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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in mid-childhood and change in HCC from mid-childhood to early adolescence (ΔHCC) with early adolescent adiposity and cardiometabolic biomarker measures. METHODS: In Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort of mothers and children, we measured HCC in 599 white children in mid-childhood and in 426 of these participants in early adolescence. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of mid-childhood HCC and ΔHCC with BMI-for-age-and-sex z score, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, dual X-ray absorptiometry total and trunk fat mass, a metabolic risk z score, adiponectin, HOMA-IR, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin, and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 5.2 (0.8) years, we did not find associations of mid-childhood HCC with BMI-for-age-and-sex z score (ß = 0.00 per 1-interquartile range of HCC, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.08 to 0.07), waist circumference (ß = -0.04 cm, 95% CI, -0.83 to 0.74), metabolic risk z score (ß = 0.04, 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.11), or other cardiometabolic measures except for an increase in log-transformed HOMA-IR (ß = 0.10, 95% CI, 0.04-0.17). ΔHCC was not associated with any outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found that mid-childhood HCC was not associated with early adolescent adiposity or cardiometabolic biomarkers except for a slight increase in HOMA-IR.

2.
Clin Obes ; : e12346, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696670

RESUMO

We examined the independent associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) with cardiometabolic indicators in Mexican children (4-6 years of age). We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 400) using the measures of MVPA and ST (7-day accelerometry) and the following indicators: % body fat, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) z-score, glycated haemoglobin, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and resting blood pressure. We examined the independent associations of MVPA and ST with cardiometabolic indicators through confounder-adjusted and mutually adjusted (including both MVPA and ST) linear regression models. Confounder-adjusted models showed that MVPA was associated with higher BMI z-scores and lower adiponectin levels in girls and lower body fat among boys. ST was associated with higher body fat, in the full sample, and lower LDL cholesterol among boys. After mutually adjusting for MVPA and ST, MVPA (10-minute increase) remained significantly associated with BMI z-score in girls (ß = 0.187, 95% CI: 0.019, 0.356) and ST (60-minute increase) remained significantly associated with higher body fat (ß = 1.11%, 95% CI: 0.019, 2.203) among boys and higher glycated haemoglobin (ß = 0.047% points, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.094) in the full sample. In preschool-aged children, the objective measures of ST and MVPA were associated with small differences in cardiometabolic health indicators. ST was unfavourably associated with some cardiometabolic indicators even after adjusting for MVPA, and thus appeared to have a more significant role than MVPA, especially in boys. Future longitudinal studies should confirm these results.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705908

RESUMO

Using data from infancy to adolescence, our analysis of longitudinal wheeze phenotypes allowed us to visualize four longitudinal wheeze trajectories (never/infrequent wheeze, mid-childhood onset wheeze, early transient wheeze, and persistent wheeze).

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1261-1262, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667516
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation during pregnancy may be a factor in the developmental programming of asthma and wheeze in childhood. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of inflammatory potential of prenatal diet with respiratory outcomes in early and mid-childhood. METHODS: Among 1,424 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort, we examined associations of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DIIreg) (1st trimester, 2nd trimester, and average of 1st and 2nd trimester) scores in relation to: ever asthma and wheezing in the past year (early childhood and mid-childhood); current asthma and lung function (mid-childhood), and wheeze trajectory during 1-9 years. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression modeling, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: In a fully adjusted analysis, a more pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an early vs. never wheeze trajectory (1st and 2nd trimester average 4th vs. 1st quartile: OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.13). A more pro-inflammatory diet during pregnancy also was associated with lower forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) in mid-childhood (1st and 2nd trimester average 4th vs. 1st quartile: ß -132 ml, 95% CI: -249, -14). Results were evident for 1st, but not 2nd, trimester DII and wheeze trajectory and mid-childhood FEF25-75. Other child respiratory outcomes, including ever asthma, were not related to any DII measure during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Pro-inflammatory diet during pregnancy is associated with wheeze trajectory during early childhood and decrements in small airways caliber in mid-childhood, but not other respiratory outcomes in the offspring.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

