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1.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172073

RESUMO

The discovery of extracellular vesicles (EVs) dates back to the early 1940s, when Erwin Chargaff and Randolph West showed that platelet-free plasma contains coagulation components that pellet upon high-speed (31,000× g) centrifugation [...].

2.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036231

RESUMO

Blood extracellular vesicles (BEVs) carry bioactive cargo (proteins, genetic materials, lipids, licit, and illicit drugs) that regulate diverse functions in target cells. The cannabinoid drug delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is FDA approved for the treatment of anorexia and weight loss in people living with HIV. However, the effect of THC on BEV characteristics in the setting of HIV/SIV infection needs to be determined. Here, we used the SIV-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS to evaluate the longitudinal effects of THC (THC/SIV) or vehicle (VEH/SIV) treatment in HIV/SIV infection on the properties of BEVs. While BEV concentrations increased longitudinally (pre-SIV (0), 30, and 150 days post-SIV infection (DPI)) in VEH/SIV macaques, the opposite trend was observed with THC/SIV macaques. SIV infection altered BEV membrane properties and cargo composition late in infection, since i) the electrostatic surface properties (zeta potential, ζ potential) showed that RM BEVs carried negative surface charge, but at 150 DPI, SIV infection significantly changed BEV ζ potential; ii) BEVs from the VEH/SIV group altered tetraspanin CD9 and CD81 levels compared to the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, VEH/SIV and THC/SIV BEVs mediated divergent changes in monocyte gene expression, morphometrics, signaling, and function. These include altered tetraspanin and integrin ß1 expression; altered levels and distribution of polymerized actin, FAK/pY397 FAK, pERK1/2, cleaved caspase 3, proapoptotic Bid and truncated tBid; and altered adhesion of monocytes to collagen I. These data indicate that HIV/SIV infection and THC treatment result in the release of bioactive BEVs with potential to induce distinct structural adaptations and signaling cues to instruct divergent cellular responses to infection.

3.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019624

RESUMO

Although extracellular vesicle (EV) surface electrostatic properties (measured as zeta potential, ζ-potential) have been reported by many investigators, the biophysical implications of charge and EV origin remains uncertain. Here, we compared the ζ-potential of human blood EVs (BEVs) and semen EVs (SEVs) from 26 donors that were HIV-infected (HIV+, n = 13) or HIV uninfected (HIV-, n = 13). We found that, compared to BEVs that bear neutral surface charge, SEVs were significantly more negatively charged, even when BEVs and SEVs were from the same individual. Comparison of BEVs and SEVs from HIV- and HIV+ groups revealed subtle HIV-induced alteration in the ζ-potential of EVs, with the effect being more significant in SEVs (∆ζ-potential = -8.82 mV, p-value = 0.0062) than BEVs (∆ζ-potential = -1.4 mV, p-value = 0.0462). These observations were validated by differences in the isoelectric point (IEP) of EVs, which was in the order of HIV + SEV ≤ HIV-SEV ≪ HIV + BEV ≤ HIV-BEV. Functionally, the rate and efficiency of SEV internalization by the human cervical epithelial cell line, primary peripheral blood lymphocytes, and primary blood-derived monocytes were significantly higher than those of BEVs. Mechanistically, removal of sialic acids from the surface of EVs using neuraminidase treatment significantly decreased SEV's surface charge, concomitant with a substantial reduction in SEV's internalization. The neuraminidase effect was independent of HIV infection and insignificant for BEVs. Finally, these results were corroborated by enrichment of glycoproteins in SEVs versus BEVs. Taken together, these findings uncover fundamental tissue-specific differences in surface electrostatic properties of EVs and highlight the critical role of surface charge in EV/target cell interactions.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872253

RESUMO

BST-2 is a novel driver of cancer progression whose expression confers oncogenic properties to breast cancer cells. As such, targeting BST-2 in tumors may be an effective therapeutic approach against breast cancer. Here, we sought to develop potent cytotoxic anti-cancer agent using the second-generation BST-2-based anti-adhesion peptide, B18, as backbone. To this end, we designed a series of five B18-derived peptidomimetics. Among these, B18L, a cationic amphiphilic α-helical peptidomimetic, was selected as the drug lead because it displayed superior anti-cancer activity against both drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cancer cells, with minimal toxicity on normal cells. Probing mechanism of action using molecular dynamics simulations, biochemical and membrane biophysics studies, we observed that B18L binds BST-2 and possesses membranolytic characteristics. Furthermore, molecular biology studies show that B18L dysregulates cancer signaling pathways resulting in decreased Src and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl2 proteins, caspase 3 cleavage products, as well as processing of the caspase substrate, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), to the characteristic apoptotic fragment. These data indicate that through the coordinated regulation of membrane, mitochondrial and signaling events, B18L executes cancer cell death and thus has the potential to be developed into a potent and selective anti-cancer compound.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751379

