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1.
Esophagus ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are both involved in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and play key roles in antioxidant responses. In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the correlation between the expression of these two proteins and the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT), as well as the difference in their expression after chemoradiotherapy, remains unknown. METHODS: Proteins involved in the Nrf2 pathway were immunolocalized in carcinoma cells in ESCC patients on NACRT with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, followed by esophagectomy. The 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were used to quantify reactive oxygen species. The changes in immunoreactivity before and after NACRT (Δ) were assessed. RESULTS: Tumor reduction following NACRT was significantly attenuated in pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens associated with high HO-1 status. TXNRD1Δ, HO-1Δ, and 8-OHdGΔ were significantly different in the ineffective and effective groups. The overall survival was significantly lower in high Nrf2 and TXNRD1 groups. In addition, high TXNRD1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate that HO-1 status in pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens could predict response to NACRT, and TXNRD1 status could predict overall survival of ESCC patients.

2.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3924393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803524

RESUMO

Pollen allergy to Japanese cedar and cypress is a serious illness that impairs daily life and sleep, especially during pollen season. We have reported that placing a cloth panel containing a specific natural ore powder (CCSNOP) in a room may alleviate the symptoms of hay fever and may also benefit the immune system. This ore is from the Aso mountain range, a volcano on Kyushu Island in the southwestern part of Japan. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of CCSNOP on cypress pollen. Thirty-one double-blind tests, which investigated cedar pollen allergies, were conducted from February to March 2018 and have already been reported. After this, in early April, 10 of these cases were recruited and all had CCSNOP installed in their bedrooms. Before that, various symptoms and changes in medication were recorded in a "Symptom Diary" and included a mood survey by a questionnaire, stress test using saliva amylase, changes in cypress-specific immunoglobulins IgE and IgG4 by blood sampling, and eosinophil changes. In addition, changes in 29 types of cytokines were investigated. Exposure to CCSNOP relieved symptoms and subjects decreased their intake of medication. There was no change in mood or stress, but eosinophil levels tended to decrease. Although there were no statistical changes in cypress-specific IgE or IgG4, an increase in the former and a decrease in the latter were observed in some individuals during the period of pollen dispersal. Furthermore, levels of GM-CSF and IL8 decreased significantly after use of CCSNOP. The CCSNOP was shown to be effective against cypress pollen allergy, and future investigations will be necessary to observe the long-term effects of CCSNOP.

3.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 97(8): 423-461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629354

RESUMO

In pancreatic islet cell culture models and animal models, we studied the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes. The diabetogenic agents, alloxan and streptozotocin, caused DNA strand breaks, which in turn activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase/synthetase (PARP) to deplete NAD+, thereby inhibiting islet ß-cell functions such as proinsulin synthesis and ultimately leading to ß-cell necrosis. Radical scavengers protected against the formation of DNA strand breaks and inhibition of proinsulin synthesis. Inhibitors of PARP prevented the NAD+ depletion, inhibition of proinsulin synthesis and ß-cell death. These findings led to the proposed unifying concept for ß-cell damage and its prevention (the Okamoto model). The model met one proof with PARP knockout animals and was further extended by the discovery of cyclic ADP-ribose as the second messenger for Ca2+ mobilization in glucose-induced insulin secretion and by the identification of Reg (Regenerating gene) for ß-cell regeneration. Physiological and pathological events found in pancreatic ß-cells have been observed in other cells and tissues.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503283

RESUMO

Necroptosis is a pivotal process in cancer biology; however, the clinical significance of necroptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to verify the potential involvement of necroptosis in the clinical outcome, chemotherapeutic resistance, and tumor microenvironment of ESCC. Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and phosphorylated MLKL (pMLKL) were immunohistochemically examined in 88 surgically resected specimens following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and 53 pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were also evaluated by immunolocalizing CD3, CD8, and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) in the residual tumors after NAC. High pMLKL status in the post-NAC resected specimens was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in ESCC patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high pMLKL status was an independent prognostic factor. In pre-NAC biopsy specimens, a high pMLKL status was significantly associated with a lower therapeutic efficacy. CD8+ TILs were significantly lower in the high-pMLKL group. FOXP3+ TILs were significantly higher in both high-MLKL and high-pMLKL groups. We first demonstrated pMLKL status as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients. Our study revealed the possible involvement of necroptosis in the immunosuppressive microenvironment, resulting in the attenuated therapeutic efficacy of NAC and eventual adverse clinical outcomes in ESCC.

