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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19992, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620897

RESUMO

The importance of maintaining the remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been overlooked. Here we aimed to clarify factors causing NAFLD recurrence. In this retrospective cohort study over 10.8 ± 5.4 years, we investigated 1260 male health check-up participants diagnosed with NAFLD who achieved remission. The data were compared between the maintained remission and recurrence group. Among all participants, 618 (49.0%) showed NAFLD recurrence at the last visit. Participants in the maintained remission group continued to lose weight (72.7 ± 9.1, 68.7 ± 8.5 and 68.2 ± 8.9 kg), whereas those in the recurrence group lost and regained weight (72.9 ± 9.9, 69.7 ± 9.3 and 73.0 ± 10.4 kg). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a weight regain of + 1.5 kg as the cutoff value for recurrence. The proportion of regular exercisers at the last visit was 34.6% in the maintained remission group and 24.5% in the recurrence group (p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed the amount of weight regain (in 1 kg increments; adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.34) and regular exercise at the last visit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.89) were independently associated with recurrence. These findings demonstrate a weight regain of 1.5 kg or more and lack of exercise were associated with NAFLD recurrence.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578892

RESUMO

Salt intake is often estimated by the amount of sodium excreted in urine, and miso has been reported to increase it. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between obesity and high estimated salt intake with and without habitual miso consumption. Estimates of salt intake (g/day) were calculated using urinary sodium excretion, and a high estimated intake was defined as greater than the median amount of 9.5 g/day. Participants were divided into four groups based on estimated salt intake and miso consumption. Among 300 people, the proportions of obesity were 77.8% (n = 14/18), 40.2% (n = 53/132), 26.0% (n = 33/127), and 34.8% (n = 8/23) in the (+/-), (+/+), (-/+), and (-/-) groups of high estimated salt intake/habitual miso consumption, respectively. Compared with the (+/-) group, the adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.26, p < 0.001), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-0.76, p = 0.022), and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04-0.51, p = 0.003) in the (-/+), (-/-), and (+/+) groups, respectively. The presence of obesity was not much higher in people with high estimated salt intake with habitual miso consumption than that in people without. Clinicians should be aware that miso consumption promotes salt excretion, which may lead to an apparently higher estimated salt intake than actual.

3.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To clarify the relationship between metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: The participants were divided into four groups by the presence or absence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and metabolic dysfunction (MD). MAFLD was defined as having both FLD and MD, whereas CKD was defined as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study of 27,371 participants, the proportions of those in the non-FLD without MD, non-FLD with MD, FLD without MD, and MAFLD groups were 48.7, 28.2, 2.3, and 20.8%, respectively. Compared with non-FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio 1.83 [1.66-2.01], P < 0.001), whereas FLD without MD was not (1.02 [0.79-1.33], P = 0.868). Moreover, compared with FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of CKD (1.19 [1.09-1.31], P < 0.001). In this retrospective cohort study, 16,938 of 27,371 participants underwent a median 4.6 (2.0-8.1) years follow-up, and incident data of non-FLD without MD, non-FLD with MD, FLD without MD, and MAFLD were 21.0, 31.1, 26.1, and 31.1 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Compared with the non-FLD without MD, MAFLD was associated with the risk of incident CKD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.24 [1.14-1.36], P < 0.001), whereas FLD without MD was not (1.11 [0.85-1.41], P = 0.433). CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD was associated with a risk of CKD, whereas FLD without MD was not a risk for CKD.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371843

