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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for childhood overweight/obesity (OwOb), but few have evaluated how they combine to influence later cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association of risk factors in the first 1000 d with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in early adolescence. METHODS: We studied 1038 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. We chose 6 modifiable early-life risk factors previously associated with child adiposity or metabolic health in the cohort: smoking during pregnancy (yes compared with no); gestational weight gain (excessive compared with nonexcessive); sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy (≥0.5 compared with <0.5 servings/d); breastfeeding duration (<12 compared with ≥12 mo); timing of complementary food introduction (<4 compared with ≥4 mo); and infant sleep duration (<12 compared with ≥12 h/d). We computed risk factor scores by calculating the cumulative number of risk factors for each child. In early adolescence (median: 13.1 y) we measured indicators of adiposity [BMI, fat mass index (FMI), trunk fat mass index (TFMI)]. We also calculated OwOb prevalence and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk z score of adolescents. RESULTS: Among 1038 adolescents, 71% had >1 early-life risk factor. In covariate-adjusted models, we observed positive monotonic increases in BMI, FMI, TFMI, and MetS z scores with increasing risk factor score. Children with 5‒6 risk factors (compared with 0-1 risk factors) had the highest risk of OwOb [risk ratio (RR): 2.53; 95% CI: 1.63, 3.91] and being in the highest MetS quartile (RR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.21). The predicted probability of OwOb in adolescence varied from 9.4% (favorable levels for all factors) to 63.6% (adverse levels for all factors), and for being in the highest MetS quartile from 9.6% to 56.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Early-life risk factors in the first 1000 d cumulatively predicted higher adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in early adolescence. Intervention strategies to prevent later obesity and cardiometabolic risk may be more effective if they concurrently target multiple modifiable factors.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery has been linked with childhood obesity. Few studies have examined if this association is attenuated if there is labor prior to delivery. The objective of this current analysis was to examine the association of cesarean vs. vaginal delivery with measures of childhood adiposity, and whether the association differs by labor type (spontaneous, induced, or absent) preceding cesarean delivery. METHODS: We ascertained delivery mode and type of labor from medical records in 1443 mother-child dyads from Project Viva with adiposity measures from at least one follow-up visit (3369 total observations) in early childhood (median age 3.2 y), mid-childhood (median 7.7 y), or early teen (median 12.9 y). Child adiposity outcomes were CDC age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores, sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses (SS + TR; mm), and waist circumference (cm). We used linear regression models with generalized estimating equation estimates and adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, rate of gestational weight gain, and child sex and age at outcome. RESULTS: A total of 333 (23%) women delivered via cesarean, including 155 (11%) with spontaneous labor, 74 (5%) with induced labor, 99 (7%) with no labor, and 5 (<1%) with unknown labor status. Compared to vaginal-delivered children, cesarean-delivered children had higher BMI-z (0.15, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.26); and non-significantly higher waist circumference (0.50 cm, 95% CI: -0.34, 1.34) and SS + TR (0.47 mm, 95% CI: -0.52, 1.46). Cesarean deliveries that were preceded by spontaneous labor were not associated with childhood BMI-z (0.08, 95% CI: -0.07, 0.23), waist circumference (-0.12 cm, 95% CI: -1.09, 0.85), or SS + TR (-0.25 mm, 95% CI: -1.44, 0.93), as compared to vaginal deliveries. CONCLUSION: Cesarean delivery was associated with higher childhood BMI-z, and although waist circumference and SS + TR trended in the same direction, these associations were not significant. Cesarean delivery preceded by spontaneous labor was not associated with adiposity outcomes.