6.
Int Heart J ; 62(5): 1106-1111, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544984

RESUMO

The proximal optimizing technique (POT) -proximal balloon edge dilation (PBED) sequence for side branch (SB) dilatation with cross-over single-stent implantation decreases both strut obstruction at the SB ostium and stent deformation at the main branch (MB).The purpose of this experimental bench test was to assess the impact of stent design on stent deformation, obstruction by stent struts at a jailed SB ostium, and stent strut malapposition in the POT-PBED sequence.Fractal coronary bifurcation bench models (60- and 80-degree angles) were used, and crossover single-stent implantation (3-link stent: XIENCE Sierra, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, n = 10; 2-link stent: Synergy, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, n = 10) was performed from the MB using the POT-PBED sequence. Jailing rates at the SB ostium, stent deformation, and stent strut malapposition of the bifurcation segment were assessed using videoscopy and optical coherence tomography.After SB dilatation using the PBED technique, jailing rates at the SB ostium and stent deformation did not differ significantly between the two types of stents. Conversely, the rate of malapposed struts of the bifurcation segment after the PBED procedure was significantly lower with 3-link stents than with 2-link stents for both 60- and 80-degree angles (60-degree angle: 4.3% ± 4.4% versus 22.0% ± 11.1%, P = 0.044; 80-degree angle: 20.8% ± 15.1% versus 57.2% ± 17.0%, P < 0.001, respectively).In the POT-PBED sequence, 3-link stents might be a preferable coronary bifurcation stent, maintaining a jailed SB ostium while significantly reducing stent strut malapposition of the bifurcation segment when compared with 2-link stents.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Desenho de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Stents/estatística & dados numéricos , Stents/tendências , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(35): 14360-14366, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459597

RESUMO

We report on our investigation of C-C bonding longer than 2.0 Å, which can be realized by perpendicularly facing two fluorenyl rings in the title compound. A small orbital overlap between the distantly positioned carbon atoms is observed as a small concentration of electrons on the X-ray electron density map. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the compound originate from the in-phase and out-of-phase interactions of the overlapping orbitals, respectively, with a gap of 2.39 eV. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy shows a sharp peak at 82.9 ppm for the long-bonded carbons, and a CASSCF(6,6) calculation indicates small diradical character. The experimental and theoretical analyses reveal sufficient covalent-bonding interaction in the long-bonded carbon pair.

8.
Surg Case Rep ; 7(1): 186, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal achalasia causes dysphagia following impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter due to the degeneration of Auerbach's plexus in the esophageal smooth muscle. Recently, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has become one of the preferred treatment options for esophageal achalasia. However, pathomorphological changes after POEM have not been well examined. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man with a history of POEM for esophageal achalasia was diagnosed with clinical stage II (cT2-N0-M0) thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and was consequently treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by thoracoscopic esophagectomy. Intraoperatively, the esophagus appeared dilated, reflecting esophageal achalasia; however, fairly slight fibrous adhesions were observed between the esophagus and the pericardial surface despite previously performed POEM via an anterior incision. Histopathological examination revealed esophageal wall thickening, edema, and fibrosis extending from the lamina propria to the submucosa. Besides, the majority of the inner layer and some proportion of the outer layer of the muscularis propria were found to be missing or atrophic at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). No ganglion cells could be detected at the Auerbach's plexus. CONCLUSIONS: The previous history of POEM did not affect circumferential mediastinal periesophageal dissection during thoracoscopic esophagectomy. Nevertheless, a large proportion of the inner layer of the muscularis propria at the EGJ level seemed to have become lost or atrophic because of the POEM procedure.

9.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(9): 788-793, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250704

