Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 182
Filtrar
1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570944

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in the role of pet ownership, particularly dog ownership, in managing noncommunicable diseases. The built environment can act as a facilitator or barrier to owning a dog or dog walking. Nevertheless, limited studies conducted in different geographical contexts have examined how the built environment can influence dog ownership and dog walking. In this interdisciplinary article, using Japan as a case study, we identify key design challenges to owning and walking dogs in dense urban areas as a means of promoting health and wellbeing.

2.
Hypertens Res ; 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379916

RESUMO

Sedentary behavior is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it remains unclear whether sedentary behavior is associated with the deterioration of arterial blood pressure regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the time spent in sedentary behavior and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) in healthy adults. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between sedentary time and cBRS in 179 adults aged 22-81 years. Sedentary time was objectively measured using a triaxial accelerometer. cBRS was evaluated by the transfer function gain of beat-by-beat changes in systolic blood pressure and the R-R interval during 5 min of spontaneous resting. Glycemic, lipidemic, and vascular risk factors were measured as potential covariates of cBRS and sedentary behavior. Men had a longer sedentary time and lower cBRS than women (p = 0.001). In a simple correlation analysis, older age was negatively associated with cBRS and positively associated with sedentary time, but sedentary time was not correlated with cBRS. However, after adjustment for age and sex, a longer sedentary time was associated with a lower cBRS. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sedentary time was independently associated with lower cBRS with adjustment for covariates (ß = -0.325, p = 0.002). A significant association was also confirmed when the analysis was performed separately in the younger and older groups. This finding suggests that high sedentary behavior may have an adverse effect on arterial blood pressure regulation.

3.
Pain Manag ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311355

RESUMO

Aim: This study examined the associations between psychological inflexibility (PI) and physical disability (PD) among older patients with chronic low back and knee pain. Methods: Pain avoidance and cognitive fusion were assessed in outpatients as components of PI and PD, and sociodemographic and pain-related variables were used as covariates. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used. The covariates were first entered, followed by PI. Results: Age and pain intensity had significant positive associations with PD. After adding PI, only pain avoidance was significantly and positively associated with PD. Conclusion: Focusing on pain avoidance may be effective for physical disability when acceptance and commitment therapy is administered to older patients with chronic low back and knee pain.


Recently, psychological inflexibility (PI) as a psychological process of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has attracted attention in the treatment of chronic pain. However, previous studies have not found a relationship between PI and physical disability (PD) in older patients with chronic lower limb pain. This study investigated whether PI is associated with PD in older patients with chronic low back and knee pain. PI, PD and sociodemographic and pain-related variables were measured using a questionnaire. The results showed that pain avoidance in PI was associated with PD, whereas cognitive fusion was not. Focusing on pain avoidance may be effective for physical disability when ACT is administered to older patients with chronic low back and knee pain.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 626, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the negative relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or muscular fitness and diabetes mellitus were respectively observed in many previous studies, there is still a lack of studies that include CRF and muscular fitness simultaneously. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the combination of CRF and muscular fitness and diabetes through a cross-sectional study.  METHODS: This study was part of WASEDA'S Health Study, a cohort study launched in 2014. We used a part of the baseline data collected for this study. Maximal exercise test using a cycle ergometer and leg extension power (LEP) test were respectively used to evaluate CRF and muscular fitness. Since LEP is affected by body weight, relative LEP (rLEP) which is LEP per body weight, was used as an index of muscular fitness. 796 men (56.5 ± 10.4 years old) who completed a medical examination and fitness tests, were divided into two groups based on CRF and rLEP, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was collected based on a self-reported questionnaire or blood test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of diabetes were obtained using logistic regression models while adjusting for age, body mass index, exercise habits, family history of diabetes, smoking habits, and drinking habits. RESULTS: 55 (7%) participants had diabetes. Compared to participants with lower CRF or rLEP, the odds ratio (95% CIs) of diabetes in those with higher CRF or rLEP was 0.46 (0.21-0.98) or 0.34 (0.16-0.74), respectively. Furthermore, using the lower CRF and lower rLEP group as the reference, the odds ratio (95% CIs) for the lower CRF and higher rLEP group was 0.32 (0.12-0.88), and higher CRF and higher rLEP group was 0.21 (0.07-0.63), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: CRF and rLEP have independent and joint inverse associations with diabetes prevalence. In addition, participants with high CRF and high rLEP had a lower prevalence of diabetes compared to those with only high CRF or only high rLEP.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Prevalência
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the numbers of Japanese people living around Asia has become larger and larger. A previous study suggested that obesity and overweight are growing health problems both in Malaysia and worldwide that result from lifestyle changes such as a decrease in physical activity, an increase in sedentary behaviour, and poor eating habits. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate that effects of differences in social demographic factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviour and health-related quality of life by age in Japanese living oversea. METHODS: We surveyed 109 participants by self-entered questionnaire for social demographic factors, domain-specific sedentary behaviour by life scenario, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) on health-related quality of life Subjects were divided into the ≥65 years group and <65 years group. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted in age, employment, alcohol intake, and marital status between the groups, whereas none were noted for transportation, driving, television viewing, and smart phone/personal computer use. Work time and total sitting time of sedentary behaviour were higher, and leisure time activity and SF-36 Mental Component Score for health-related quality of life were lower in the <65 years group. CONCLUSION: By assessing differences in social demographic factors and discouraging sedentary behaviour, sitting time in overseas-dwelling Japanese residents may be reduced and effective health-related quality of life strategies can be developed to combat such behaviour.

