Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 392
Filtrar
1.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118208, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740291

RESUMO

Increasingly, studies suggest benefits of natural environments or greenness on children's health. However, little is known about cumulative exposure or windows of susceptibility to greenness exposure. Using inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models (IPW/MSM), we estimated effects of greenness exposure from birth through adolescence on executive function and behavior. We analyzed data of 908 children from Project Viva enrolled at birth in 1999-2002 and followed up until early adolescence. In mid-childhood (median 7.7 years) and early adolescence (13.1 years), executive function and behavior were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Greenness was measured at birth, early childhood, mid-childhood, and early adolescence, using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We used inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models to estimate effects of interventions that ensure maximum greenness exposure versus minimum through all intervals; and that ensure maximum greenness only in early childhood (vs. minimum through all intervals). Results of the effects of "maximum (vs. minimum) greenness at all timepoints" did not suggest associations with mid-childhood outcomes. Estimates of "maximum greenness only in early childhood (vs. minimum)" suggested a beneficial association with mid-childhood SDQ (-3.21, 99 %CI: -6.71,0.29 mother-rated; -4.02, 99 %CI: -7.87,-0.17 teacher-rated). No associations were observed with early adolescent outcomes. Our results for "persistent" maximum greenness exposure on behavior, were not conclusive with confidence intervals containing the null. The results for maximum greenness "only in early childhood" may shed light on sensitive periods of greenness exposure for behavior regulation.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Estruturais , Probabilidade
2.
Hum Reprod ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755186