RESUMO

AIM: As the population ages, the proportion aged ≥75 years is expected to increase. Many studies on peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) as treatment for esophageal achalasia have already been reported; however, few studies have been designed on patients aged ≥75 years. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of esophageal achalasia in patients >75 years and to evaluate the outcomes of POEM. METHODS: This study included 121 patients who underwent POEM for esophageal achalasia, which was divided into the geriatric (n = 18) group aged ≥75 and the young (n = 103) group ≤74 years. The characteristics of esophageal achalasia and the short-term outcomes after POEM in the geriatric group compared with the young group were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: The median age of the geriatric group was 78 years, and two patients were initially diagnosed with refractory pneumonia, and esophageal achalasia was initially overlooked. The preoperative Eckardt score of the geriatric group was significantly lower than that of the young group (4 vs. 6, P = 0.007), particularly in the regurgitation score. The Eckardt score and integrated relaxation pressure of both groups were significantly improved after POEM (P < 0.001). There were no cases of perioperative complications in the geriatric group. CONCLUSIONS: POEM for esophageal achalasia is a safe and effective treatment even in geriatric patients >75 years of age. In geriatric patients with recurrent or intractable pneumonia, it is important to rule out esophageal achalasia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 788-793.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Acalasia Esofágica , Miotomia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Idoso , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Esofagoscopia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1477, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis is one of the pivotal factors of the clinical outcomes of patients with esophageal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT). Both the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are frequently upregulated in various human malignancies and associated with resistance to chemoradiation therapy, subsequently resulting in adverse clinical outcomes. However, the Nrf2 and HO-1 status in lymph node metastasis and their differences between primary and metastatic lesions are unknown. AIMS: To examine the levels of Nrf2 signaling proteins and HO-1 in primary and metastatic lesions of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We immunolocalized Nrf2 signaling proteins in 69 patients with lymph node metastases, who received NACRT with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin before esophagectomy. We also compared the findings between primary and metastatic lesions. Residual lymph node metastases were detected in 30 patients and among them, both primary and metastatic lesions were available for evaluation in 25 patients. Subsequently, we correlated the results with patients' survival. Nrf2, HO-1, and the Ki-67 labeling index were all significantly lower in the patients with lymph node metastases than in those with primary tumors. Carcinoma cells with high HO-1 levels were significantly associated with pathological resistance to NACRT. These results suggested that overall and disease-free survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were significantly associated with both pN2 and high HO-1 levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression in the Nrf2 pathway was significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastases than in those with primary lesions. HO-1 levels in lymph node metastases could be used to predict the eventual clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer receiving NACRT.

11.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 44(4): 307-313, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267113

RESUMO

Although sepsis is known to cause functional decline, the prevalence and predictors of hospital-acquired functional decline (HAFD) in patients with sepsis are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of HAFD in patients with sepsis admitted to the ICU. This study is a single-center retrospective observational study from January 2014 to December 2019. We included all consecutive patients with sepsis who received rehabilitation in our ICU. The primary outcome was HAFD, which was defined as a decrease in at least five points of the Barthel index mobility score from prehospital to hospital discharge. We described the prevalence of HAFD and investigated the predictors of HAFD using the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Among 134 patients, 57 patients (42.5%) had HAFD. The longer time to initial ambulation and lower prehospital walking ability were associated with HAFD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.10 and adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.95, respectively). In conclusion, nearly half of the patients with sepsis who received rehabilitation developed HAFD. Lower functional status prior to hospitalization and the longer time to initial ambulation was associated with HAFD, indicating the potential importance of early ambulation among septic patients in the ICU.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
12.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 42, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074343

RESUMO

Since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has remained unknown whether conventional risk prediction tools used in intensive care units are applicable to patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we assessed the performance of established risk prediction models using the Japanese Intensive Care database. Discrimination and calibration of the models were poor. Revised risk prediction models are needed to assess the clinical severity of COVID-19 patients and monitor healthcare quality in ICUs overwhelmed by patients with COVID-19.

13.
J Neurochem ; 158(2): 311-327, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871064

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is initiated by activation of the brain's innate immune system in response to an inflammatory challenge. Insufficient control of neuroinflammation leads to enhanced or prolonged pathology in various neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) plays critical roles in cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Our previous study demonstrated that deletion of CD38, which consumes NAD+ , suppressed cuprizone-induced demyelination, neuroinflammation, and glial activation. However, it is still unknown whether CD38 directly affects neuroinflammation through regulating brain NAD+ level. In this study, we investigated the effect of CD38 deletion and inhibition and supplementation of NAD+ on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of LPS significantly increased CD38 expression especially in the hippocampus. Deletion of CD38 decreased LPS-induced inflammatory responses and glial activation. Pre-administration of apigenin, a flavonoid with CD38 inhibitory activity, or nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD+ precursor, increased NAD+ level, and significantly suppressed induction of cytokines and chemokines, glial activation and subsequent neurodegeneration after LPS administration. In cell culture, LPS-induced inflammatory responses were suppressed by treatment of primary astrocytes or microglia with apigenin, NAD+ , NR or 78c, the latter a specific CD38 inhibitor. Finally, all these compounds suppressed NF-κB signaling pathway in microglia. These results suggest that CD38-mediated neuroinflammation is linked to NAD+ consumption and that boosting NAD+ by CD38 inhibition and NR supplementation directly suppress neuroinflammation in the brain.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , NAD/metabolismo , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Animais , Apigenina/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Injeções Intraventriculares , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , NAD/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Degeneração Neural , Niacinamida/farmacologia
14.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1860-1868, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few registries have provided precise information concerning incidence rates for acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) in Japan.Methods and Results:All hospitals with acute care beds in Awaji Island participated in the Kobe University heart failure registry in Awaji Medical Center (KUNIUMI Registry), a retrospective, population-based AHFS registration study, enabling almost every patient with AHFS in Awaji Island to be registered. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017, 743 patients with de novo AHFS had been registered. Mean age was 82.1±11.5 years. Using the general population of Japan as of 2015 as a standard, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for AHFS were 133.8 per 100,000 person-years for male and 120.0 for female. In 2015, there were an estimated 159,702 new-onset patients with AHFS, which was predicted to increase to 252,153 by 2040, and reach a plateau. The proportion of patients aged >85 years accounted for 42.6% in 2015, which was predicted to increase up to 62.5% in 2040. The proportion of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was estimated at 52.0% in 2015, which was predicted to increase gradually to 57.3% in 2055. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis suggested that the number of patients with de novo AHFS keeps increasing with progressive aging in Japan. Establishment of countermeasures against the expanding burden of HF is urgently required.