6.
Exp Gerontol ; 161: 111717, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of aging-induced male-specific disorders is accelerated by impaired renal function. Although aging-induced male-specific disorders are clinically serious complications in individuals with reduced renal function, their practical management strategies remain obscure. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between daily behavioral and sleep patterns and aging-induced male-specific disorders in individuals with reduced renal function. METHODS: Eighty men with glomerular filtration rate stage 2-4 (age, 67 ± 9 years), sedentary behavior and physical activity were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. The mean sleep time was calculated from the sleep time during the accelerometer measurement. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Aging-induced male-specific disorders were assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Questionnaire (AMS). RESULTS: A lower moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) time and a higher PSQI score were independently associated with a higher AMS score. Moreover, when the participants were divided into four groups according to the median MVPA values and the PSQI score (more or less than 6 points), the AMS score was the highest in those with a lower MVPA time and a higher PSQI score. In the mediation analysis, the PSQI score did not mediate a correlation between the MVPA time and AMS score. MVPA time also did not mediate a correlation between the PSQI and AMS scores. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that increasing MVPA time and improving sleep quality may contribute to attenuating aging-induced male-specific disorders in individuals with reduced renal function.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino
7.
Front Nutr ; 9: 779967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155537

RESUMO

Although many studies have reported that a posteriori dietary pattern is associated with metabolic health, there is little evidence of an association between dietary patterns and different metabolic phenotypes. The present study aimed to examine the association between major dietary patterns and different metabolic phenotypes (metabolically healthy non-obese [MHNO], metabolically unhealthy non-obese [MUNO], metabolically healthy obese [MHO], and metabolically unhealthy obese [MUO]) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2,170 Japanese adults aged ≥40 years. The four different metabolic phenotypes were determined based on the presence of obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. The major dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis based on energy-adjusted food intake. Two dietary patterns were identified: the healthy dietary pattern, which was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms, seaweeds, and fish; and the alcohol dietary pattern, which was characterized by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken, and fish. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with the MHNO and MHO phenotypes (MUNO and MUO as reference groups, respectively), and the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in the highest quartile of healthy dietary pattern score with the lowest quartile as the reference category were 2.10 (1.40-3.15) and 1.86 (1.06-3.25), respectively. Conversely, the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the MHNO and MHO phenotypes, while the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the highest quartile of the alcohol dietary pattern score with the lowest quartile as the reference category were 0.63 (0.42-0.94) and 0.45 (0.26-0.76), respectively. There were no significant interactions between sex and healthy/alcohol dietary patterns in the prevalence of the MHNO and MHO phenotypes. In conclusion, the present study's findings suggest that major dietary patterns are associated with different metabolic phenotypes in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults. These findings provide useful evidence for maintaining metabolic health through diet regardless of obesity status.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 195, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996917