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of pregestational BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum with four patterns of weight change during the first year after delivery: postpartum weight retention (PPWR), postpartum weight gain (PPWG), postpartum weight retention + gain (PPWR + WG) and return to pregestational weight. DESIGN: In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, we categorised postpartum weight change into four patterns using pregestational weight and weights at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. We evaluated their associations with pregestational BMI, GWG and breast-feeding using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95 % CI. SETTING: Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort. RESULTS: Five hundred women were included (53 % of the cohort). Most women returned to their pregestational weight by 1 year postpartum (57 %); 8 % experienced PPWR, 14 % PPWG and 21 % PPWR + WG. Compared with normal weight, pregestational overweight (RRR 2·5, 95 % CI 1·3, 4·8) and obesity (RRR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·7) were associated with a higher risk of PPWG. Exclusive breast-feeding, compared with no breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of PPWR (RRR 0·3, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·9). Excessive GWG, compared with adequate, was associated with a higher risk of PPWR (RRR 3·3, 95 % CI 1·6, 6·9) and PPWR + WG (RRR 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·2). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting women with pregestational overweight or obesity and excessive GWG, as well as promoting breast-feeding, may impact the pattern of weight change after delivery and long-term women's health.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior is a worldwide public health concern. There is consistent and growing evidence linking sedentary behavior to mortality and morbidity. Early monitoring and assessment of environmental factors associated with sedentary behaviors at a young age are important initial steps for understanding children's sedentary time and identifying pertinent interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between daily temperature (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation) and all-day sedentary time among 4-6 year old children in Mexico City (n = 559) from the year 2013 to 2015. METHODS: We developed a spatiotemporally resolved hybrid satellite-based land use regression temperature model and calculated percent daily sedentary time from aggregating 10-second epoch vertical counts captured by accelerometers that participants wore for one week. We modeled generalized additive models (GAMs), one for each temperature type as a covariate (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation). All GAMs included percent all-day sedentary time as the outcome and participant-level random intercepts to account for repeated measures of sedentary time. Our models were adjusted for demographic factors and environmental exposures. RESULTS: Daily maximum temperature, mean temperature, and diurnal variation have significant negative linear relationships with all-day sedentary time (p<0.01). There is no significant association between daily minimum temperature and all-day sedentary time. Children have on average 0.26% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.2 minutes) for each 1°C increase in ambient maximum temperature (range 7.1-30.2°C), 0.27% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.3 minutes) for each 1°C increase in ambient mean temperature (range 4.3-22.2°C), and 0.23% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.0 minutes) for each 1°C increase in diurnal variation (range 3.0-21.6°C). CONCLUSIONS: These results are contrary to our hypothesis in which we expected a curvilinear relationship between temperature (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation) and sedentary time. Our findings suggest that temperature is an important environmental factor that influences children's sedentary behavior.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105682

RESUMO

Parental feeding practices have been associated with children's dietary intakes, yet the directionality of these associations remains unclear. Among 1172 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, we aimed to examine associations of parental concerns and feeding behaviors at 2 years (behaviors dichotomized as yes vs. no), with diet quality (Youth Healthy Eating Index; YHEI) in early (mean 3.2, SD 0.3 years; n = 1076) and mid-childhood (mean 7.8, SD 0.7 years; n = 993). We used multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, parental body mass index (BMI), maternal diet quality in pregnancy, and child's BMI z-score and diet quality at 2 years. Early parental concerns about their child becoming overweight (15%) was associated with lower YHEI (ß -1.54 points; 95%CI -2.75, -0.33; fully adjusted model) in early childhood. Early parental concerns about their child becoming underweight (7%) was associated with lower YHEI (-2.19 points; -4.31, -0.07) in early childhood, but the association was attenuated after adjustment for child's BMI z-score and diet quality at 2 years. We did not find associations of parental restrictive feeding (8%) and parental pressure to eat (47%) with child's YHEI through mid-childhood. In conclusion, we found no evidence that early parental concerns and feeding behaviors independently contribute to child's diet quality through childhood.