7.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of preconception parental obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) with offspring pubertal development. STUDY DESIGN: Among 1377 children from a prospective prebirth cohort in Boston, we examined markers of puberty (age at peak height velocity [PHV], age at menarche, self-reported pubertal development score), and adrenarche (pictograph Tanner pubic hair staging). We used multivariable regression models to examine associations of maternal and paternal obesity with offspring pubertal indices, and applied marginal structural models to estimate the controlled direct effect not mediated by offspring prepubertal BMI. RESULTS: The prevalence of paternal obesity alone, maternal obesity alone, and biparental obesity were 10.5%, 10.1%, and 5%, respectively. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, parental heights and maternal age at menarche, maternal obesity alone (vs neither parent with obesity) was associated with earlier age at PHV (ß -0.30 years; 95% CI -0.57, -0.03) and higher early adolescent pubertal score (0.29 units; 0.10, 0.48) in boys, but not with pubertal or adrenarchal outcomes in girls. Paternal obesity alone was not associated with any outcomes in either boys or girls. Biparental obesity was associated with earlier age at PHV in boys and earlier menarche in girls. Using marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weighting, maternal obesity alone had significant controlled direct effects on age at PHV (-0.31 years; -0.62, 0.00) and on pubertal score (0.22 units; 0.00, 0.44) in boys, independent of prepubertal BMI. CONCLUSION: Maternal, but not paternal, obesity is associated with earlier pubertal development in boys, and such association is independent of prepubertal BMI.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595955

RESUMO

The evidence that fetal life and early infancy are "critical" or "sensitive" ages for later cardiometabolic disease is based on flawed methods for comparing different age periods. Moreover, most previous studies have limited their focus to weight gain, rather than growth in length/height or body mass index (BMI). We undertook a secondary analysis of PROBIT (1996-2010), a birth cohort study nested within a large cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus, with repeated measures of weight and length/height from birth to 11.5 years of age. We used mixed effects linear models to analyze associations of changes in standardized weight, length/height, and BMI during five age periods (conception to birth, birth to 3 months, 3 to 12 months, 12 months to 6.5 years, and 6.5 to 11.5 years) with fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, ß-cell function, and adiponectin at age 11.5 years. We observed strong associations between the metabolic markers and all three growth measures, with the largest magnitudes observed during the latest age period (6.5 to 11.5 years) and negligible associations during gestation and the first year of life. Later age-periods appear more "sensitive" than earlier periods to the adverse metabolic association of rapid growth in childhood.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter analgesics during pregnancy or infancy may be related to neurobehavioural problems in children, but little is known about effects of different analgesic types, dosage, and timing. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen use during pregnancy and infancy with executive function and behaviour problems in children. METHODS: We included 1225 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We assessed prenatal acetaminophen and ibuprofen use in early and mid-pregnancy and infant use in the first year of life using questionnaires. Parents and classroom teachers assessed child behaviours in mid-childhood (median 8 years), using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), with higher scores indicating worse functioning for both. We examined associations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen use during pregnancy and infancy with mid-childhood neurobehavioural outcomes using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: During pregnancy, 46.1% of mothers used acetaminophen ≥10 times and 18.4% used any ibuprofen. In the first year, 65.3% and 39.6% of infants received acetaminophen and ibuprofen ≥6 times, respectively. Higher (≥10 vs <10 times) prenatal acetaminophen (ß 1.64 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59, 2.68) and any ibuprofen (ß 1.56, 95% CI 0.19, 2.92) were associated with higher parent-rated BRIEF global scores. Patterns of association were linear across categories and were similar for other parent- and teacher-rated outcomes. Infancy exposure (≥6 vs <6 times) to acetaminophen (ß 1.69, 95% CI 0.51, 2.87) and ibuprofen (ß 1.40, 95% CI 0.25, 2.55) were associated with higher parent-rated BRIEF GEC scores but associations with teacher-rated scores were weaker. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal and early-life exposure to acetaminophen and ibuprofen were associated with poorer executive function and behaviour in childhood. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mechanisms through which analgesics may act on fetal and child brain development.