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is cesarean delivery associated with earlier offspring pubertal development? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified that boys born by cesarean delivery developed puberty earlier, evidenced by an earlier age at peak height velocity and earlier attainment of puberty score > 1, than boys born by vaginal delivery. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cesarean delivery is posited to have long-term effects on health outcomes. However, few studies have examined whether mode of delivery is related to pubertal development. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Prospective pre-birth cohort study consisting of 1485 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy from obstetric practices and followed up until early adolescence (median age 12.9 years). Participant inclusion required data on mode of delivery and at least one measure of pubertal development. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants are children from the Project Viva study. We abstracted information on delivery mode from electronic medical records from children followed since birth (1999-2002) and examined the following markers of pubertal development: age at peak height velocity (APHV); age at menarche (girls only); parent-reported pubertal development score; and child-reported pictograph Tanner pubic hair staging. We used multivariable regression models to examine associations of delivery mode with these four pubertal indices, adjusting for the following confounders: demographic and socioeconomic factors; maternal height, pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain, pregnancy conditions, parity, and maternal age at menarche; paternal height and BMI; gestational age at delivery and birthweight-for-gestational-age z-score. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In this study, 23.2% of children were born by cesarean delivery. Girls had an earlier APHV, had a higher pubertal score throughout childhood and in early adolescence, and were more likely to attain puberty score >1 and Tanner pubic hair Stage >1 earlier compared to boys. Mean (SD) age at menarche in girls was 12.4 (1.0) years. Boys born by cesarean delivery had significantly earlier APHV (ß -0.23 years; 95% CI -0.40, -0.05) and higher risk of earlier attainment of puberty score > 1 (hazard ratio 1.09; 95% CI 1.01, 1.19) than boys born by vaginal delivery, after adjusting for confounders. These associations were not mediated by pre-pubertal BMI and were similar for planned (no labor) and unplanned (labor) cesarean delivery. No associations were observed between delivery mode and time to attain Tanner pubic hair Stage > 1 in boys. In girls, mode of delivery was not associated with any of the measured pubertal development markers. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study used, as secondary outcomes, parent- and child-reported measures of pubertal development, which may be more prone to error and misclassification than information collected by trained observers or physicians during clinical examinations. The findings may also not be generalizable to populations from different settings, because all participants lived in one geographic area, were well educated, and had health care. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings provide support for cesarean delivery as a potential indicator of identifying children who are likely to experience earlier pubertal development; however, more studies are needed to confirm or refute these observations. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The project was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health. The authors have no financial relationships or competing interests to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117007, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal exposure during pregnancy influences maternal and child health. Oxidative stress and inflammation may mediate adverse effects of heavy metals, whereas essential metals may act as antioxidants. Mitochondrial DNA is a prime target for metal-induced oxidative damage. Telomere dysfunction is attributed to imbalances between reactive oxidant species and antioxidants. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated individual and joint associations of prenatal metals with mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length (TL) in maternal and cord blood as biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: We measured six nonessential metals (arsenic, barium, cadmium, cesium, lead, mercury) and four essential metals (magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc) in first-trimester maternal red blood cells in Project Viva, a U.S. prebirth cohort. We measured relative mtDNAcn (n=898) and TL (n=893) in second-trimester maternal blood and mtDNAcn (n=419) and TL (n=408) in cord blood. We used multivariable linear regression and quantile g-computation to estimate associations between prenatal metals and the biomarkers. We used generalized additive models and Bayesian kernel machine regression to examine nonlinearity and interactions. RESULTS: A 2-fold increase in maternal magnesium was associated with lower maternal [ß=-0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, -0.01] and cord blood (ß=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.20, -0.01) mtDNAcn. Lead was associated with higher maternal mtDNAcn (ß=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06). Selenium was associated with longer cord blood TL (ß=0.30, 95% CI: 0.01 0.50). An association was observed between the nonessential metal mixture and higher maternal mtDNAcn (ß=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.07). There was a nonlinear relationship between cord blood mtDNAcn and magnesium; maternal mtDNAcn and barium, lead, and mercury; and maternal TL and barium. DISCUSSION: Maternal exposure to metals such as lead, magnesium, and selenium was associated with mtDNAcn and TL in maternal second trimester and cord blood. Future work will evaluate whether these biomarkers are associated with child health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9294.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 208, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to essential and non-essential metals impacts birth and child health, including fetal growth and neurodevelopment. DNA methylation (DNAm) may be involved in pathways linking prenatal metal exposure and health. In the Project Viva cohort, we analyzed the extent to which metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) measured in maternal erythrocytes were associated with differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs) in cord blood and tested if associations persisted in blood collected in mid-childhood. We measured metal concentrations in first-trimester maternal erythrocytes, and DNAm in cord blood (N = 361) and mid-childhood blood (N = 333, 6-10 years) with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. For each metal individually, we tested for DMPs using linear models (considered significant at FDR < 0.05), and for DMRs using comb-p (Sidak p < 0.05). Covariates included biologically relevant variables and estimated cell-type composition. We also performed sex-stratified analyses. RESULTS: Pb was associated with decreased methylation of cg20608990 (CASP8) (FDR = 0.04), and Mn was associated with increased methylation of cg02042823 (A2BP1) in cord blood (FDR = 9.73 × 10-6). Both associations remained significant but attenuated in blood DNAm collected at mid-childhood (p < 0.01). Two and nine Mn-associated DMPs were identified in male and female infants, respectively (FDR < 0.05), with two and six persisting in mid-childhood (p < 0.05). All metals except Ba and Pb were associated with ≥ 1 DMR among all infants (Sidak p < 0.05). Overlapping DMRs annotated to genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were identified for Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, Mg, and Mn. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal metal exposure is associated with DNAm, including DMRs annotated to genes involved in neurodevelopment. Future research is needed to determine if DNAm partially explains the relationship between prenatal metal exposures and health outcomes.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2125161, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623410