6.
Environ Res ; 192: 110341, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposures may affect processes that underlie offspring cardiometabolic health, but findings from studies examining these associations are conflicting. We examined associations between biomarkers of phthalate exposures during pregnancy with child lipid and adipokine levels. METHODS: Data were from 463 mother-child pairs in the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico City. We quantified 15 phthalate metabolites in 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal urine samples and created an average pregnancy measure using the geometric mean. We evaluated the 15 metabolites as nine biomarkers, including four metabolite molar sums. We measured fasting serum triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin in children at the six-year follow-up visit (mean = 6.8 years). We estimated associations using linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and weighted quantile sum (WQS) and assessed effect modification by sex. RESULTS: In BKMR and WQS models, higher concentrations of the total mixture of phthalate biomarkers were associated with lower triglycerides (ß = -3.7% [-6.5, -0.78] per 1 unit increase in WQS biomarker index) and non-HDL cholesterol (ß = -2.0 [-3.7, -0.25] ng/ml per increase in WQS biomarker index). Associations between individual biomarkers and child outcomes were largely null. We observed some evidence of effect modification by child sex for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (ß = 19.4% [1.26, 40.7] per doubling of phthalate) and monobenzyl phthalate (ß = -7.6% [-14.4, -0.23]) in girls for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Individual prenatal phthalate biomarkers were not associated with child lipid or adipokine levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, the total phthalate mixture was associated with lower child triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol.

7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1984-1992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the extent to which pregnancy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were associated with gestational weight gain and postpartum weight changes. METHODS: This study was composed of 1,614 women recruited between 1999 and 2002 via the Project Viva cohort with pregnancy plasma concentrations of six PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid. Gestational weight gain was defined as the difference between last pregnancy weight and prepregnancy weight, 1-year postpartum weight retention as the difference between 1-year postpartum weight and prepregnancy weight, and 3-year postpartum weight change as the difference between 3-year postpartum weight and prepregnancy weight. RESULTS: During pregnancy, women gained 0.37 kg (95% CI: 0.11-0.62) more weight per doubling of 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid. At 1 year post partum, women retained 0.55 kg (95% CI: 0.07-1.04) more weight per doubling of PFOA. At 3 years post partum, women gained 0.91 kg (95% CI: 0.25-1.56) more weight per doubling in PFOA. Findings were similar after adjustment for all PFAS. Other PFAS were not associated with weight changes. Postpartum associations were stronger among women with higher prepregnancy BMI. Models were adjusted for demographics. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy PFAS were associated with greater gestational weight gain, weight retention, and weight gain years after pregnancy.

8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944847

RESUMO

Prior work proposed a shortened version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a commonly used quantitative measure of social communication traits. We used data from 3031 participants (including 190 ASD cases) from the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program to compare distributional properties and criterion validity of 16-item "short" to 65-item "full" SRS scores. Results demonstrated highly overlapping distributions of short and full scores. Both scores separated case from non-case individuals by approximately two standard deviations. ASD prediction was nearly identical for short and full scores (area under the curve values of 0.87, 0.86 respectively). Findings support comparability of shortened and full scores, suggesting opportunities to increase efficiency. Future work should confirm additional psychometric properties of short scores.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy may adversely affect offspring cognition and behaviour, but few prospective studies investigated this association at multiple points throughout childhood. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that maternal abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with child cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early and mid-childhood. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal abnormal glucose tolerance at 26-28 weeks of pregnancy with offspring cognitive and behavioural scores in 1421 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort. In early (mean 3.3 years) and mid-childhood (mean 7.9 years), we measured child cognition using validated instruments, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA); we assessed parent- and teacher-rated behavioural outcomes with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function. We used linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, intelligence, age, parity, smoking status, education, and household income at enrolment, in addition to child's sex and age at assessment). RESULTS: Of 1421 mothers, 69 (4.9%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, 43 (3.0%) impaired glucose tolerance, 122 (8.6%) isolated hyperglycaemia, and 1187 (83.5%) normal glucose tolerance. Offspring born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus had lower total WRAVMA scores (-3.09 points; 95% CI -6.12, -0.05) in early childhood compared with offspring of women with normal glucose tolerance. None of the abnormal glucose tolerance categories during pregnancy were associated with any of the cognitive outcomes (verbal, non-verbal, and visual motor scores) or behavioural measures in mid-childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Children born to mothers who had gestational diabetes mellitus had slightly lower scores on one cognitive test in early childhood. We found no evidence to support that maternal abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with cognitive or behavioural development in mid-childhood.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1149-1150, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889534
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of associations between child growth and cognitive ability were based on size at one or two ages and a single measure of cognition. We aimed to characterize different aspects of early growth and their associations with cognitive outcomes in childhood through adolescence. METHODS: In a sample of 12 368 Belarusian children born at term, we examined associations of length/height and weight trajectories over the first 6.5 years of life with cognitive ability at 6.5 and 16 years and its change over time. We estimated growth trajectories using two random-effects models-the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation to model overall patterns of growth and the Jenss-Bayley to distinguish growth in infancy from post infancy. Cognitive ability was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence at 6.5 years and the computerized NeuroTrax test at 16 years. RESULTS: Higher length/height between birth and 6.5 years was associated with higher cognitive scores at 6.5 and 16 years {2.7 points [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 3.2] and 2.5 points [95% CI: 1.9, 3.0], respectively, per standard deviation [SD] increase}. A 1-SD delay in the childhood height-growth spurt was negatively associated with cognitive scores [-2.4 (95% CI: -3.0, -1.8) at age 6.5; -2.2 (95% CI: -2.7, -1.6) at 16 years]. Birth size and post-infancy growth velocity were positively associated with cognitive scores at both ages. Height trajectories were not associated with the change in cognitive score. Similar results were observed for weight trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Among term infants, the overall size, timing of the childhood growth spurt, size at birth and post-infancy growth velocity were all associated with cognitive ability at early-school age and adolescence.