RESUMO

Although celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease that primarily involves the intestinal tract, mounting evidence suggests that a sizeable number of patients exhibit neurological deficits. About 40% of the celiac patients with neurological manifestations have circulating antibodies against neural tissue transglutaminase-6 (tTG6). While early diagnosis and strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) have been recommended to prevent neurological dysfunction, better therapeutic strategies are needed to improve the overall quality of life. Dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, presence of anti-tTG6 antibodies, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis. It is also possible that circulating or gut-derived extracellular structures and including biomolecular condensates and extracellular vesicles contribute to disease pathogenesis. There are several avenues for shaping the dysregulated gut homeostasis in individuals with CD, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and/or neurodegeneration. In addition to GFD and probiotics, nutraceuticals, such as phyto and synthetic cannabinoids, represent a new approach that could shape the host microbiome towards better prognostic outcomes. Finally, we provide a data-driven rationale for potential future pre-clinical research involving non-human primates (NHPs) to investigate the effect of nutraceuticals, such as phyto and synthetic cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with GFD to prevent/mitigate dietary gluten-induced neurodegeneration.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731547

RESUMO

Acellular particles (extracellular vesicles and membraneless condensates) have important research, drug discovery, and therapeutic implications. However, their isolation and retrieval have faced enormous challenges, impeding their use. Here, a novel size-guided particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) is integrated into a turbidimetry-enabled system for dye-free isolation, online characterization, and retrieval of intact acellular particles from biofluids. The chromatographic separation of particles from different biofluids-semen, blood, urine, milk, and cell culture supernatants-is achieved using a first-in-class gradient size exclusion column (gSEC). Purified particles are collected using a fraction collector. Online UV-Vis monitoring reveals biofluid-dependent particle spectral differences, with semen being the most complex. Turbidimetry provides the accurate physical characterization of seminal particle (Sp) lipid contents, sizes, and concentrations, validated by a nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and naphthopyrene assay. Furthermore, different fractions of purified Sps contain distinct DNA, RNA species, and protein compositions. The integration of Sp physical and compositional properties identifies two archetypal membrane-encased seminal extracellular vesicles (SEV)-notably SEV large (SEVL), SEV small (SEVS), and a novel nonarchetypalµµembraneless Sps, herein named membraneless condensates (MCs). This study demonstrates a comprehensive yet affordable platform for isolating, collecting, and analyzing acellular particles to facilitate extracellular particle research and applications in drug delivery and therapeutics. Ongoing efforts focus on increased resolution by tailoring bead/column chemistry for each biofluid type.

7.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371599

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota influences sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Colonization of the vaginal tract is normally dominated by Lactobacillus species. Both Lactobacillus and Enterococcus faecalis may secrete reutericyclin, which inhibits the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacteria. Increasing evidence suggests a potential therapeutic role for an analogue of reutericyclin, glycerol monolaurate (GML), against microbial pathogens. Previous studies using a macaque vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission model demonstrated that GML reduces transmission and alters immune responses to infection in vitro Previous studies showed that structural analogues of GML negatively impact other enveloped viruses. We sought to expand understanding of how GML inhibits HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses and show that GML restricts HIV-1 entry post-CD4 engagement at the step of coreceptor binding. Further, HIV-1 and yellow fever virus (YFV) particles were more sensitive to GML interference than particles "matured" by proteolytic processing. We show that high-pressure-liquid-chromatography (HPLC)-purified reutericyclin and reutericyclin secreted by Lactobacillus inhibit HIV-1. These data emphasize the importance and protective nature of the normal vaginal flora during viral infections and provide insights into the antiviral mechanism of GML during HIV-1 infection and, more broadly, to other enveloped viruses.IMPORTANCE A total of 340 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired each year. Antimicrobial agents that target multiple infectious pathogens are ideal candidates to reduce the number of newly acquired STIs. The antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties of GML make it an excellent candidate to fit this critical need. Previous studies established the safety profile and antibacterial activity of GML against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GML protected against high-dose SIV infection and reduced inflammation, which can exacerbate disease, during infection. We found that GML inhibits HIV-1 and other human-pathogenic viruses (yellow fever virus, mumps virus, and Zika virus), broadening its antimicrobial range. Because GML targets diverse infectious pathogens, GML may be an effective agent against the broad range of sexually transmitted pathogens. Further, our data show that reutericyclin, a GML analog expressed by some lactobacillus species, also inhibits HIV-1 replication and thus may contribute to the protective effect of Lactobacillus in HIV-1 transmission.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Feminino , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Lauratos/metabolismo , Monoglicerídeos/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Ácido Tenuazônico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Tenuazônico/metabolismo , Ácido Tenuazônico/farmacologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Vírus/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155736