RESUMO

Workplace settings-both internal and external-can influence how workers are physically active or sedentary. Although research has identified some indoor environmental attributes associated with sitting at work, few studies have examined associations of workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with workplace sitting time. We examined the cross-sectional associations of perceived and objective workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with sitting time at work and for transport among desk-based workers in Japan. Data were collected from a nationwide online survey. The Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (n = 2137) and Walk Score® (for a subsample of participants; n = 1163) were used to assess perceived and objective built-environment attributes of workplace neighbourhoods. Self-reported daily average sitting time at work, in cars and in public transport was measured using a Japanese validated questionnaire. Linear regression models estimated the associations of workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with sitting time. All perceived workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes were positively correlated with Walk Score®. However, statistically significant associations with Walk Score® were found for sitting for transport but not for sitting at work. Workers who perceived their workplace neighbourhoods to be more walkable reported a longer time sitting at work and in public transport but a shorter sitting time in cars. Our findings suggest that walkable workplace neighbourhoods may discourage longer car use but have workplaces where workers spend a long time sitting at work. The latter finding further suggests that there may be missed opportunities for desk-based workers to reduce sitting time. Future workplace interventions to reduce sitting time may be developed, taking advantage of the opportunities to take time away from work in workplace neighbourhoods.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Descrição de Cargo , Saúde do Trabalhador , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Transportes , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Innov Aging ; 5(4): igab044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in 6 different domains of sedentary behavior and happiness and whether social capital mediated such associations among adults and older adults living in a rural area of Japan. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 3,357 participants (mean age: 60 ± 16 years) were used. 6 domains of sedentary behavior, happiness, and social capital were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Age-stratified multivariable linear regression models adjusted for covariates were used to examine the associations between 6 domains of sedentary behavior and happiness. For relationships where the direct effect was significant, we tested the mediating effects of 2 social capital measures. RESULTS: Among both adults and older adults, more time spent viewing television was significantly associated with lower happiness scores, and more time spent engaging in other leisure activities was significantly associated with higher happiness scores. In addition, more time spent using cell phones and computers was significantly associated with lower happiness scores among the adults. Engaging in activities with neighbors significantly mediated the relationship between other leisure activities and happiness in the adults and older adults, and between television viewing and happiness in the older adults. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings indicated that less television viewing and more mentally active sedentary behavior (e.g., talking with others and engaging in hobbies) were associated with greater happiness. One aspect of social capital, engaging in activities with neighbors, acts as a potential mediator for relationships between sedentary behavior and happiness.