RESUMO

Importance: Although the literature on the association between birth by cesarean delivery and children's anthropometry has continued to increase, only a few studies have examined the association of cesarean delivery with measures of body composition assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which allows the differentiation of fat and lean mass overall and in specific regions of the body. Objective: To investigate whether differences exist in DXA-measured body composition between children and adolescents born by cesarean delivery and those born by vaginal delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included singleton children of mothers enrolled between April 1999 and July 2002 in Project Viva, a longitudinal prebirth cohort of mother-child pairs in Massachusetts. The children had at least 1 DXA scan at a follow-up visit during middle childhood (2007-2010) and/or early adolescence (2013-2016). Data analysis was performed from October 16, 2020, to May 9, 2021. Exposures: Mode of delivery (cesarean vs vaginal). Main Outcomes and Measures: Total lean mass index, total and truncal fat mass indexes, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) were estimated using DXA. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between mode of delivery and DXA-derived outcomes with adjustment for confounders. Stabilized inverse probability weights were used to control for potential selection bias owing to loss to follow-up. Results: A total of 975 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The mean (SD) maternal age at study entry was 32.0 (5.5) years, and the mean (SD) self-reported prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25.0 (5.4). Of the children included in the study, 491 (50%) were female; 212 (22%) were born by cesarean delivery and 763 (78%) by vaginal delivery. Body composition in middle childhood as measured by DXA did not differ by mode of delivery. In early adolescence, participants born by cesarean delivery had a significantly greater total lean mass index (ß, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7), total fat mass index (ß, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1), truncal fat mass index (ß, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.0-0.5), VAT area (ß, 4.7; 95% CI, 0.9-8.6), and TAAT area (ß, 23.8; 95% CI, 0.8-46.8) in a model adjusted for child sex and age at the time of DXA measurements; maternal age, educational level, race and ethnicity, total gestational weight gain, and smoking status during pregnancy; birth-weight-per-gestational-age z score; and paternal BMI. Associations between mode of delivery and measures of adiposity were found for cesarean deliveries performed in the absence of labor (total fat mass index: ß, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.3; truncal fat mass index: ß, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; VAT area: ß, 10.7; 95% CI, 3.1-18.3; TAAT area: ß, 47.3; 95% CI, 2.3-92.2). There were no associations after adjustment for maternal self-reported prepregnancy BMI (total lean mass index: ß, 0.2; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.6; total fat mass index: ß, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9; truncal fat mass index: ß, 0.2; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.4; VAT area: ß, 3.0; 95% CI, -0.6 to 6.7; TAAT area: ß, 13.6; 95% CI, -8.2 to 35.3). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, adolescents born by cesarean delivery had significantly higher measures of lean mass, fat mass, and central adiposity compared with those born by vaginal delivery, but associations did not remain after adjustment for the mothers' self-reported prepregnancy BMI. The findings suggest that the association between birth by cesarean delivery and adolescent adiposity may partly be explained by maternal self-reported prepregnancy BMI.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The evidence that maternal non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake during pregnancy increases childhood obesity risk is conflicting. A potential reason for this is that all prior studies examined childhood body mass index (BMI) at only one timepoint and at different ages. We examined the extent to which NNS intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring BMI z-score and body fat longitudinally from birth to 18 years. SUBJECTS: A total of 1683 children from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort, were recruited from 1999 to 2002 in Massachusetts. METHODS: We assessed maternal NNS intake in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Our outcomes were offspring BMI z-score, (at birth, infancy (median 6.3 months), early childhood (3.2 years), mid-childhood (7.7 years), and early adolescence (12.9 years)), sum of