RESUMO

Inhibition of cancer cell adhesion is an effective approach to killing adherent cancer cells. B49 and its analog B49Mod1 peptides, derived from the extracellular domain (ECD) of bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2), display anti-adhesion activity on breast cancer cells. However, the minimal sequence required for this anti-adhesion activity is unknown. Here, we further characterized the anti-adhesion activity of B49Mod1. We show that the anti-adhesion activity of B49Mod1 may require cysteine-linked disulfide bond and that the peptide is susceptible to proteolytic deactivation. Using structure-activity relationship studies, we identified an 18-Mer sequence (B18) as the minimal peptide sequence mediating the anti-adhesion activity of B49Mod1. Atomistic molecular dynamic (MD) simulations reveal that B18 forms a stable complex with the ECD of BST-2 in aqueous solution. MD simulations further reveal that B18 may cause membrane defects that facilitates peptide translocation across the bilayer. Placement of four B18 chains as a transmembrane bundle results in water channel formation, indicating that B18 may impair membrane integrity and form pores. We hereby identify B18 as the minimal peptide sequence required for the anti-adhesion activity of B49Mod1 and provide atomistic insight into the interaction of B18 with BST-2 and the cell membrane.

9.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(1): 78-100, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676584

RESUMO

Blood and semen are important body-fluids that carry exosomes for bioinformation transmission. Therefore, characterization of their proteomes is necessary for understanding body-fluid-specific physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. Using systematic multifactorial proteomic profiling, we characterized the proteomes of exosomes and exosome-free fractions from autologous blood and semen from three HIV-uninfected and three HIV-infected participants (total of 24 samples). We identified exosome-based protein signatures specific to blood and semen along with HIV-induced tissue-dependent proteomic perturbations. We validated our findings with samples from 16 additional donors and showed that unlike blood exosomes (BE), semen exosomes (SE) are enriched in clusterin. SE but not BE promote Protein·Nucleic acid binding and increase cell adhesion irrespective of HIV infection. This is the first comparative study of the proteome of autologous BE and SE. The proteins identified may be developed as biomarkers applicable to different fields of medicine, including reproduction and infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
FEBS Lett ; 594(4): 695-709, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665815

RESUMO

Semen exosomes (SE) inhibit HIV infection. However, the effect of SE on cell activation and inflammation remains unknown. We characterized the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-uninfected and antiretroviral therapy-suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects to SE. Quiescent PBMCs or T-cell receptor (TCR)-activated PBMCs from HIV- and HIV+ donors were stimulated with SE in the presence/absence of ex vivo HIV infection. In HIV-infected PBMCs, SE did not reactivate HIV, did not induce lymphoblast development, nor increase CD69+/CD25+ numbers. Furthermore, SE inhibited de novo HIV infection without altering cell activation. SE also asynchronously downregulated HIV-inducible IL1ß, IL8, and TNFα and upregulated CXCL10. These data suggest that SE inhibits HIV infection and production of HIV-induced proinflammatory cytokines while preserving lymphocyte activation.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Exossomos/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Sêmen/citologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Replicação Viral
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(1): 90-98, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles with diverse functions in intercellular communication including disease and infection, and EVs seem to influence HIV-1 pathogenesis. EVs isolated from HIV-1-uninfected semen (SE), but not blood (BE), contain factors that interfere with HIV-1 infection and replication in target cells. The reason for this dichotomy is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs on the anti-HIV-1 effects of SE and BE is unknown. Here, we characterize EVs and EV-free plasma isolated from HIV-infected donor semen and blood and their effects on HIV infection. METHODS: EVs and EV-free plasma were purified from autologous blood and semen of HIV-negative, HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, and HIV-infected ART-treated participants. HIV infection was assessed in a TZM-bl cell reporter system. ARV concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: SE isolated from both HIV-negative and HIV-infected, ART-naïve donors inhibited HIV-1 infection, but BE and semen and blood EV-free plasma did not. By contrast, BE, SE, and EV-free plasma from HIV-infected, ART-treated donors inhibited HIV-1. Importantly, exosomes isolated from ART-treated donors contained concentrations of ARV drugs (ART-EVs) at biologically relevant inhibitory levels. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV-1-inhibitory phenotype of SE is independent of donor HIV-1 or ART status, and ARV drugs and their metabolites are SE- and BE-associated in vivo.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro
12.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484431

