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2.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 666-679, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598806

RESUMO

The most recent updated classification of inborn errors of immunity/primary immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee, was published in January 2020. Within days of completing this report, it was already out of date, evidenced by the frequent publication of genetic variants proposed to cause novel inborn errors of immunity. As the next formal report from the IUIS Expert Committee will not be published until 2022, we felt it important to provide the community with a brief update of recent contributions to the field of inborn errors of immunity. Herein, we highlight studies that have identified 26 additional monogenic gene defects that reach the threshold to represent novel causes of immune defects.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6039-6050, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284946

RESUMO

Castleman disease (CD) includes a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders with characteristic lymph node histopathological abnormalities. CD can occur in a single lymph node station, which is referred to as unicentric CD (UCD). CD can also involve multicentric lymphadenopathy and inflammatory symptoms (multicentric CD [MCD]). MCD includes human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-associated MCD, POEMS-associated MCD, and HHV-8-/idiopathic MCD (iMCD). The first-ever diagnostic and treatment guidelines were recently developed for iMCD by an international expert consortium convened by the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN). The focus of this report is to establish similar guidelines for the management of UCD. To this purpose, an international working group of 42 experts from 10 countries was convened to establish consensus recommendations based on review of treatment in published cases of UCD, the CDCN ACCELERATE registry, and expert opinion. Complete surgical resection is often curative and is therefore the preferred first-line therapy, if possible. The management of unresectable UCD is more challenging. Existing evidence supports that asymptomatic unresectable UCD may be observed. The anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody siltuximab should be considered for unresectable UCD patients with an inflammatory syndrome. Unresectable UCD that is symptomatic as a result of compression of vital neighboring structures may be rendered amenable to resection by medical therapy (eg, rituximab, steroids), radiotherapy, or embolization. Further research is needed in UCD patients with persisting constitutional symptoms despite complete excision and normal laboratory markers. We hope that these guidelines will improve outcomes in UCD and help treating physicians decide the best therapeutic approach for their patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from defects in immune system. They lead to increased susceptibility to infections and immune dysregulation. The resulting chronic inflammation can induce long-term complications, including AA amyloidosis (AAA). OBJECTIVES: To present the French cases of PID-related AAA and perform a systematic literature review to determine its main features and predisposing factors. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed by searching MEDLINE up until 2019. New French cases were identified with the help of the Reference Center for Auto-Inflammatory Diseases and AA Amyloidosis and the Reference Center for Hereditary Immune Deficiencies. RESULTS: Forty patients were identified including 2 new French cases. PIDs were varied: immunoglobulin deficits (n = 30), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 3), hyper-IgM syndrome (n = 3), hereditary complete C4 deficiency (n = 1), leucocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 1), hyper-IgE syndrome (n = 1), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (n = 1). The mean age at PID diagnosis was 22.2 ± 16.02 years. Renal involvement was the most common manifestation of AAA (80%). Infections were extremely heterogeneous; bacterial infection with pulmonary involvement was the most frequent. Bronchiectasis was particularly common (52.5%). The delay between the first symptoms of PID and AAA diagnosis was 16.18 ± 7 years. Thirteen concomitant diagnoses were made. Twenty patients died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: AAA is a rare life-threatening complication of PID, especially in cases of long diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Bronchiectasis should be considered as a warning sign of chronic inflammation and increased risk of AAA.