skinfolds (SS), fat mass index (FMI) measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and BMI z-score trajectory from birth to 18 years. We adjusted models for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy physical activity, smoking, and paternal BMI and education. RESULTS: A total of 70% of mothers were white and pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.6 ± 5.2 kg/m2. The highest quartile of NNS intake (Q4: 0.98 ± 0.91 servings/day) was associated with higher BMI z-score in infancy (ß 0.20 units; 95% CI 0.02, 0.38), early childhood (0.21; 0.05, 0.37), mid-childhood (0.21; 0.02, 0.40), and early adolescence (0.14; -0.07, 0.35) compared with Q1 intake (Q1: 0.00 ± 0.00 servings/day). Q4 was also associated with higher SS in early childhood (1.17 mm; 0.47, 1.88), mid-childhood (2.33 mm; 0.80, 3.87), and early adolescence (2.27 mm; -0.06, 4.60) and higher FMI in mid-childhood (0.26 kg/m2; -0.07, 0.59). Associations of maternal NNS intake with offspring BMI z-score became stronger with increasing age from 3 to 18 years (Pinteraction < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal NNS intake during pregnancy is associated with increased childhood BMI z-score and body fat from birth to teenage years. This is relevant given the escalating obesity epidemic, and popularity of NNS.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal intake of several nutrients during pregnancy is linked to offspring cognition. The relationship between maternal dietary patterns and offspring cognition is less established. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of maternal diet quality during pregnancy with child cognition and behavior. DESIGN: Among 1580 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort, we assessed maternal diet during pregnancy using food frequency questionnaires and evaluated diet quality using modified versions of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS-P) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-P). Child cognitive and behavioral outcomes were assessed using standardized tests and questionnaires at infancy, early and mid-childhood. We conducted multivariable linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers were predominantly white, college-educated, and non-smokers. After adjustment for child age and sex and maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, maternal high (6-9) vs. low (0-3) MDS-P during pregnancy was associated with higher child Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-II) nonverbal (mean difference for first trimester = 4.54; 95%CI: 1.53, 7.56) and verbal scores (3.78; 95%CI: 1.37, 6.19), and lower Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Metacognition Index (-1.76; 95%CI: -3.25, -0.27), indicating better intelligence and fewer metacognition problems in mid-childhood. Maternal Q4 vs. Q1 AHEI-P during pregnancy was associated with higher Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities matching scores in early childhood (mean difference for first trimester = 2.79; 95%CI: 0.55, 5.04), higher KBIT-II verbal scores (2.59; 95%CI: 0.13, 5.04) and lower BRIEF Global Executive Composite scores in mid-childhood (-1.61; 95%CI: -3.20, -0.01), indicating better visual spatial skills, verbal intelligence and executive function. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal intake of a better quality diet during pregnancy was associated with better visual spatial skills in the offspring at early childhood, and better intelligence and executive function in the offspring at mid-childhood.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both parental and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES) are linked to poorer health independently of personal SES measures, but the biological mechanisms are unclear. Our objective was to examine these influences via epigenetic age acceleration (EAA)-the discrepancy between chronological and epigenetic ages. METHODS: We examined three USA-based [Coronary Artery Risk Disease in Adults (CARDIA) study, Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) and Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS)] and one Mexico-based (Project Viva) cohort. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina arrays, personal/parental SES by questionnaire and neighbourhood disadvantage from geocoded address. In CARDIA, we examined the most strongly associated personal, parental and neighbourhood SES measures with EAA (Hannum's method) at study years 15 and 20 separately and combined using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) and compared with other EAA measures (Horvath's EAA, PhenoAge and GrimAge calculators, and DunedinPoAm). RESULTS: EAA was associated with paternal education in CARDIA [GEEs: ßsome college = -1.01 years (-1.91, -0.11) and ß

