contrast to 25% in the maternity ward. Of all male partners who presented to either unit, only 48% (51/107) came together and were counseled with their wife in the ANC, as compared with 72% (130/180) in the maternity ward. Couples counseled together represented 2.8% of all persons tested in the ANC, as compared with 37% of all persons tested in the maternity ward. CONCLUSION: Intrapartum HCT may be an acceptable and feasible way to increase individual and couple participation in PMTCT interventions.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Uganda
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