11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few resources exist for prospective, longitudinal analysis of the relationships between early life environment and later obesity in large diverse samples of children in the United States (US). In 2016, the National Institutes of Health launched the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program to investigate influences of environmental exposures on child health and development. We describe demographics and overweight and obesity prevalence in ECHO, and ECHO's potential as a resource for understanding how early life environmental factors affect obesity risk. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 70 extant US and Puerto Rico cohorts, 2003-2017, we examined age, race/ethnicity, and sex in children with body mass index (BMI) data, including 28,507 full-term post-birth to <2 years and 38,332 aged 2-18 years. Main outcomes included high BMI for age <2 years, and at 2-18 years overweight (BMI 85th to <95th percentile), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile), and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 120% of 95th percentile). RESULTS: The study population had diverse race/ethnicity and maternal demographics. Each outcome was more common with increasing age and varied with race/ethnicity. High BMI prevalence (95% CI) was 4.7% (3.5, 6.0) <1 year, and 10.6% (7.4, 13.7) for 1 to <2 years; overweight prevalence increased from 13.9% (12.4, 15.9) at 2-3 years to 19.9% (11.7, 28.2) at 12 to <18 years. ECHO has the statistical power to detect relative risks for 'high' BMI ranging from 1.2 to 2.2 for a wide range of exposure prevalences (1-50%) within each age group. CONCLUSIONS: ECHO is a powerful resource for understanding influences of chemical, biological, social, natural, and built environments on onset and trajectories of obesity in US children. The large sample size of ECHO cohorts adopting a standardized protocol for new data collection of varied exposures along with longitudinal assessments will allow refined analyses to identify drivers of childhood obesity.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1661-1670, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of BMI with subsequent statural growth among children born in the era of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: Among 18,271 children from Belarus (n = 16,781, born 1996 to 1997) and the United States (n = 1,490, born 1999 to 2002), multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations of BMI z score from infancy to adolescence with subsequent standardized length and height velocity, standing height and its components (trunk and leg lengths), and pubertal timing. RESULTS: The prevalence of early adolescent obesity was 6.2% in Belarus and 12.8% in the United States. In both Belarusian and US children, higher BMI z scores in infancy and childhood were associated with faster length and height velocity in early life, while higher BMI z scores during middle childhood were associated with slower length and height velocity during adolescence. Associations with greater standing height and trunk length and earlier pubertal development in adolescence were stronger for BMI z scores at middle childhood than BMI z scores at birth or infancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in both Belarus and the United States support the role of higher BMI in accelerating linear growth in early life (taller stature and longer trunk length) but earlier pubertal development and slower linear growth during adolescence.

13.
Epigenomics ; 11(12): 1413-1427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509016

RESUMO

Aim: We investigated associations of prenatal socioeconomic status (SES) with DNA methylation at birth, and to explore persistence of associations into early (∼3 years) and mid-childhood (∼7 years) among 609 mother-child pairs in a Boston-area prebirth cohort. Materials & methods: First, we created a prenatal SES index comprising individual- and neighborhood-level metrics and examined associations of low (lowest 10%) versus high (upper 90%) SES with genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood via the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Next, we evaluated persistence of associations detected in cord blood with DNA methylation of the same CpG sites measured in peripheral leukocytes in early- and mid-childhood. Results & conclusion: Low prenatal SES was associated with methylation at CpG sites near ACSF3, TNRC6C-AS1, MTMR4 and LRRN4. The relationship with LRRN4 persisted into early childhood.

14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524936

RESUMO

Importance: Inadequate sleep duration and quality increase the risk of obesity. Sleep timing, while less studied, is important in adolescents because increasing evening preferences (chronotypes), early school start times, and irregular sleep schedules may cause circadian misalignment. Objective: To investigate associations of chronotype and social jet lag with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in young adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: Starting in 1999, Project Viva recruited pregnant women from eastern Massachusetts. Mother-child in-person visits occurred throughout childhood. From January 23, 2012, to October 16, 2016, 804 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years completed 5 days or more of wrist actigraphy, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional analysis using these data was conducted from April 31, 2018, to May 1, 2019. Exposures: Chronotype, measured via a continuous scale with higher scores indicating greater evening preferences, and social jet lag, measured as the continuous difference in actigraphy sleep midpoint in hours from midnight on weekends vs weekdays, with higher values representing more delayed sleep timing on weekends. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adiposity, measured via anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. For a subset of 479 adolescents with blood samples, cardiometabolic risk scores were computed as the mean of 5 sex- and cohort-specific z scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, inversely scaled high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model of insulin resistance. Results: Among the 804 adolescents in the study, 418 were girls and 386 were boys, with a mean (SD) age of 13.2 (0.9) years. In multivariable models adjusted for age, puberty, season, and sociodemographics, associations of chronotype and social jet lag with adiposity varied by sex. For girls, greater evening preference was associated with a 0.58-cm (95% CI, 0.12-1.03 cm; P = .04 for interaction) higher waist circumference and 0.16 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.01-0.31 kg/m2; P = .03 for interaction) higher fat mass index as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; each hour of social jet lag was associated with a 1.19-cm (95% CI, 0.04-2.35 cm; P = .21 for interaction) higher waist circumference and 0.45 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.09-0.82 kg/m2; P = .01 for interaction) higher fat mass index as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Associations of social jet lag and evening chronotypes persisted for many measures of adiposity after adjustment for sleep duration and other lifestyle behaviors. By contrast, no associations were observed in boys. There were no associations with the cardiometabolic risk score for either sex, although statistical power was low for this outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: Evening chronotypes and social jet lag were associated with greater adiposity in adolescent girls but not adolescent boys. Interventions aimed at improving sleep schedules may be useful for obesity prevention, especially in girls.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(11): 1913-1922, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497850