9.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112093, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562483

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources and is transformed in the environment to its most toxicant form, methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies suggest that MeHg exposure can alter epigenetic modifications during embryogenesis. In this study, we examined associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and levels of cord blood DNA methylation (DNAm) by meta-analysis in up to seven independent studies (n = 1462) as well as persistence of those relationships in blood from 7 to 8 year-old children (n = 794). In cord blood, we found limited evidence of differential DNAm at cg24184221 in MED31 (ß = 2.28 × 10-4, p-value = 5.87 × 10-5) in relation to prenatal MeHg exposure. In child blood, we identified differential DNAm at cg15288800 (ß = 0.004, p-value = 4.97 × 10-5), also located in MED31. This repeated link to MED31, a gene involved in lipid metabolism and RNA Polymerase II transcription function, may suggest a DNAm perturbation related to MeHg exposure that persists into early childhood. Further, we found evidence for association between prenatal MeHg exposure and child blood DNAm levels at two additional CpGs: cg12204245 (ß = 0.002, p-value = 4.81 × 10-7) in GRK1 and cg02212000 (ß = -0.001, p-value = 8.13 × 10-7) in GGH. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with DNAm modifications that may influence health outcomes, such as cognitive or anthropometric development, in different populations.

10.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112111, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adiposity trajectories reflect dynamic process of growth and may predict later life health better than individual measures. Prenatal phthalate exposures may program later childhood adiposity, but findings from studies examining these associations are conflicting. We investigated associations between phthalate biomarker concentrations during pregnancy with child adiposity trajectories. METHODS: We followed 514 mother-child pairs from the Mexico City PROGRESS cohort from pregnancy through twelve years. We measured concentrations of nine phthalate biomarkers in 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal urine samples to create a pregnancy average using the geometric mean. We measured child BMI z-score, fat mass index (FMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) at three study visits between four and 12 years of age. We identified adiposity trajectories using multivariate latent class growth modeling, considering BMI z-score, FMI, and WHtR as joint indicators of latent adiposity. We estimated associations of phthalates biomarkers with class membership using multinomial logistic regression. We used quantile g-computation to estimate the potential effect of the total phthalate mixture and assessed effect modification by sex. RESULTS: We identified three trajectories of child adiposity, a "low-stable", a "low-high", and a "high-high" group. A doubling of the sum of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP), was associated with 1.53 (1.08, 2.19) greater odds of being in the "high-high" trajectory in comparison to the "low-stable" group, whereas a doubling in di-isononyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDiNP) was associated with 1.43 (1.02, 2.02) greater odds of being in the "low-high" trajectory and mono (carboxy-isononyl) phthalate (MCNP) was associated with 0.66 (0.45, 97) lower odds of being in the "low-high" trajectory. No sex-specific associations or mixture associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites, DiNP metabolites, and MCNP, a di-isodecyl phthalate metabolite, were associated with trajectories of child adiposity. The total phthalate mixture was not associated with early life child adiposity.

11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(12): 2089-2099, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the association of individual-level characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity, birth weight, maternal education) with child BMI within each US Census region and variation in child BMI by region. METHODS: This study used pooled data from 25 prospective cohort studies. Region of residence (Northeast, Midwest, South, West) was based on residential zip codes. Age- and sex-specific BMI z scores were the outcome. RESULTS: The final sample included 14,313 children with 85,428 BMI measurements, 49% female and 51% non-Hispanic White. Males had a lower average BMI z score compared with females in the Midwest (ß = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.05) and West (ß = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.20 to -0.04). Compared with non-Hispanic White children, BMI z score was generally higher among children who were Hispanic and Black but not across all regions. Compared with the Northeast, average BMI z score was significantly higher in the Midwest (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.14) and lower in the South (ß = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.08) and West (ß = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09) after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Region of residence was associated with child BMI z scores, even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Understanding regional influences can inform targeted efforts to mitigate BMI-related disparities among children.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(11): 1882-1891, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations of central adiposity gain from midchildhood to early adolescence with cardiometabolic health markers in early adolescence. METHODS: A total of 620 participants were studied in Project Viva. In midchildhood (mean age = 7.8 years) and early adolescence (12.9 years), waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and trunk fat were obtained. Central adiposity gain was calculated as change per year between visits. Cardiometabolic health markers, including blood pressure, lipids, markers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and adipokines, were collected in early adolescence. RESULTS: Greater waist circumference gain was associated with higher log triglycerides (ß 0.07 mg/dL; 95% CI: 0.02-0.13), log alanine aminotransferase (0.07 U/L; 95% CI: 0.03-0.12), log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.43 mg/L; 95% CI: 0.28-0.58), and other cardiometabolic markers in early adolescence. Directly measured central adiposity gains were associated with higher systolic blood pressure z score in early adolescence (visceral adipose tissue [0.13 SD units; 95% CI: 0.04-0.23], subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue [0.18 SD units; 95% CI: 0.04-0.31], and trunk fat [0.21 SD units; 95% CI: 0.06-0.36]). These associations were independent of baseline and change in total adiposity from midchildhood to early adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring central adiposity gain may enable identification and intervention in children vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic health risks.