15.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671683

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the biodegradable, water-insoluble polymer poly-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate (PHBH) and its two constituent monomers, the hydroxyalkanoic acids 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HH), on the growth of the shrimp-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio penaeicida. In vitro experiments revealed that 3HH showed greater growth inhibitory activity than 3HB against V. penaeicida. In addition, the activities of hydroxyalkanoic acids were pH dependent, being greater at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.0. Investigation of the pH of the shrimp gut revealed a pH range of 5.9-6.7 (mean 6.29 ± SD 0.20), indicating that the physiological environment was suitable for 3HB and 3HH to exert their inhibitory activities against V. penaeicida. In vivo bacterial challenge experiments revealed that survival rates in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) infected by V. penaeicida were significantly increased in shrimp reared on feed containing PHBH (0.1%-5% w/w PHBH) compared with that in shrimp reared on standard diet alone. Supplementation with PHBH had no significant effects on three shrimp growth parameters: increase in body weight, daily feeding rate, and feed conversion ratio. These results suggest that supplementation of standard diet with PHBH will increase shrimp resistance to infection by V. penaeicida, thereby increasing shrimp aquaculture productivity.

16.
Emerg Med J ; 38(12): 874-881, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the older population accounts for an increasing proportion of emergency department (ED), little is known about intubation-related adverse events in this high-risk population. We sought to determine whether advanced age is associated with a higher risk of intubation-related adverse events in the ED. METHODS: This is an analysis of data from a prospective, 15-centre, observational study-the second Japanese Emergency Airway Network (JEAN-2) study. The current analysis included adult (aged ≥18 years) patients who underwent intubation in the ED between 2012 and 2018. The primary exposure was age (18-39, 40-64, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years). The primary outcome was overall intubation-related adverse events during or immediately after an intubation. Adverse events were further categorised into major (hypotension, hypoxaemia, oesophageal intubation, cardiac arrest, dysrhythmia and death) and minor (endobronchial intubation, oesophageal intubation with early recognition, dental/lip trauma, airway trauma and regurgitation) adverse events. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for seven potential confounders with generalised estimating equations that account for patients clustering within the ED. RESULTS: Among 9714 patients eligible for the analysis, 15% were aged ≥85 years, and 16% had adverse events. In the unadjusted models, advanced age was not significantly associated with the risk of overall adverse events. In the adjusted models, the association was significant (adjusted OR 1.41 in age ≥85 years (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.81) compared with age 18-39 years). Specifically, older patients had a significantly higher risk of major adverse events (adjusted OR in age ≥85 years 2.65 (95% CI, 1.78 to 3.94)), which was driven by the association of advanced age with an increased risk of hypotension (adjusted OR in ≥85 years, 5.69 (95% CI, 3.13 to 10.37)). By contrast, advanced age was not associated with minor adverse events. CONCLUSION: Based on the data from a prospective multicentre study, advanced age was associated with higher risks of major adverse events.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638092