RESUMO

Childhood blood pressure (BP) is a strong predictor of later risk of cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have assessed dynamic BP trajectories throughout the early-life period. We investigated the relationship between early-life factors and systolic BP (SBP) from infancy to adolescence using linear spline mixed-effects models among 1,370 children from Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited in 1999-2002. After adjusting for confounders and child height, we observed higher SBP in children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (vs. normoglycemia; age 3 years: ß = 3.16 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 6.04); age 6 years: ß = 1.83 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.06, 3.60)), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (vs. normal maternal BP; age 6 years: ß = 1.39 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.67); age 9 years: ß = 1.84 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.34, 3.34); age 12 years: ß = 1.70 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.48, 2.92)), higher neonatal SBP (per 10-mm Hg increase; age 3 years: ß = 1.26 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.42, 2.09); age 6 years: ß = 1.00 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.49, 1.51); age 9 years: ß = 0.75 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.33)), and formula milk in the first 6 months of life (vs. breast milk only; age 12 years: ß = 2.10 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.46, 3.74); age 15 years: ß = 3.52 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.40, 5.64); age 18 years: ß = 4.94 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.88, 7.99)). Our findings provide evidence of programming of offspring SBP trajectories by gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and formula milk intake and of neonatal BP being a potentially useful marker of childhood BP. These factors could be relevant in identifying children who are at risk of developing elevated BP.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1049-1050, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504113
17.
Neurotoxicology ; 75: 105-115, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead is an established neurotoxicant and early life exposure to lead is associated with detrimental impacts on IQ and several neurobehavioral domains. Less is known, however, about effects of prenatal lead exposure below 5 µg/dL on executive function and on social, emotional and self-regulatory behaviors in childhood. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between prenatal lead exposure and childhood executive function and social, emotional and self-regulatory behaviors. METHODS: We included 1006 mother-child pairs from the Project Viva prospective pre-birth cohort. We measured prenatal maternal lead in second-trimester erythrocytes. In mid-childhood (median 7.7 years), parents and teachers rated executive function related behaviors using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and behavioral difficulties using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We used multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal, paternal, and child characteristics and metal co-exposures. RESULTS: Mean maternal erythrocyte lead concentration was 1.2 µg/dL (interquartile range [IQR] 0.8-1.5 µg /dL), equivalent to approximately 0.4 µg/dL in whole blood. In adjusted models, associations with parent and teacher-rated scales were largely null, although effect estimates were consistently positive, suggesting worse scores with increasing lead levels. For an IQR increase in lead, BRIEF Global Executive Composite (GEC) was 0.73 (95% CI: -0.06, 1.52) points higher for parent-rated scores and 0.42 (95% CI: -0.39, 1.23) points higher for teacher-rated scores. Associations were strongest for parent-rated BRIEF plan/organize (ß = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.12, 1.59) and shift (ß = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.01, 1.75) subscales, as well as the SDQ emotional problems subscale (ß = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.33). DISCUSSION: In this cohort with lead levels commonly experienced by U.S. women, there were few statistically significant associations with childhood executive function and behavior. However, there was a trend of worse neurobehavioral scores with increasing prenatal lead concentrations, in particular for childhood emotional problems and capacity to plan/organize and shift. Our results highlight the importance of continuing efforts to eliminate lead exposure in the general population.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease. METHODS: We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; ß-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores. RESULTS: We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.

19.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 15(11): 630-632, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395964
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