13.
Epidemiology ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561347

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Asthma and obesity often co-occur. It has been hypothesized that asthma may contribute to childhood obesity onset. OBJECTIVES: To determine if childhood asthma is associated with incident obesity and examine the role of asthma medication in this association. METHODS: We studied 8716 children between ages 6-18.5 years who were non-obese at study entry participating in 18 U.S. cohorts of the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes program (among 7299 children with complete covariate data mean [SD] study entry age=7.2 [1.6] years and follow-up=5.3 [3.1] years). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We defined asthma based on caregiver report of provider diagnosis. Incident obesity was defined as the first documented body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex following asthma status ascertainment. Over the study period, 26% of children had an asthma diagnosis and 11% developed obesity. Cox proportional hazards models with sex-specific baseline hazards were fitted to assess the association of asthma diagnosis with obesity incidence. Children with asthma had a 23% (95%CI: 4%, 44%) higher risk for subsequently developing obesity compared to those without asthma. A novel mediation analysis was also conducted to decompose the total asthma effect on obesity into pathways mediated and not mediated by asthma medication use. Use of asthma medication attenuated the total estimated effect of asthma on obesity by 64% (excess HR:-0.64 [95%CI:-1.05,-0.23]). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study supports the hypothesis that childhood asthma is associated with later risk of obesity. Asthma medication may reduce this association and merits further investigation as a potential strategy for obesity prevention among children with asthma.

14.
Environ Int ; 157: 106789, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the temporal trends and change of concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is important to evaluate the health impact of PFAS at both the individual- and population-level, however, limited information is available for pre-diabetic adults in the U.S. OBJECTIVES: Determine trends and rate of change of plasma PFAS concentrations in overweight or obese U.S. adults and evaluate variation by sex, race/ethnicity, and age. METHODS: We described temporal trends of plasma PFAS concentrations using samples collected in 1996-1998, 1999-2001, and 2011-2012 from 957 pre-diabetic adults enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial and Outcomes Study (DPPOS) and compared to serum concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000, 2003-2016, adults with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2). We examined associations between participants' characteristics and PFAS concentrations and estimated the rate of change using repeated measures in DPP/DPPOS assuming a first-order elimination model. RESULTS: Longitudinal measures of PFAS concentrations in DPP/DPPOS individuals were comparable to NHANES cross-sectional populational means. Plasma concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (EtFOSAA), and N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (MeFOSAA) started to decline after the year 2000 and concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) increased after 2000 and, for NHANES, decreased after 2012. We consistently observed higher PFOS, PFHxS and PFNA among male, compared to female, and higher PFOS and PFNA among Black, compared to white, participants. The estimated time for concentrations to decrease by half ranged from 3.39 years for EtFOSAA to 17.56 years for PFHxS. DISCUSSION: We observed a downward temporal trend in plasma PFOS concentrations that was consistent with the timing for U.S. manufacturers' phaseout. Male and Black participants consistently showed higher PFOS and PFNA than female and white participants, likely due to differences in exposure patterns, metabolism or elimination kinetics.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Estados Unidos
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121429, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410396

RESUMO

Importance: Prenatal experiences can influence fetal brain development. Objective: To examine associations of maternal prenatal body mass index (BMI) with cognition and behavior of offspring born full-term. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined follow-up data from a breastfeeding promotion intervention at 31 hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in the Republic of Belarus. Participants included 11 276 children who were evaluated from birth (1996-1997) to adolescence (2017-2019), with maternal BMI information available in prenatal medical records. Exposures: Maternal BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, after 35 weeks gestation; secondary analyses examined maternal BMI at other time points and paternal BMI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trained pediatricians assessed child cognition with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) at 6.5 years and the computerized self-administered NeuroTrax battery at 16 years, both with an approximate mean (SD) of 100 (15). Parents and teachers rated behaviors at 6.5 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, range 0-40). Mixed-effects linear regression analyses corrected for clustering, adjusted for the randomized intervention group and baseline parental sociodemographic characteristics, and were considered mediation by child BMI. Results: Among 11 276 participants, 9355 women (83%) were aged 20 to 34 years, 10 128 (89.8%) were married, and 11 050 (98.0%) did not smoke during pregnancy. Each 5-unit increase in of maternal late-pregnancy BMI (mean [SD], 27.2 [3.8]) was associated with lower offspring WASI performance intelligence quotient (IQ) (-0.52 points; 95% CI, -0.87 to -0.17 points) at 6.5 years and lower scores on 5 of 7 NeuroTrax subscales and the global cognitive score at 16 years (-0.67 points; 95% CI, -1.06 to -0.29 points). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy complications, and paternal BMI and were not mediated by child weight. Higher late pregnancy maternal BMI was also associated with more behavioral problems reported on the SDQ by teachers but not associated with parent-reported behaviors (externalizing behaviors: 0.13 points; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.24 points; and total difficulties: 0.14 points, 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.30 points). Results were similar for maternal BMI measured in the first trimester or postpartum. In contrast, higher 6.5-year paternal BMI was associated with slightly better child cognition (WASI verbal IQ: 0.42 points; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.82 points; NeuroTrax executive function score: 0.68 points; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.12 points) and fewer teacher-reported behavioral problems (total difficulties: -0.29 points; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.11 points). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study supports findings from animal experiments and human observational studies in settings with higher maternal BMI and obesity rates. Higher maternal prenatal BMI may be associated with poorer offspring brain development, although residual confounding cannot be excluded.

