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1.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 896-909, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850897

RESUMO

Sanitation planners make complex decisions in the delivery of sanitation services to achieve health outcomes. We present findings from a stakeholder engagement workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, to educate, interact with, and solicit feedback from participants on how the relevant scientific literature on pathogens can be made more accessible to practitioners to support decision-making. We targeted Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practitioners involved in different levels of service delivery. Practitioners revealed that different sanitation planning tools are used to inform decision-making; however, most of these tools are not user-friendly or adapted to meet their needs. Most stakeholders (68%) expressed familiarity with pathogens, yet less than half (46%) understood that fecal coliforms were bacteria and used as indicators for fecal pollution. A number of stakeholders were unaware that fecal indicator bacteria do not behave and persist the same as helminths, protozoa, or viruses, making fecal indicator bacteria inadequate for assessing pathogen reductions for all pathogen groups. This suggests a need for awareness and capacity development around pathogens found in excreta. The findings underscore the importance to engage stakeholders in the development of support tools for sanitation planning and highlighted broader opportunities to bridge science with practice in the WASH sector.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Higiene , Saneamento/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uganda , Água
2.
J Environ Qual ; 47(5): 1130-1138, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272777

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) and diarrheagenic are waterborne pathogens commonly causing diarrhea in children below five years old worldwide. Our study is a first step toward a loads-concentrations-risk modeling and scenario analysis framework. We analyzed current and future human RV and indicator (EC) emissions from sanitation facilities to surface waters in Uganda using two process-based models. Emissions were estimated for the baseline year 2015 and for three scenarios in 2030 using population, excretion rates, sanitation types, and wastewater treatment. The first model is a downscaled GloWPa-Rota H1 version, producing emissions at a 1-km resolution. The second model is newly developed for Kampala and adds emissions from pit latrines and septic tanks excluded in the first model. The scenarios Business as Usual, Industrious, and Low Emissions reflect government prospects in sanitation coverage and wastewater treatment. For the first model, 6.14 × 10 RV particles d and 1.31 × 10 EC colony-forming units (CFU) d are emitted to surface waters in 2015. The RV emissions are expected to increase in 2030 by 75% for Business as Usual and 212% for Industrious and decrease by 58% in Low Emissions. Emissions from the second model are higher for Kampala than in the first model, at 3.74 × 10 vs. 5.95 × 10 RV particles d and 8.18 × 10 vs. 1.75 × 10 EC CFU d in 2015, most of which come from the onsite-not-contained category. Simulated emissions for Kampala show the importance of including onsite sanitation in our modeling. Our study is replicable in other locations and helps identify key emission sources, their hotspots, and the importance of wastewater treatment. The scenarios can guide future sanitation safety planning.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água Doce/microbiologia , Água Doce/virologia , Rotavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição da Água/análise , Humanos , Saneamento , Toaletes , Uganda , Águas Residuárias , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
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