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the relationships between the intakes of various vitamins and the loss of muscle mass in older people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The change in skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) (kg/m2/year) was defined as follows: (SMI at baseline (kg/m2) - SMI at follow-up (kg/m2))/follow-up period (year). The rate of SMI reduction (%) was calculated as follows (the change in SMI (kg/m2/year)/SMI at baseline (kg/m2)) × 100. The rate of SMI reduction ≥ 1.2% was considered as the loss of muscle mass. Among 197 people with T2DM, 47.2% of them experienced the loss of muscle mass at the 13.7 ± 5.2 month follow-up. Vitamin B1 (0.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3 mg/day, p = 0.031), vitamin B12 (11.2 ± 8.3 vs. 13.4 ± 7.5 µg/day, p = 0.049), and vitamin D (16.5 ± 12.2 vs. 21.6 ± 13.0 µg/day, p = 0.004) intakes in people with the loss of muscle mass were significantly lower than those without. Vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass after adjusting for sex, age, exercise, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, SMI, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, insulin, HbA1c, creatinine, energy intake, and protein intake (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97, p = 0.003). This study showed that vitamin D intake was related to the loss of muscle mass in older people with T2DM. Vitamin B12 intake tended to be related to the loss of muscle mass, although vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E intake were not related.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcopenia/etiologia
5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 321, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis has a pivotal role in the development of chronic liver diseases, even in alcohol-related liver disease. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is an important phenotype among alcohol-related liver diseases. While metabolic syndrome is a dominant risk factor of incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the role of metabolic syndrome in alcoholic fatty liver disease has not been clarified yet. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a health check-up center in Japan. Subjects consisted of male participants without fatty liver who consumed ethanol of 420 g/week or higher. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals at the baseline examinations for incident alcoholic fatty liver disease were estimated using Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 640 participants were included in this study. During 3.91 years (IQR 1.63-7.09) of follow-up, 168 new cases of alcoholic fatty liver disease developed (49.1 cases per 1000 persons per year). After adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, the hazard ratio for a 1 kg/m2 increase in body mass index was 1.2 (1.12-1.28). The hazard ratio of subjects with high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were 1.56 (1.12-2.18) and 1.52 (1.03-2.25), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, high triglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia are independent risk factors of alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese men who consumed alcohol habitually. In people with these risks, triglyceride lowering and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol raising by improving insulin resistance and weight maintenance in addition to abstinence from alcohol would be effective in preventing the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305899

RESUMO

Background and aims: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in mice. Methods: In this study, the role of ILC2s in white adipose tissue (WAT) was investigated using ST2, an IL-33 receptor that is expressed on ILC2 knockout mice. Results: The deficiency of ST2 decreased ILC2s in WAT, whereas ex-ILC2, which acquired group 1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1)-like traits, was increased. This led to significant metabolic disorders such as visceral fat obesity, decreased browning in WAT, reduction of energy metabolism, and impaired glucose tolerance, compared to wild type (WT) mice. Those metabolic abnormalities of ST2-knockout (ST2KO) mice were not ameliorated by IL-33 administration, but impaired glucose tolerance and visceral fat obesity were significantly improved by transplantation of ILCs from the bone marrow of WT mice. The relative expression of Cd36 in WAT increased due to the deficiency of ST2, and the storage of saturated fatty acids in WAT of ST2KO mice was significantly higher than that of WT mice. Moreover, saturated fatty acids aggravated the chronic inflammation in adipocytes, promoted the differentiation of M1-like macrophages, and inhibited that of M2-like macrophages. Conclusions: Our results indicated that ILC2 regulates diet-induced obesity and chronic inflammation through the regulation of saturated fatty acid absorption in visceral adipose tissue.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995404

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Many nutritional and epidemiological studies have shown that high consumption of trans fatty acids can cause several adverse effects on human health, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trans fatty acids on innate immunity in the gut by observing mice fed with a diet high in trans fatty acids, which have been reported to cause dysbiosis. Methods: We used C57BL6/J mice and fed them with normal diet (ND) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or high-trans fatty acid, high-sucrose diet (HTHSD) for 12 weeks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on the mice stool samples, in addition to flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of the mice serum and liver samples. RAW264.7 cells were used for the in vitro studies. Results: Mice fed with HTHSD displayed significantly higher blood glucose levels and advanced fatty liver and intestinal inflammation, as compared to mice fed with HFHSD. Furthermore, compared to mice fed with HFHSD, mice fed with HTHSD displayed a significant elevation in the expression of CD36 in the small intestine, along with a reduction in the expression of IL-22. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the populations of ILC1s and T-bet-positive ILC3s in the lamina propria in mice fed with HTHSD. Finally, the relative abundance of the family Desulfovibrionaceae, which belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, was significantly higher in mice fed with HFHSD or HTHSD, than in mice fed with ND; between the HFHSD and HTHSD groups, the abundance was slightly higher in the HTHSD group. Conclusions: This study revealed that compared to saturated fatty acid intake, trans fatty acid intake significantly exacerbated metabolic diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver.

9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 223, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, to clarify the evolving background of people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we compared the current prevalence of NAFLD with that of 2 decades ago. METHODS: We included two cohorts. The past cohort was from 1994 to 1997 and included 4279 men and 2502 women. The current cohort was from 2014 to 2017 and included 8918 men and 7361 women. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD increased in both genders throughout these 2 decades (18.5% in the past cohort and 27.1% in the current cohort for men; and 8.0% in the past cohort and 9.4% in the current cohort for women). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased, whereas the prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased. There was no significant difference in the mean body mass index. Multivariate analysis revealed that the prevalence of obesity and body mass index were significantly associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in both the past and current cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NAFLD significantly increased throughout these 2 decades, and obesity is the most prevalent factor. Thus, body weight management is an essential treatment option for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648754, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790913