12.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12704, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) precedes development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in adults. The associations of abdominal adiposity derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), including VAT, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) with cardio-metabolic risk in adolescents are understudied. OBJECTIVES: We examined the cross-sectional associations of DXA-measured abdominal adiposity with cardio-metabolic risk and related markers in early adolescence (mean [SD] age 13.0 [0.7] years). METHODS: We collected data from 740 adolescents (374 girls and 366 boys) in Project Viva, a U.S. pre-birth cohort. We used DXA estimates of VAT, SAAT and TAAT area. We conducted overall and sex-stratified linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex (in overall models), race/ethnicity, puberty score and body mass index (BMI) z-score. RESULTS: Mean BMI z-score was 0.59 (1.28). After adjustment, greater VAT (per 1 SD score) was associated with higher metabolic risk z-score (ß 0.14 units; 95% CI 0.08, 0.20), higher log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß 0.51 mg/L; 0.36, 0.66) and log leptin (ß 0.36 ng/mL; 0.27, 0.44), and lower log adiponectin (ß -0.08 ug/mL; -0.13, -0.02). SAAT and TAAT showed similar associations as VAT with comparable or greater effect sizes. CONCLUSION: In early adolescence, DXA-measured VAT, SAAT and TAAT are associated with cardio-metabolic risk and related markers, independent of current BMI. Among two adolescents with the same BMI, there is an associated higher cardio-metabolic risk in the adolescent with greater DXA-measured abdominal adiposity.

13.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003182, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal smoke exposure is a common and key avoidable risk factor for birth complications and seems to influence later risk of overweight. It is unclear whether this increased risk is also present if mothers smoke during the first trimester only or reduce the number of cigarettes during pregnancy, or when only fathers smoke. We aimed to assess the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy, specifically of quitting or reducing smoking and maternal and paternal smoking combined, with preterm birth, small size for gestational age, and childhood overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis among 229,158 families from 28 pregnancy/birth cohorts from Europe and North America. All 28 cohorts had information on maternal smoking, and 16 also had information on paternal smoking. In total, 22 cohorts were population-based, with birth years ranging from 1991 to 2015. The mothers' median age was 30.0 years, and most mothers were medium or highly educated. We used multilevel binary logistic regression models adjusted for maternal and paternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. Compared with nonsmoking mothers, maternal first trimester smoking only was not associated with adverse birth outcomes but was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.02-1.35], P value = 0.030). Children from mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy had higher risks of preterm birth (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.15], P value = 0.012), small size for gestational age (OR 2.15 [95% CI 2.07-2.23], P value < 0.001), and childhood overweight (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.35-1.48], P value < 0.001). Mothers who reduced the number of cigarettes between the first and third trimester, without quitting, still had a higher risk of small size for gestational age. However, the corresponding risk estimates were smaller than for women who continued the same amount of cigarettes throughout pregnancy (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.52-2.34] instead of OR 2.20 [95% CI 2.02-2.42] when reducing from 5-9 to ≤4 cigarettes/day; OR 2.79 [95% CI 2.39-3.25] and OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.46-2.57] instead of OR 2.95 [95% CI 2.75-3.15] when reducing from ≥10 to 5-9 and ≤4 cigarettes/day, respectively [P values < 0.001]). Reducing the number of cigarettes during pregnancy did not affect the risks of preterm birth and childhood overweight. Among nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking was associated with childhood overweight (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.16-1.27], P value < 0.001) but not with adverse birth outcomes. Limitations of this study include the self-report of parental smoking information and the possibility of residual confounding. As this study only included participants from Europe and North America, results need to be carefully interpreted regarding other populations. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that as compared to nonsmoking during pregnancy, quitting smoking in the first trimester is associated with the same risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age, but with a higher risk of childhood overweight. Reducing the number of cigarettes, without quitting, has limited beneficial effects. Paternal smoking seems to be associated, independently of maternal smoking, with the risk of childhood overweight. Population strategies should focus on parental smoking prevention before or at the start, rather than during, pregnancy.