10.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5523-5530, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A limited number of studies have developed simple anthropometric equations that can be implemented for predicting muscle mass in the local community. Several studies have suggested calf circumference as a simple and accurate surrogate maker for muscle mass. We aimed to develop and cross-validate a simple anthropometric equation, which incorporates calf circumference, to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore, we conducted a comparative validity assessment of our equation with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and two previously reported equations using similar variables. METHODS: ASM measurements were recorded for 1262 participants (837 men, 425 women) aged 40 years or older. Participants were randomly divided into the development or validation group. Stepwise multiple linear regression was applied to develop the DXA-measured ASM prediction equation. Parameters including age, sex, height, weight, waist circumference, and calf circumference were incorporated as predictor variables. Total error was calculated as the square root of the sum of the square of the difference between DXA-measured and predicted ASMs divided by the total number of individuals. RESULTS: The most optimal ASM prediction equation developed was: ASM (kg) = 2.955 × sex (men = 1, women = 0) + 0.255 × weight (kg) - 0.130 × waist circumference (cm) + 0.308 × calf circumference (cm) + 0.081 × height (cm) - 11.897 (adjusted R2 = 0.94, standard error of the estimate = 1.2 kg). Our equation had smaller total error and higher intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values than those for BIA and two previously reported equations, for both men and women (men, total error = 1.2 kg, ICC = 0.91; women, total error = 1.1 kg, ICC = 0.80). The correlation between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM by the present equation was not significantly different from the correlation between DXA-measured ASM and BIA-measured ASM. CONCLUSIONS: The equation developed in this study can predict ASM more accurately as compared to equations where calf circumference is used as the sole variable and previously reported equations; it holds potential as a reliable and an effective substitute for estimating ASM.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Exp Gerontol ; 154: 111531, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive sedentary behavior may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The nephron index is a novel methodology for non-invasively estimating the number of functional nephrons, under the assumption that serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations should correlate with phosphate excretion per nephron. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily sedentary time and the nephron index in middle-aged and older adults with or without CKD. METHODS: The daily time spent in sedentary behavior was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer in 294 participants (182 non-CKD adults and 112 CKD patients). The nephron index value was calculated by measuring blood and spot urine phosphate and creatinine, together with serum FGF23 concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: We observed that advancing age and CKD were associated with a progressive decrease in the nephron index value. Additionally, CKD patients with more sedentary time also had a greater nephron index decrease compared to those with less sedentary time (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the independent association between sedentary time and the nephron index after adjusting for age, sex, presence of CKD, overweight/obesity, medication use, and total wear time (ß = -0.13, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional findings suggest that age- or CKD-related decreases in the estimated nephron number (that is, the nephron index) may be accelerated by increased sedentary behavior.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Néfrons
12.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 39(6): 1091-1100, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of sedentary time and physical activity time with bone density in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The isotemporal substitution (IS) modeling was used to estimate the beneficial effects of behavioral changes (e.g., replacing sedentary time with physical activity time) on bone density in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 92 patients with CKD (age: 65 ± 9 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate: 57 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) were included in this cross-sectional study. The times spent in sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Through quantitative ultrasound measurements, the stiffness index, as a measure of bone density, was calculated using the speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, the stiffness index was beneficially associated with the MVPA time (ß = 0.748), but was not significantly associated with the SB and LPA times. The IS models showed that replacing 10 min/day of SB with the equivalent LPA time was not significantly associated with the stiffness index; however, replacing 10 min/day of SB with the equivalent MVPA time was beneficially associated with the stiffness index (ß = 0.804). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a small increase in MVPA time (e.g., 10 min/day) may attenuate the decline in bone density in patients with CKD. Our findings may provide insight for the development of novel strategies for improving bone health in patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5566880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211629

RESUMO

Previous studies have not investigated the determinants of resting oxidative stress, including physical fitness, as it relates to redox regulation. The present study therefore was aimed at identifying lifestyle and biological factors that determine resting oxidative stress, including objectively measured physical fitness. In 873 middle-aged and elderly men and women, age and anthropometric parameters, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status, as well as three plasma oxidative stress markers: protein carbonyl (PC), F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were surveyed and measured. The determinants of PC, F2-IsoP, and TBARS in all participants were investigated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. In PC, age (ß = -0.11, P = 0.002), leg extension power (ß = -0.12, P = 0.008), BMI (ß = 0.12, P = 0.004), and HDL-C (ß = 0.08, P = 0.040) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.018). In the F2-IsoP, smoking status (ß = 0.07, P = 0.060), BMI (ß = 0.07, P = 0.054), and HbA1c (ß = -0.06, P = 0.089) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.006). In TBARS, glucose (ß = 0.18, P < 0.001), CRF (ß = 0.16, P < 0.001), age (ß = 0.15, P < 0.001), TG (ß = 0.11, P = 0.001), antioxidant supplementation (ß = 0.10, P = 0.002), and HbA1c (ß = -0.13, P = 0.004) were included in the regression model (adjusted R 2 = 0.071). In conclusion, the present study showed that age, anthropometric index, lifestyle-related parameters, medication and supplementation status, objectively measured physical fitness, biochemical parameters, and nutritional intake status explain less than 10% of oxidative stress at rest.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256880