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend shorter duration (1-12 months) for dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in the second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) era. However, whether shorter DAPT duration affects stent strut conditions and neointimal characteristics at mid-term follow-up remains uncertain. Therefore, we studied the relation between DAPT duration and vascular healing response as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). This study was retrospective observational study. Participants comprised 64 patients who underwent serial OCT at both 9 and 18 months after DES implantation. All patients received DAPT until the 9-month follow-up then were divided into two groups: 49 patients who continued DAPT (longer DAPT group); and 15 patients who stopped taking the P2Y12 inhibitor and were treated with aspirin alone (shorter DAPT group) at the 18-month follow-up. Using OCT, we evaluated and compared stent strut conditions and neointimal characteristics between groups at both 9 and 18 months after stent implantation. Baseline clinical and procedural parameters were mostly similar between groups. At the 18-month follow-up, no in-stent thrombus assessed by OCT was observed in either group. No significant differences in OCT characteristics or measurements of neointima were seen between groups at 9- or 18-month follow-ups. Neointimal volume increased from 9 to 18 months in both groups, with a similar degree of neointimal proliferation in both groups (shorter DAPT group, 0.23 ± 0.29 mm3/mm; longer DAPT group, 0.19 ± 0.27 mm3/mm; P = 0.56). In conclusion, interrupting DAPT 9 months after second-generation DES implantation did not affect the development of in-stent thrombus, neointimal proliferation or stent strut coverage at 18-month follow-up compared with continuing DAPT.

18.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 58(1): 101-110, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627545

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the longitudinal association between health literacy and frailty status at two-year follow-up in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A total of 218 older adults (mean age, 72.5±4.9 [range 65-86] years old; men, n=81) without frailty at baseline participated in this study. Functional health literacy was assessed using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Comprehensive health literacy was assessed using the 47-item European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47). Comprehensive health literacy indices are constructed as a general health literacy index comprising all items along with the three sub-indices of health care, disease prevention, and health promotion domains. Demographic data and other potential confounding factors were also assessed. The total Kihon checklist score was used to monitor the presence of frailty based on a score of ≥8 at the 2-year follow-up (postal survey). RESULTS: Of the 253 participants in the follow-up survey, 226 responded (response rate: 89.3%). Excluding the 8 participants with missing values, 25 (11.5%) of the 218 were reported to be frail. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that comprehensive health literacy (total score of HLS-EU-Q47) was independently associated with a lower risk of frailty (odds ratio per standard deviation = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.33-0.87) after adjusting for the covariates (age, gender, education, body mass index, gait speed, cognitive function, and comorbidities). The health care and disease prevention domain scores of the HLS-EU-Q47 were also independently associated with a lower risk of frailty. Functional health literacy (NVS score) was not associated with frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with higher comprehensive health literacy are less likely to be frail at two-year follow-up than those with a lower literacy.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Letramento em Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(2): 422-426, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527334

RESUMO

The patient was a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia. He had a history of esophageal dysphagia and vomiting and presented with sudden strong epigastric pain. He was taken to a medical emergency center in a state of septic shock. Computed tomography revealed a left thoracic abscess, and esophageal rupture was suspected. He was referred to our department for treatment. Gastrointestinal series and gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed marked esophageal dilation and strong contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter. We, therefore, diagnosed the patient with empyema thoracis secondary to aspiration pneumonia due to esophageal achalasia. Conservative treatment with antibiotics and computed tomography-guided chest drainage was initiated, but the inflammation persisted. Thus, we successfully performed a per-oral endoscopic myotomy to manage achalasia symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Empiema , Acalasia Esofágica , Choque Séptico , Adulto , Acalasia Esofágica/complicações , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior , Humanos , Masculino , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 163, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the characteristics, inflammatory laboratory finding trends, and outcomes among critically ill Japanese patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single institution in the center of Tokyo. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 19 to April 30, 2020 were included. Trends for significant inflammatory laboratory findings were analyzed. In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included. Median age was 57.5 years, and 79% were male. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated to a median of 10.1 on admission and peaked on Day 10 of illness. Seventeen patients were intubated on Day 11 of illness and received mechanical ventilation. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The majority (88%) received systemic steroids, including 16 patients who received high dose methylprednisolone (500-1000 mg). Favipiravir was used in 38% of patients. Two patients, including 1 who refused intensive care, died. Eighteen patients were discharged. Median length of ICU and hospital stay for all patients was 6 and 22 days, respectively. Median length of ventilator dependency was 7 days. Four patients underwent a tracheostomy and received prolonged ventilation for more than 21 days. One patient receiving mechanical ventilation died. All survivors discontinued ventilator use. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was remarkably low in our single institutional study. Three survivors received mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. Trends of clinically significant laboratory markers reflected the clinical course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tóquio
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