Assuntos
Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/tendências
14.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 677-680, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manganese, an essential micronutrient, has been found in lower concentrations among women with preeclampsia in cross-sectional and case-control studies without establishment of a temporal relationship. METHODS: We evaluated the prospective association of manganese (in red blood cells) in first trimester of pregnancy with incidence of preeclampsia (ascertained by reviewing medical records) among 1,312 women in eastern Massachusetts (Project Viva, 1999-2002). We used log-binomial regression to examine the manganese-preeclampsia relationship, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, blood pressure, and hematocrit. RESULTS: The median (25th, 75th percentile) manganese concentrationin red blood cells was 16.2 ng/g (13.1, 20.4) and 48 (4%) women developed preeclampsia. We observed an inverse dose-response relationship between manganese and preeclampsia. Compared with women in the lowest tertile, women in the middle manganese tertile had 0.81 times the risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 0.43, 1.5) and those in the highest tertile had 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.99) times the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide insight into a potentially modifiable way to prevent preeclampsia.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620010

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmental chemicals linked to weight gain and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent to which PFAS plasma concentrations during pregnancy were associated with postpartum anthropometry and biomarkers. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MEASURES: We studied women recruited between 1999 and 2002 in the Project Viva prospective cohort with pregnancy plasma concentrations of PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (EtFOSAA). Three-year postpartum anthropometry measurements were available from 786 to 801 women, blood pressure from 761 women, and blood biomarkers from 450 to 454 women. We used multivariable regression to evaluate the association of log2-transformed PFAS with postpartum anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood biomarkers (leptin, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], hemoglobin A1c, interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein), adjusting for age, prepregnancy body mass index, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, and breastfeeding history. RESULTS: Pregnancy concentrations of certain PFAS were associated with greater adiposity (eg, 0.4 cm [95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -0.1, 0.9] greater waist circumference per doubling in EtFOSAA; 0.2 cm [95%CI: -0.1, 0.5] greater mid-upper arm circumference per doubling in PFOA; 1.2 mm [95%CI: 0.1, 2.2] thicker sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds per doubling in PFOS) and higher systolic blood pressure (eg, 1.2 mm Hg [95%CI: 0.3, 2.2] per doubling in PFOS) at 3 years postpartum. Higher EtFOSAA concentrations were also associated with 10.8% higher IL-6 (95%CI: 3.3, 18.9) and 6.1% lower SHBG (95%CI: 0.7, 11.2) per doubling. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy concentrations of EtFOSAA, PFOS, and PFOA were associated with adverse postpartum cardiometabolic markers.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480407