RESUMO

The association between a dietary pattern characterised by high alcohol intake and dyslipidaemia has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2171 men and women aged ≥40 years who were alumni of a Japanese university. To identify dietary patterns, a principal component analysis was performed based on the energy-adjusted food intake estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified, the second of which was named the alcohol dietary pattern and was characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish. This alcohol dietary pattern was associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol levels. The fully adjusted OR (95 % CI) of high LDL-cholesterol for the lowest through highest quartile of alcohol dietary pattern score were 1·00 (reference), 0·83 (0·64, 1·08), 0·84 (0·64, 1·10) and 0·68 (0·49, 0·94), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women, whereas it was positively associated with high TAG levels in men. In conclusion, the alcohol dietary pattern, characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish, was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This finding provides useful information for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia by modifying the diet.

15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(10): e685-e688, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between domain-specific sedentary and active behaviors and workers' presenteeism and absenteeism in a sample of company employees. METHODS: This study recruited participants (n = 2466) from a nationwide online survey database (Japan, 2019). Participants completed a questionnaire that captured data on relative and absolute presenteeism and absenteeism and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behaviors. RESULTS: Daily minutes of work-related physical activity were negatively associated with relative absenteeism. Daily minutes of leisure-related physical activity were positively associated with absolute presenteeism (ie, better productivity). Daily minutes of total physical activity were negatively and positively associated with relative absenteeism and absolute presenteeism (ie, better productivity). There was also a positive association between car sitting time and absolute absenteeism. CONCLUSIONS: A change in work culture and practices that support active behaviors at work and outside of work may improve employee's productivity indices.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Presenteísmo , Eficiência , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101439, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178590

RESUMO

Sedentary behaviour is associated with risks of detrimental health outcomes. It is crucial to understand how much time people spend in sedentary behaviour and what factors affect too much sedentary time for effective intervention. However, few studies examined the prevalence and the correlates of sedentary behaviour in Japan. Therefore, we assessed total sedentary time and its sociodemographic correlates using a nationally representative sample of adults in Japan. Cross-sectional data from Sports-Life Survey in 2016 and 2018 conducted by Sasagawa Sports Foundation was used. Participants' sociodemographic factors and total sedentary time were collected by questionnaires. We classified those with <8 h/day of total sedentary time as "low-sedentary" and those with ≥8 h/day of total sedentary time as "high-sedentary". A multiple logistic regression model was applied to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of each variable with the "high-sedentary" group (≥8 h/day). In total, 5,346 participants were included in the analyses. On average, time spent in sedentary behaviour was 5.3 h/day (SD = 3.7) among Japanese adults. The percentage of "high-sedentary" was 25.3% (95% CI: 24.1-26.4) and higher body mass index (≥25 kg/m2), being unmarried, unemployment, and higher educational level (graduate school or university) were positively associated with being "high-sedentary". In conclusion, higher sedentary time was among people with higher body mass index, being unmarried, unemployed, and higher education. Intervention for reducing sedentary time should be developed, targeting people with these characteristics.

17.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101393, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123713

RESUMO

Walk Score® is a free web-based tool that provides a walkability score for any given location. A limited number of North American studies have found associations between Walk Score® and perceived built environment attributes, yet it remains unknown whether similar associations exist in Asian countries. The study's objective is to examine the covariate-adjusted correlations between the Walk Score® metric and measures of the perceived built environment in ultrahigh density areas of Japan. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a randomly selected sample of adult residents living in two Japanese urban localities. There was a large correlation between Walk Score® and access to shops (0.58; p < 0.001). There were medium correlations between Walk Score® and population density (0.38; p < 0.001), access to public transport (0.34; p < 0.001), presence of sidewalks (0.41; p < 0.001), and access to recreational facilities (0.37; p < 0.001), and there was a small correlation between Walk Score® and presence of bike lanes (0.16; p < 0.001). There was a small negative correlation between Walk Score® and traffic safety (-0.13; p < 0.001). There was a medium correlation between Walk Score® and overall perceived walkability (0.48; p < 0.001). This study's findings highlight that Walk Score® was correlated with several perceived walkable environment attributes in the context of ultrahigh density areas in Asia.