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Emerging evidence has revealed that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a key role in regulating metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the role of group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) in the modulation of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: RORγ gfp/gfp (RORgt KI/KI) and Rag2-/- mice with the administration of A213, RORgt antagonist, fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, were used. We performed flow cytometry, real time PCR, and lipidomics analysis of serum and liver, and used RAW264.7 cells and murine primary hepatocytes in vitro. Results: HFD increased ILC3s and M1 macrophages in the liver, and RORgt KI/KI mice deficient in ILC3 showed significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis and significantly increased palmitic acid levels in serum and liver. In addition, administration of A213 to Rag2-/- mice caused significant fatty liver, liver fibrosis, and a significant increase in serum and liver palmitate concentrations, as in RORgt KI/KI mice. Addition of palmitc acid stimulated IL-23 production in cell experiments using RAW264.7. IL-22 produced by ILC3s inhibited the palmitate-induced apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. Conclusions: HFD stimulates IL-23 production by M1 macrophages, thus promoting ILC3 proliferation, whereas IL-22 secreted by ILC3s contributes to the upregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and has anti-apoptosis activity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ácido Palmítico/sangue , Ácido Palmítico/imunologia , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924846

RESUMO

Glycemic control, including glycemic variability, is important for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There was an association between miso soup intake and insulin resistance. However, the relationship between habitual miso consumption and glycemic control, including glycemic variability, in patients with T2DM remains unknown. We defined people without habitual miso consumption if they did not consume miso soup at all in a day. The average, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV), calculated as CV = (SD/average HbA1c) × 100 (%), of hemoglobin (Hb) A1c levels were evaluated. The proportions of habitual miso consumption of male and female were 88.1% and 82.3%, respectively. The average (7.0 [6.4-7.5] vs. 7.3 [6.8-8.4] %, p = 0.009), SD (0.21 [0.12-0.32] vs. 0.37 [0.20-0.72], p = 0.004), and CV (0.03 [0.02-0.04] vs. 0.05 [0.03-0.09], p = 0.005) of HbA1c levels in female with habitual miso consumption were lower than those of female without. Moreover, habitual miso consumption correlated with average (ß = -0.251, p = 0.009), SD (ß = -0.175, p = 0.016), and CV (ß = -0.185, p = 0.022) of HbA1c levels after adjusting for covariates. However, no association between habitual miso consumption and any glycemic parameters was shown among male. This study clarified the association between habitual miso consumption and good glycemic control, including glycemic variability, in female, but not in male.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Alimentos de Soja , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Diabetol Int ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898153

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the acute effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 34 patients who were admitted to our hospital from April 16 to May 1, 2020. Data on stress levels, sleep duration, exercise, total diet, snacks, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. Changes in the values of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body weight from 3 months before the administration of the questionnaire to the time the study questionnaire was administered (pandemic year), and those from 15 months before to 12 months before the administration of the questionnaire (pre-pandemic year) were evaluated. Results: Increased stress levels and decreased exercise volumes were observed in approximately 60% and 50% of participants during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Decreased sleep duration was associated with changes in the body weight for 3 months during pandemic year (r = - 0.40, p = 0.043). Furthermore, compared with changes in HbA1c for 3 months during pre-pandemic year, changes in HbA1c during the pandemic year were worse (0.12% [0.33] % during pandemic year vs. - 0.09 [0.39] % during pre-pandemic year, p = 0.027). Conclusions: Many patients experienced stress and exercised less due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Glycemic control in patients with T1D was worse than that in the previous year. Since the pandemic is currently ongoing, more attention should be paid to stress and lifestyle factor management in patients with T1D. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00507-4.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920957

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic restrictions on the change in muscle mass in older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), who were not infected with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from outpatients who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis at least twice before April 2020 and at least once thereafter. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was calculated as appendicular muscle mass (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Change in SMI (kg/m2/year) was calculated as (follow-up SMI-baseline SMI/follow-up period). The differences between the changes in SMI before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated using paired t test. Results: This study recruited 56 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.1) years. SMI changed from 6.7 (0.9) to 6.8 (0.9) kg/m2 before the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas SMI changed from 6.8 (0.9) to 6.6 (0.9) kg/m2 after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. SMI decreased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic (-0.117 (0.240) vs. 0.005 (0.289) kg/m2/year, p = 0.049). This decrease was observed in men (-0.159 (0.257) vs. 0.031 (0.325) kg/m2/year, p = 0.038), patients with poor glycemic control (-0.170 (0.264) vs. 0.031 (0.285) kg/m2/year, p = 0.042), and those with a long diabetes duration (-0.153 (0.229) vs. 0.082 (0.291) kg/m2, p = 0.049). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions caused muscle mass loss in older patents with T2D. Actions, including recommendation of exercise and adequate diet intake, are needed to prevent loss of muscle mass.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
14.
Endocr J ; 68(7): 781-789, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731539