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure may alter glucose homeostasis. Research on PFAS exposure and glucose tolerance during pregnancy is limited. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to estimate associations between first-trimester plasma PFAS concentrations and glucose tolerance assessed in late second pregnancy trimester. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pregnant women (n = 1540) enrolled in Project Viva in 1999 to 2002 provided first-trimester plasma samples analyzed for 8 PFAS. At approximately 28 weeks' gestation, women completed 1-hour nonfasting, 50-g oral glucose challenge tests (GCTs); if abnormal, women completed subsequent 3-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed both continuous GCT glucose levels and 4 categories of glucose tolerance (normal glycemia [reference], isolated hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, GDM). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of PFAS with glucose tolerance categories. We used multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to assess individual and joint effects of PFAS on continuous GCT glucose levels, respectively. We evaluated effect modification by maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: PFAS were not associated with glucose tolerance categories. In BKMR analyses, we observed a positive association between ln-perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and glucose levels (Δ25th to 75th percentile: 6.2 mg/dL, 95% CI, 1.1-11.3) and an inverse-U shaped association between 2-(N-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetate and glucose levels. Individual linear regression results were similar. We found suggestive evidence that associations varied by age and racial/ethnic group. CONCLUSION: Certain PFAS may alter glucose homeostasis during pregnancy, but may not be associated with overt GDM.

17.
Environ Int ; 142: 105849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that greater exposure to natural vegetation, or "green space" is associated with lower diabetes risk, possibly through increasing physical activity. However, there is limited research on green space and insulin resistance in youth. We hypothesized greater green space at early-life sensitive time periods would be associated with lower insulin resistance in youth. METHODS: We used data from Project Viva (N = 460), a pre-birth cohort study that recruited pregnant women in eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002, and followed offspring into adolescence. We defined residential green space exposure at infancy (median age - 1.1 years), early childhood (3.2 years), mid-childhood (7.7 years), and early adolescence (12.8 years), using 30 m resolution Landsat satellite imagery to estimate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]. Our main outcome was early adolescence estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We used multiple imputation to account for missing data and multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, and neighborhood median household income. RESULTS: The highest green space tertile had the highest percentage of white participants (85%), college-educated mothers (87%) and fathers (85%), and households with income higher than US$70,000 (86%). Unadjusted models showed that participants living in the highest green space tertile at infancy had a 0.15 unit lower HOMA-IR (95% CI: -0.23, -0.06) in early adolescence, than those living in the lowest tertile. However, in adjusted models, we did not observe evidence of associations between green space from infancy to early adolescence and HOMA-IR in early adolescence, although some point estimates were in the hypothesized direction. For example, participants in the highest green space tertile in infancy had 0.03 units lower HOMA-IR (95%CI: -0.14, 0.08) than those living in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to green space at early life sensitive time periods was not associated with HOMA-IR in youth. Early-life longitudinal studies across diverse populations are needed to confirm or refute our results.

18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(6): 501-510, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate transplacental passage of maternal thyroid hormone is important for normal fetal growth and development. Maternal overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with low birthweight, but important knowledge gaps remain regarding the effect of subclinical thyroid function test abnormalities on birthweight-both in general and during the late second and third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine associations of maternal thyroid function with birthweight. METHODS: In this systematic review and individual-participant data meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar from inception to Oct 15, 2019, for prospective cohort studies with data on maternal thyroid function during pregnancy and birthweight, and we issued open invitations to identify study authors to join the Consortium on Thyroid and Pregnancy. We excluded participants with multiple pregnancies, in-vitro fertilisation, pre-existing thyroid disease or thyroid medication usage, miscarriages, and stillbirths. The main outcomes assessed were small for gestational age (SGA) neonates, large for gestational age neonates, and newborn birthweight. We analysed individual-participant data using mixed-effects regression models adjusting for maternal age, BMI, ethnicity, smoking, parity, gestational age at blood sampling, fetal sex, and gestational age at birth. The study protocol was pre-registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42016043496. FINDINGS: We identified 2526 published reports, from which 36 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The study authors for 15 of these cohorts agreed to participate, and five more unpublished datasets were added, giving a study population of 48 145 mother-child pairs after exclusions, of whom 1275 (3·1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (increased thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] with normal free thyroxine [FT4]) and 929 (2·2%) had isolated hypothyroxinaemia (decreased FT4 with normal TSH). Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a higher risk of SGA than was euthyroidism (11·8% vs 10·0%; adjusted risk difference 2·43%, 95% CI 0·43 to 4·81; odds ratio [OR] 1·24, 1·04 to 1·48; p=0·015) and lower mean birthweight (mean difference -38 g, -61 to -15; p=0·0015), with a higher effect estimate for measurement in the third trimester than in the first or second. Isolated hypothyroxinaemia was associated with a lower risk of SGA than was euthyroidism (7·3% vs 10·0%, adjusted risk difference -2·91, -4·49 to -0·88; OR 0·70, 0·55 to 0·91; p=0·0073) and higher mean birthweight (mean difference 45 g, 18 to 73; p=0·0012). Each 1 SD increase in maternal TSH concentration was associated with a 6 g lower birthweight (-10 to -2; p=0·0030), with higher effect estimates in women who were thyroid peroxidase antibody positive than for women who were negative (pinteraction=0·10). Each 1 SD increase in FT4 concentration was associated with a 21 g lower birthweight (-25 to -17; p<0·0001), with a higher effect estimate for measurement in the third trimester than the first or second. INTERPRETATION: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of SGA and lower birthweight, whereas isolated hypothyroxinaemia is associated with lower risk of SGA and higher birthweight. There was an inverse, dose-response association of maternal TSH and FT4 (even within the normal range) with birthweight. These results advance our understanding of the complex relationships between maternal thyroid function and fetal outcomes, and they should prompt careful consideration of potential risks and benefits of levothyroxine therapy during pregnancy. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (grant 401.16.020).