18.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 34(5): 829-835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee remain unsatisfied after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We postulated that to increase satisfaction, self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity should receive more attention in rehabilitative intervention, alongside the management of patient expectations, pain, and function. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative impact of Physical Activity SE on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) alongside other factors such as pain and physical function which are well-addressed by current interventions. METHODS: One hundred and six first-TKA recipients (15 Male/91 Female, age 73.6 ± 7.2) were evaluated at 3 and 6 months post-operatively using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36v2) for HRQOL, knee extension strength measurement, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), One Leg Standing time test (OLS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain and function, and an instrument for measuring Physical Activity SE among the frail elderly in Japan. RESULTS: Significant improvement over pre-operative values was found at 3 and 6 months in TUG, OLS, WOMAC Pain and Function, and the 8 subscales of the SF-36v2. Factors found to significantly impact SF-36v2 subscale scores at 6 months post-operatively were found to be knee pain, knee function, and SE for physical activity. CONCLUSION: These results support our postulation that interventions to improve SE for physical activity could have comparable impact alongside interventions for knee pain and knee function, on the advancement of HRQOL among TKA recipients.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Equilíbrio Postural , Qualidade de Vida , Autoeficácia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836010

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify typologies of diurnal sedentary behavior patterns and sociodemographic characteristics of desk-based workers. The sedentary time of 229 desk-based workers was measured using accelerometer devices. The within individual diurnal variations in sedentary time was calculated for both workdays and non-workdays. Diurnal variations in sedentary time during each time period (morning, afternoon, and evening) was calculated as the percentage of sedentary time during each time period divided by the percentage of the total sedentary time. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward's method) was used to identify the optimal number of clusters. To refine the initial clusters, a non-hierarchical cluster analysis (k-means method) was performed. Four clusters were identified: stable sedentary cluster (46.7%), off-morning break cluster (26.6%), off-afternoon break cluster (8.3%), and evening sedentary cluster (18.3%). The stable sedentary cluster had the lowest variations in sedentary time throughout the day and the highest amount of total sedentary time. Participants in the off-morning and off-afternoon break clusters had nearly the same sedentary patterns but took short-term breaks during non-workday mornings or afternoons. The evening sedentary cluster had a completely different pattern, with a longer sedentary time during the evening both on workdays and non-workdays. Sociodemographic attributes such as sex, household income, educational attainment, employment status, sleep duration, and residential area, differed significantly between groups. Initiatives to address desk-based workers' sedentary behavior need to focus not only on the workplace but also on the appropriate timing for reducing excessive sedentary time in non-work contexts depending on the characteristics and diurnal patterns of target subgroups.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/métodos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada , Sono/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7691, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833261

RESUMO

Few longitudinal residential relocation studies have explored associations between urban form and physical activity, and none has used the Space Syntax theory. Using a Canadian longitudinal dataset (n = 5944), we estimated: (1) differences in physical activity between non-movers, and those relocating to neighbourhoods with less or more integrated street layouts, and; (2) associations between changes in street layout integration exposure and differences in physical activity. Adjusting for covariates, we found relative to non-movers, those who moved to more integrated neighbourhoods undertook significantly (p < .05) more leisure walking (27.3 min/week), moderate-intensity (45.7 min/week), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (54.4 min/week). Among movers, a one-unit increase in the relative change in street integration exposure ([Street integration at follow-up-street integration at baseline]/street integration at baseline) was associated with a 7.5 min/week increase in leisure walking. Our findings suggest that urban design policies that improve neighbourhood street integration might encourage more physical activity in adults.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Exercício Físico , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Alberta , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , População Urbana
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...