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is associated with the risk of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity is a risk factor for proteinuria. However, the association between sarcopenic obesity and diabetic nephropathy, including albuminuria, in patients with T2DM has not been reported. The study included 206 men and 163 women with T2DM who participated in the KAMOGAWA-DM cohort, which investigating the natural history of diabetes since 2014. Sarcopenia was defined as having both low skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) (<7.0 kg/m2 for men and <5.7 kg/m2 for women) and low handgrip strength (<28 kg for men and <18 kg for women). Obesity was diagnosed by the percentage of body fat (>30% for men and >35% for women). The patient was said to have sarcopenic obesity if he/she had both sarcopenia and obesity. Urinary albumin excretion of patients with sarcopenic obesity was higher than that of patients without sarcopenic obesity (median [interquartile range]: 342.0 [41.8-467.5] vs. 21.0 [9.0-75.4] mg/g Cr, p = 0.016). Additionally, sarcopenic obesity was associated with the presence of macroalbuminuria, compared with non-sarcopenic obesity (adjusted odds ratio 6.92 [95% confidence interval:1.63-29.4], p = 0.009). Adjusted odds ratios of sarcopenic obesity, sarcopenia only, and obesity only for the presence of macroalbuminuria were 6.52 (1.47-28.8, p = 0.014), 1.29 (0.45-3.71, p = 0.638), and 0.78 (0.38-1.58, p = 0.482), respectively, compared with neither sarcopenia nor obesity. This study indicated that sarcopenic obesity is associated with albuminuria, especially macroalbuminuria, in Japanese patients with T2DM.

15.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1555-1561, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a high baseline triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, for a low TyG index, findings have been inconsistent. Moreover, the association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in individuals with normal glycemic levels remains unclear. Therefore, this longitudinal study further examined and characterized the association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in Japanese adults with normal glycemic levels. . METHODS: The participants (7857 men and 6440 women) were selected from the NAGALA (NAfld in the Gifu Area Longitudinal Analysis) study that was conducted from 2004 to 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the associations between baseline TyG index and T2DM incidence, and a two-piecewise linear regression model was used to examine the threshold effect of the baseline TyG index on incident T2DM using a smoothing function. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 5.26 (women) and 5.88 (men) years, 47 women and 182 men developed T2DM. The risk of T2DM was strongly associated with the baseline TyG index in the fully adjusted model in men but not in women, and no dose-dependent positive relationship between incident T2DM and the TyG index was observed across the TyG tertiles. Interestingly, the two-piecewise linear regression analysis revealed a U-shaped association between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM. Baseline TyG index lower than the threshold values (TyG index < 7.27 in women and <7.97 in men) were negatively associated with incident T2DM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.93, P = 0.0435 for women and HR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.57, P = 0.0021 for men). In contrast, baseline TyG index higher than the threshold values (TyG index > 7.27 in women and >7.97 in men) were positively associated with incident T2DM (HR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.20-6.34, P = 0.0166 for women and HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.66-3.53, P < 0.0001 for men). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between the baseline TyG index and incident T2DM in a Japanese population.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Medição de Risco/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
16.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1613-1620, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Past studies reported that the intake of adequate energy is more important than protein intake; however, the relationship between energy intake and muscle mass loss remains unclear thus far. This study therefore explored the association between energy intake and muscle mass loss in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, impedance body composition and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire were used for analyzing body composition and habitual diet intake, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was defined as appendicular muscle mass (kg) ÷ height-squared (m2). Rate of SMI change (%) was calculated as ([SMI at baseline - SMI at follow-up]/[follow-up duration (years) × baseline SMI (kg/m2)]) × 100, and muscle mass loss was defined as rate of SMI change ≥0.5%. Energy intake was defined as total energy intake (kcal/day) divided by ideal body weight (kg), defined as 22 × patient height-squared (m2). RESULTS: Among non-older and older participants, 54.8% (n = 51/93) and 58.9% (n = 116/197) experienced muscle mass loss at 16.3 (6.4) and 18.1 (7.1) months' follow-up, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that energy intake was associated with incident muscle mass loss after adjusting for age, sex, insulin, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, steroids, smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, body mass index, SMI, presence of renal failure, and protein intake (g/actual body weight/day) in the older people (odds ratio [OR] 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.996], p = 0.037), whereas energy intake was not associated with incident muscle mass loss in the non-older people (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.86-1.06], p = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient energy intake is associated with muscle mass loss in older people with T2D. Therefore, it is recommended to consume enough energy for older people with T2D to keep muscle mass.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Impedância Elétrica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 68, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is the primary risk factor for dialysis, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) have been revealed to be related with cardiovascular diseases in the general populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of circulating FAs with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 190 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Circulating FAs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to investigate the association between the logarithm of FAs and the logarithm of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). We have performed logistic regression analysis to determine the effect of FAs on the presence of macroalbuminuria, defined as UAE value ≥300 mg/g creatinine. RESULTS: Mean age, body mass index, and duration of diabetes were 62.7 ± 12.1 years, 25.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2, and 9.8 ± 8.7 years, respectively. In total, 26 patients were diagnosed with macroalbuminuria. The logarithm of circulating arachidonic acid (AA) was negatively associated with the logarithm of UAE (r = - 0.221, p = 0.002). Additionally, circulating AA in patients with macroalbuminuria was lower than that in patients without macroalbuminuria (112.3 ± 75.3 mg/day vs. 164.8 ± 66.0 mg/day, p <  0.001). The logarithm of circulating AA was associated with the presence of macroalbuminuria after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio of Δ1 incremental: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.99, p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating AA was negatively associated with UAE and the presence of macroalbuminuria.