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Testes de Função Tireóidea/tendências
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139340, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Internal ionizing radiation from inhaled radioactive aerosol may contribute to the associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We used the Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records to study 1,061,937 pregnant women from 2001 to 2015 with a singleton pregnancy without pre-existing diabetes. Gross ß activity measured by seven monitors of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's RadNet monitoring network was utilized to represent ambient particle radioactivity (PR). We obtained GDM status from birth certificates and used logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographics, maternal comorbidities, PM2.5, temperature and relative humidity. We also examined effect modification by smoking habits. RESULTS: Ambient particle radioactivity exposure during first and second trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher odds of GDM (OR: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.22). Controlling for PM2.5 did not substantially change the effects of PR on GDM. In women that reported being former or current smokers, the association between PR and GDM was null. In the full cohort, the overall effect of PM2.5 on GDM without adjusting for PR was not significant. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study to examine the association between particle radioactivity and gestational diabetes mellitus - one of the most common pregnancy-related diseases with lifelong effects for the mother and the fetus. This finding has important public health policy implications because it enhances our understanding about the toxicity of PR, a modifiable risk factor, which to date, has been considered only as an indoor and occupational air quality risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Radioatividade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
20.
Environ Int ; 139: 105728, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal thyroid function is critical for growth and neurodevelopment. Exposure to individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can alter circulating thyroid hormone levels, but few studies have investigated effects of combined exposure to multiple PFAS. OBJECTIVES: Estimate associations of exposure to multiple PFAS during early pregnancy with maternal and neonatal thyroid function. METHODS: The study population consisted of 726 mothers and 465 neonates from Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts area longitudinal pre-birth cohort. We measured six PFAS [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido)acetate (EtFOSAA), and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido)acetate (MeFOSAA)] and thyroxine (T4), Free T4 Index (FT4I), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in maternal plasma samples collected during early pregnancy, and neonatal T4 in postpartum heel sticks. We estimated individual and joint effects of PFAS exposure with thyroid hormone levels using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and evaluated potential non-linearity and interactions among PFAS using BKMR. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of the PFAS mixture were associated with significantly lower maternal FT4I, with MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, PFOA, and PFHxS contributing most to the overall mixture effect in BKMR and WQS regression. In infants, higher concentrations of the PFAS mixture were associated with lower T4 levels, primarily in males, with PFHxS and MeFOSAA contributing most in WQS, and PFHxS contributing most in BKMR. The PFAS mixture was not associated with maternal T4 or TSH levels. However, in maternal BKMR analyses, ln-PFOS was positively associated with T4 levels (Δ25th to 75th percentile: 0.21 µg/dL; 95% credible interval: -0.03, 0.47) and ln-PFHxS was associated with a non-linear effect on TSH levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that there may be combined effects of prenatal exposure to multiple PFAS on maternal and neonatal thyroid function, but the direction and magnitude of these effects may vary across individual PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Teorema de Bayes , Boston , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts , Gravidez , Glândula Tireoide
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