RESUMO

Semen exosomes (SE) from HIV-uninfected (HIV-) individuals potently inhibit HIV infection in vitro. However, morphological changes in target cells in response to SE have not been characterized or have the effect of HIV infection or the use of illicit substances, specifically psychostimulants, on the function of SE been elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIV infection, psychostimulant use, and both together on SE-mediated regulation of monocyte function. SE were isolated from semen of HIV- and HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants who reported either using or not using psychostimulants. The SE samples were thus designated as HIV-Drug-, HIV-Drug+, HIV+Drug-, and HIV+Drug+. U937 monocytes were treated with different SEs and analyzed for changes in transcriptome, morphometrics, actin reorganization, adhesion, and chemotaxis. HIV infection and/or use of psychostimulants had minimal effects on the physical characteristics of SE. However, different SEs had diverse effects on the messenger RNA signature of monocytes and rapidly induced monocyte adhesion and spreading. SE from HIV infected or psychostimulants users but not HIV-Drug- SE, stimulated actin reorganization, leading to the formation of filopodia-like structures and membrane ruffles containing F-actin and vinculin that in some cases were colocalized. All SE stimulated monocyte chemotaxis to HIV secretome and activated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, a phenotype exacerbated by HIV infection and psychostimulant use. SE-directed regulation of cellular morphometrics and chemotaxis depended on the donor clinical status because HIV infection and psychostimulant use altered SE function. Although our inclusion criteria specified the use of cocaine, humans are poly-drug and alcohol users and our study participants used psychostimulants, marijuana, opiates, and alcohol. Thus, it is possible that the effects observed in this study may be due to one of these other substances or due to an interaction between different substances.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular , Quimiotaxia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Células U937
13.
J Gen Virol ; 100(3): 350-366, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702421

RESUMO

The terms extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, oncosomes, or exosomes are often used interchangeably as descriptors of particles that are released from cells and comprise a lipid membrane that encapsulates nucleic acids and proteins. Although these entities are defined based on a specific size range and/or mechanism of release, the terminology is often ambiguous. Nevertheless, these vesicles are increasingly recognized as important modulators of intercellular communication. The generic characterization of extracellular vesicles could also be used as a descriptor of enveloped viruses, highlighting the fact that extracellular vesicles and enveloped viruses are similar in both composition and function. Their high degree of similarity makes differentiating between vesicles and enveloped viruses in biological specimens particularly difficult. Because viral particles and extracellular vesicles are produced simultaneously in infected cells, it is necessary to separate these populations to understand their independent functions. We summarize current understanding of the similarities and differences of extracellular vesicles, which henceforth we will refer to as exosomes, and the enveloped retrovirus, HIV-1. Here, we focus on the presence of these particles in semen, as these are of particular importance during HIV-1 sexual transmission. While there is overlap in the terminology and physical qualities between HIV-1 virions and exosomes, these two types of intercellular vehicles may differ depending on the bio-fluid source. Recent data have demonstrated that exosomes from human semen serve as regulators of HIV-1 infection that may contribute to the remarkably low risk of infection per sexual exposure.


Assuntos
Exossomos/virologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Animais , Exossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , Humanos
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17608, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514852