16.
Environ Res ; 202: 111621, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237332

RESUMO

Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may adversely impact neurodevelopment, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. In the Project Viva pre-birth cohort, we examined associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS plasma concentrations with parent and teacher assessments of children's behavior problems [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)] and executive function abilities [Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)] at age 6-10 years (sample sizes 485-933). PFAS concentrations in pregnant Project Viva mothers (in 1999-2002) and children at ages 6-10 (in 2007-10) were similar to concentrations at similar time points in women and children in the nationally representative U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We observed no consistent associations of prenatal PFAS concentrations with behavior or executive function. Childhood concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) were associated with higher parent-rated SDQ Total Difficulties scores (mean = 6.7, standard deviation (SD) = 4.9), suggesting greater behavioral problems (top (Q4) versus bottom (Q1) quartile PFOA: 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3, 2.7; PFOS: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 2.5; PFHxS: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 2.3; PFNA: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 2.2; PFDA: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.0, 1.1); teacher-rated SDQ scores did not show associations. Higher childhood PFOS was associated with higher (indicating more problems) parent-rated BRIEF General Executive Composite (GEC) scores (standardized to mean = 50, SD = 10) (Q4 vs. Q1: 2.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.6), while teacher BRIEF GEC scores indicated more problems among children with higher PFHxS (Q4 vs. Q1: 3.5, 95% CI: -0.8, 6.3). There were no consistent patterns of sexual dimorphism in associations. In a cohort of U.S. children, we observed cross-sectional associations of childhood PFAS concentrations with greater behavioral and executive function problems, but no consistent associations with prenatal PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308473

RESUMO

The association between early life greenness and child cognition is not well understood. Using prospective data from Project Viva (n=857) from 1999 to 2010, we examined associations of early life greenness exposure with mid-childhood cognition. We estimated residential greenness at birth, early childhood (median age 3.1y), and mid-childhood (7.8y) using 30m resolution Landsat satellite imagery [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index]. In early childhood and mid-childhood, we administered standardized assessments of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual-motor abilities, and visual memory. We used natural splines to examine associations of early life-course greenness with mid-childhood cognition, adjusting for age, sex, race, income, neighborhood socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, and parental education. At lower levels of greenness (greenness<0.6), greenness exposure at early childhood was associated with a 0.48% increase in non-verbal intelligence and 2.64% increase in visual memory in mid-childhood. The association between early childhood greenness and mid-childhood visual memory was observed after further adjusting for early childhood cognition and across different methodologies, while the association with non-verbal intelligence was not. No other associations between early life-course greenness and mid-childhood cognition were found. Early childhood greenness was nonlinearly associated with higher mid-childhood visual memory. Our findings highlight the importance of nonlinear associations between greenness and cognition.