18.
Endocr J ; 68(2): 201-210, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999133

RESUMO

To investigate the acute effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellites. This cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study induced 203 patients who completed a questionnaire regarding stress levels and lifestyles. Data regarding stress levels, sleep time, exercise, and total diet, snack, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. The changes in the body weight or HbA1c levels were determined by comparing the values at the time the questionnaire was administered to those noted 3 months ago. Increased levels of stress and decreased exercise levels were reported in approximately 40% and >50%. During the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a negative correlation between stress and exercise (r = -0.285, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation between stress and prepared food intake (r = 0.193, p = 0.009). Decreased exercise levels (r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and increased snack consumption (r = 0.24, p = 0.002) were associated with increased body weight. Furthermore, increased total diet intake (r = 0.16, p = 0.031) was associated with increased HbA1c levels. These relationships remained significant for patients aged <65 years and patients who did not engage in regular exercise. Many patients experienced stress and lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these changes were associated with increased body weight and HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fast Foods , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Lanches
19.
Endocr J ; 68(4): 421-428, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361692

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the major complications of diabetes, can cause blindness and reduce quality of life. Dyslipidemia is reported to be associated with DR, whereas arachidonic acid may have a protective effect against DR. We aimed to investigate the association of circulating n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with DR. In this cross-sectional study, 190 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were classified as no diabetic retinopathy (NDR), simple diabetic retinopathy (SDR), or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) including pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Circulating fatty acids (FAs) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the levels of FAs and the presence of DR. The average age, body mass index and the duration of diabetes were 62.7 ± 12.1 years, 25.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2, and 9.8 ± 8.7 years, respectively. Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed with DR. Circulating levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the NDR (n = 163), SDR (n = 13) and PDR (n = 14) groups were 28.3 ± 11.0 µg/mL, 24.4 ± 9.7 µg/mL, and 21.8 ± 6.2 µg/mL, respectively (p = 0.032). The logarithm of circulating DGLA levels was associated with the presence of DR after adjusting for covariates (OR of 1-unit increment: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-1.00, p = 0.049). Circulating DGLA was negatively associated with the presence of DR.

20.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379405

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is a risk of sarcopenia, and the presence of sarcopenia is high in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It has been reported that habitual miso soup consumption was associated with lower insulin resistance. However, the association between habitual miso consumption and the presence of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM, especially sex difference, was unclear. In this cross-sectional study, 192 men and 159 women with T2DM were included. Habitual miso consumption was defined as consuming miso soup regularly. Having both low skeletal muscle mass index (<28.64% for men, <24.12% for women) and low adjusted hand grip strength (<51.26% for men, <35.38% for women) was defined as sarcopenia. The proportions of sarcopenia were 8.7% in men and 22.6% in women. The proportions of habitual miso consumption were 88.0% in men and 83.6% in women. Among women, the presence of sarcopenia was lower in the group with habitual miso consumption (18.8% versus 42.3%, p = 0.018); however, there was no association between habitual miso consumption and the presence of sarcopenia in men. Habitual miso consumption was negatively associated with the presence of sarcopenia in women (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.62), p = 0.005) but not in men. This study indicated that habitual miso consumption was associated with the presence of sarcopenia in women but not in men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Alimentos de Soja , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fermentação , Força da Mão , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Soja , Inquéritos e Questionários
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