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) mediates various facets of cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we show that BST-2 is linked to poor survival in invasive breast cancer patients as its expression positively correlates with disease severity. However, the mechanisms that drive the pro-metastatic functions of BST-2 are not fully understood. Correlation of BST-2 expression and tumor aggressiveness was analyzed in human tissue samples. Migration, invasion, and competitive experimental metastasis assays were used to measure the cellular responses after silencing BST-2 expression. Using a mouse model of breast cancer, we show that BST-2 promotes metastasis independent of the primary tumor. Additional experiments show that suppression of BST-2 renders non-adherent cancer cells non-viable by sensitizing cells to anoikis. Embedment of cancer cells in basement membrane matrix reveals that silencing BTS-2 expression inhibits invadopodia formation, extracellular matrix degradation, and subsequent cell invasion. Competitive experimental pulmonary metastasis shows that silencing BST-2 reduces the numbers of viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and decreases the efficiency of lung colonization. Our data define a previously unknown function for BST-2 in the i) formation of invadopodia, ii) degradation of extracellular matrix, and iii) protection of CTCs from hemodynamic stress. We believe that physical (tractional forces) and biochemical (ECM type/composition) cues may control BST-2's role in cell survival and invadopodia formation. Collectively, our findings highlight BST-2 as a key factor that allows cancer cells to invade, survive in circulation, and at the metastatic site.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Animais , Movimento Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/biossíntese , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
J Virol ; 92(21)2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111566

RESUMO

Exosomes play various roles in host responses to cancer and infective agents, and semen exosomes (SE) inhibit HIV-1 infection and transmission, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is unclear. Here, we show that SE block HIV-1 proviral transcription at multiple transcriptional checkpoints, including transcription factor recruitment to the long terminal repeat (LTR), transcription initiation, and elongation. Biochemical and functional studies show that SE inhibit HIV-1 LTR-driven viral gene expression and virus replication. Through partitioning of the HIV-1 RNA, we found that SE reduced the optimal expression of various viral RNA species. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-real-time quantitative PCR (ChIP-RT-qPCR) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis of infected cells identified the human transcription factors NF-κB and Sp1, as well as RNA polymerase (Pol) II and the viral protein transcriptional activator (Tat), as targets of SE. Of interest, SE inhibited HIV-1 LTR activation mediated by HIV-1 or Tat, but not by the mitogen phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). SE inhibited the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and Sp1 and blocked the recruitment of these transcription factors and Pol II to the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Importantly, SE directly blocked NF-κB, Sp1, and Pol II binding to the LTR and inhibited the interactions of Tat/NF-κB and Tat/Sp1, suggesting that SE-mediated inhibition of the functional quadripartite complex NF-κB-Sp1-Pol II-Tat may be a novel mechanism of proviral transcription repression. These data provide a novel molecular basis for SE-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 and identify Tat as a potential target of SE.IMPORTANCE HIV is most commonly transmitted sexually, and semen is the primary vector. Despite progress in studies of HIV pathogenesis and the success of combination antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication, current therapy cannot completely control sexual transmission. Thus, there is a need to identify effective methods of controlling HIV replication and transmission. Recently, it was shown that human semen contains exosomes that protect against HIV infection in vitro In this study, we identified a mechanism by which semen exosomes inhibited HIV-1 RNA expression. We found that semen exosomes inhibit recruitment of transcription factors NF-κB and Sp1, as well as RNA Pol II, to the promoter region in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1. The HIV-1 early protein transcriptional activator (Tat) was a target of semen exosomes, and semen exosomes inhibited the binding and recruitment of Tat to the HIV-1 LTR.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Exossomos/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV/genética , Humanos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Polimerase II/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Transcrição Genética , Ativação Transcricional , Replicação Viral , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4305, 2018 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523843

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) also known as Tetherin has been implicated in the growth and progression of many cancers. BST-2 employs its pro-tumor effects through the formation of BST-2:BST-2 dimers which ultimately promotes cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, cell motility, survival, and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel BST-2-based peptide-B49 on adhesion and growth of breast cancer cells. Homotypic/heterotypic adhesion, three-dimensional spheroid formation, and anchorage-independent growth were used to assess the effect of B49 on cell adhesion and growth. Additionally, we provide evidence of the anti-tumor effect of B49 in a preclinical mouse model of breast cancer. Results show that breast cancer cell adhesion to other cancer cells or components of the tumor microenvironment were inhibited by B49. Most well-known evaluation indexes of cancer cell growth, including spheroid formation, anchorage-independent, and primary tumor growth were significantly inhibited by B49. These data affirm that i) BST-2 plays a key role in mediating breast cancer cell adhesion and growth, and ii) B49 and its analog B49Mod1 significantly inhibits BST-2-mediated cancer cell adhesion and growth. Therefore, B49 and its analogs offer a promising anti-adhesion and therapeutic lead for BST-2-dependent cancers.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química
17.
Bio Protoc ; 7(7)2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660234