18.
Pediatr Rep ; 13(2): 279-288, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205853

RESUMO

To examine whether BMI-associated genetic risk variants modify the association of intrauterine diabetes exposure with childhood BMI z-scores, we assessed the interaction between 95 BMI-associated genetic variants and in utero exposure to maternal diabetes among 459 children in the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes among Children historical prospective cohort study (n = 86 exposed; 373 unexposed) in relation to age- and sex-standardized childhood BMI z-scores (mean age = 10.3 years, standard deviation = 1.5 years). For the genetic variants showing a nominally significant interaction, we assessed the relationship in an additional 621 children in Project Viva, which is an independent longitudinal cohort study, and used meta-analysis to combine the results for the two studies. Seven of the ninety-five genetic variants tested exhibited a nominally significant interaction with in utero exposure to maternal diabetes in relation to the offspring BMI z-score in EPOCH. Five of the seven variants exhibited a consistent direction of interaction effect across both EPOCH and Project Viva. While none achieved statistical significance in the meta-analysis after accounting for multiple testing, three variants exhibited a nominally significant interaction with in utero exposure to maternal diabetes in relation to offspring BMI z-score: rs10733682 near LMX1B (interaction ß = 0.39; standard error (SE) = 0.17), rs17001654 near SCARB2 (ß = 0.53; SE = 0.22), and rs16951275 near MAP2K5 (ß = 0.37; SE = 0.17). BMI-associated genetic variants may enhance the association between exposure to in utero diabetes and higher childhood BMI, but larger studies of in utero exposures are necessary to confirm the observed nominally significant relationships.

19.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 62(7): 388-398, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288135

RESUMO

Maternal fat intake during pregnancy affects fetal growth, but mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. We performed an exploratory study of the associations of fat consumption during pregnancy with cord blood DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 genes. We used data from 96 uncomplicated full-term pregnancies of mothers of whom majority had normal body mass index (BMI) (66%) in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort. We assessed maternal diet with validated food frequency questionnaires during the first and second trimesters and measured DNA methylation in segments of the IGF2- and H19-differentially methylated regions (DMRs) by pyrosequencing DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood samples. Mean (SD) age was 32.8 (4.1) years and prepregnancy BMI was 24.0 (4.4) kg/m2 . Mean DNA methylation was 56.3% (3.9%) for IGF2-DMR and 44.6% (1.9%) for H19-DMR. Greater first trimester intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat (effect per 1% of calories at the expense of carbohydrates) was associated with lower DNA methylation of IGF2-DMR (-1.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.2%, -0.2%) and higher DNA methylation at H19-DMR (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.3%). On the other hand, greater first trimester intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fat was associated with lower DNA methylation of the H19-DMR (-4.3%; 95% CI: -7.9%, -0.8%). We did not find significant associations of IGF2 and H19 methylation with IGF2 cord blood levels. Our findings suggest that early prenatal fat intake (omega-3, omega-6, and saturated fatty acids) may influence DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 locus, which could impact fetal development and long-term health.

20.
Environ Res ; 201: 111540, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se) and methylmercury (MeHg) can be neurotoxic individually, despite Mn and Se also being essential elements. Little is known about the joint effects of essential and non-essential elements on neurobehavior, particularly for prenatal exposures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to multiple elements with executive function and neurobehavior in children. METHODS: Participants included 1009 mother-child pairs from the Project Viva pre-birth cohort. We estimated maternal erythrocyte Pb, Mn, Se, and Hg concentrations prenatally. In 6-11-year old children (median 7.6 years), parents and teachers rated children's executive function-related behaviors using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Global Executive Composite score and behavioral difficulties using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. We evaluated associations of element mixtures with neurobehavior using Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), multivariable linear regression, and quantile g-computation. RESULTS: Median erythrocyte Pb, Mn, Se, and Hg concentrations were 1.1 µg/dL, 33.1 µg/L, 204.5 ng/mL, and 3.1 ng/g, respectively. Findings from BKMR and quantile g-computation models both showed worse (higher) parent-rated BRIEF and SDQ z-scores with higher concentrations of the mixture, although estimates were imprecise. When remaining elements were set at their median within BKMR models, increases in Pb and Se from the 25th to 75th percentile of exposure distributions were associated with 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) and 0.07 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.16) standard deviation increases in parent-rated BRIEF scores, and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.17) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.13) standard deviation increases in SDQ scores, respectively. There was no evidence of element interactions. DISCUSSION: Although associations were small in magnitude, we found a trend of worsening neurobehavioral ratings with increasing prenatal exposure to an element mixture. However, we may be observing a limited range of dose-dependent impacts given the levels of exposure within our population.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...