RESUMO

Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles of endocytic origin. Exosomes are known to carry host and pathogen-derived genomic, proteomic, lipidomic cargos and other extraneous molecules. Exosomes are secreted by diverse cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient neighboring or distal cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. Exosomes facilitate intercellular communication, modulate cellular phenotype, and regulate microbial pathogenesis. We have previously shown that semen exosomes (SE) inhibit HIV-1 replication in various cell types. Here, we describe detailed protocols for characterizing SE. This protocol can be adapted or modified and used for evaluation of other extracellular vesicles of interest.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 8(3): e2687, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300825

RESUMO

Almost all breast tumors express the antiviral protein BST-2 with 67%, 25% and 8.2% containing high, medium or low levels of BST-2, respectively. Breast tumor cells and tissues that contain elevated levels of BST-2 are highly aggressive. Suppression of BST-2 expression reprograms tumorigenic properties of cancer cells and diminishes cancer cell aggressiveness. Using structure/function studies, we report that dimerization of BST-2 through cysteine residues located in the BST-2 extracellular domain (ECD), leads to anoikis resistance and cell survival through proteasome-mediated degradation of BIM-a key proapoptotic factor. Importantly, BST-2 dimerization promotes tumor growth in preclinical breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that restoration of the ECD cysteine residues is sufficient to rescue cell survival and tumor growth via a previously unreported pathway-BST-2/GRB2/ERK/BIM/Cas3. These findings suggest that disruption of BST-2 dimerization offers a potential therapeutic approach for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Anoikis/fisiologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Cisteína/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dimerização , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Células MCF-7 , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45034, 2017 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338013

RESUMO

Exosomes are important vehicles of intercellular communication that shape host responses to physiologic, tumorigenic, and pathogenic conditions. The composition and function of exosomes are dynamic and depends on the state and condition of the cellular source. In prior work, we found that semen exosomes (SE) from healthy donors who do not use illicit drugs potently inhibit HIV-1. Following semen donation, specimens are either used immediately or frozen for use at a later time. It has been shown that short-term freezing of semen has no effect on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. However, the effect of illicit drugs and prolonged freezing on SE bioactivity is unknown. Here, we show preservation of SE physical properties, (morphology, concentration, intensity/size) irrespective of illicit drug use or duration of semen freezing. Interestingly, illicit drugs and prolonged freezing decreased the levels of SE-bound CD63/CD9 and acetylcholinesterase activity respectively. Furthermore, we show differential effects of illicit drug use and prolonged freezing on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Our results highlight the importance of the source of SE and condition of semen storage on SE content and function. In-depth evaluation of donor drug-use and duration of semen storage on SE cargo and bioactivity will advance our understanding of SE composition and function.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Exossomos/virologia , Sêmen/citologia , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/farmacologia , Masculino , Sêmen/diagnóstico por imagem , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen , Tetraspanina 29/genética , Tetraspanina 29/metabolismo , Tetraspanina 30/genética , Tetraspanina 30/metabolismo
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(66): 110221-110233, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299143

RESUMO

There is now irrefutable evidence that overexpression of the innate immunity protein-BST-2, in breast cancer cells is implicated in tumor growth and progression. The cellular mechanisms that control BST-2-mediated effect in tumor progression involve enhancement of cancer cell motility-migration/invasion. However, the distinct structural elements of BST-2 that mediate breast cancer cell motility remain unknown. Here, we used various motility assays and different variants of BST-2 to examine the cellular and structural mechanisms controlling BST-2-mediated cell motility. We show that BST-2 silencing in various cancer cell lines inhibits cell motility. Restoration of BST-2 expression using construct expressing wild type BST-2 rescues cell motility. Mutational analysis identifies the cytoplasmic tail of BST-2 as a novel regulator of cancer cell motility, because cell motility was significantly abrogated by substitution of the BST-2 cytoplasmic tail tyrosine residues to alanine residues. Furthermore, in a spheroid invasion model, BST-2-expressing tumor spheroids are highly invasive inside 3D Matrigel matrices. In this model, the spreading distance of BST-2-expressing spheroids was significantly higher than that of BST-2-suppressed spheroids. Collectively, our data reveal that i) BST-2-expressing breast cancer cells in spheroids are more motile than their BST-2-supressed counterparts; ii) BST-2 cytoplasmic tail regulates non-proteolytic (migration) and proteolytic (invasion) mechanisms of breast cancer cell motility; and iii) replacement of the tyrosine residues at positions 6 and 8 in the cytoplasmic tail of BST-2 with alanine residues inhibits cell motility.

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