6.
Am J Hematol ; 95(12): 1553-1561, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894785

RESUMO

Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a rare immunologic disorder characterized by systemic inflammation, multicentric lymphadenopathy, and organ dysfunction. Enlarged lymph nodes demonstrate a spectrum of characteristic but variable histopathologic features historically categorized into hyaline vascular (HV) (or hypervascular [HyperV] more recently), plasmacytic, or "mixed." Though the etiology is unknown, a pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, often involving interleukin-6 (IL-6), contributes to pathogenesis. Anti-IL-6 therapy with siltuximab is the only FDA- or EMA-approved treatment based on efficacy and safety in multiple studies. Importantly, no patients considered to have HV histopathology achieved the primary endpoint in the Phase II study. NCCN currently recommends siltuximab first-line for iMCD, except for patients considered to have HV histopathology. We investigated whether histopathologic subtype should guide siltuximab treatment decisions. Secondary analyses of clinical trial and real-world data revealed similar clinical benefit across histopathologic subtypes. Notably, only 18 of 79 patients in the Phase II study were consistently classified into histopathologic subtype by three independent review panels, demonstrating limited reliability to guide treatment decisions. Real-world data further demonstrate siltuximab's effectiveness in patients considered to have HV (or HyperV). Though histopathology is a critical component for diagnosis, there is insufficient evidence to guide treatment based solely on lymph node histopathologic subtype.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/classificação , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Oncologist ; 25(11): 963-973, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) who are negative for human immunodeficiency virus and human herpesvirus 8 are considered to have idiopathic MCD (iMCD). The clinical presentation of iMCD varies from mild constitutional symptoms to life-threatening symptoms or death. The treatment strategy varies from "watchful waiting" to high-dose chemotherapy. This diverse clinical presentation calls for a classification stratification system that takes into account the severity of the disease. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We analyzed the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic abnormalities and treatment outcomes of 176 patients with iMCD (median follow-up duration 12 years) from the U.S. and China to better understand the characteristics and prognostic factors of this disease. This discovery set of iMCD results was confirmed from the validation set composed of additional 197 patients with iMCD organized from The International Castleman Disease Consortium. RESULTS: Using these data, we proposed and validated the iMCD international prognostic index (iMCD-IPI), which includes parameters related to patient characteristics (age > 40 years), histopathologic features (plasma cell variant), and inflammatory consequences of iMCD (hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, hemoglobin <80 g/L, and pleural effusion). These five factors stratified patients according to their performance status and extent of organ dysfunction into three broad categories: low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk. The iMCD-IPI score accurately predicted outcomes in the discovery study cohort, and the results were confirmed on the validation study cohort. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest series of studies on patients with iMCD in the field and proposed a novel risk-stratification model for iMCD-IPI that could be used to guide risk-stratified treatment strategies in patients with iMCD. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) can benefit from care based on clinical symptoms and disease severity. This study in 176 patients with iMCD constructed an iMCD-IPI score based on five clinical factors, including age >40 years, plasmacytic variant subtype, hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, hemoglobin <80 g/L, and pleural effusion, and stratified patients into three risk categories: low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk. The predictive value was validated in an independent set of 197 patients with iMCD from The International Castleman Disease Consortium. The proposed novel model is valuable for predicting clinical outcome and selecting optimal therapies using clinical parameters.

9.
J Pediatr ; 223: 207-211.e1, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423680

RESUMO

The genetic investigation of a family presenting with a dominant form of hyper IgM syndrome published in 1963 and 1975 revealed a R190X nonsense mutation in activation-induced cytidine deaminase. This report illustrates the progress made over 6 decades in the characterization of primary immunodeficiencies, from immunochemistry to whole-exome sequencing.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/genética , Disgamaglobulinemia/genética , Previsões , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Mutação , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Disgamaglobulinemia/complicações , Disgamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 95, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castleman disease (CD) is a rare non-malignant lymphoproliferation of undetermined origin. Two major disease phenotypes can be distinguished: unicentric CD (UCD) and multicentric CD (MCD). Diagnosis confirmation is based on histopathological findings in a lymph node. We attempted to survey all cases of paediatric CD identified to date in France to set up a national registry aiming to improve CD early recognition, treatment and follow-up, within the context of a new national reference center (http://www.castleman.fr). METHODS: In 2016, we e-mailed a questionnaire to members of the French paediatric immunohaematology society, the paediatric rheumatology society and the Reference Centre for Castleman Disease to retrospectively collect cases of paediatric CD (first symptoms before age 18 years). Anatomopathological confirmation was mandatory. RESULTS: We identified 23 patients (12 girls) with a diagnosis of UCD (n = 17) and MCD (n = 6) between 1994 and 2018. The mean age at first symptoms was 11.47 ± 4.23 years for UCD and 8.3 ± 3.4 years for MCD. The mean diagnosis delay was 8.16 ± 10.32 months for UCD and 5.16 ± 5.81 years for MCD. In UCD, the initial symptoms were isolated lymph nodes (n = 10) or lymph node associated with other symptoms (n = 7); fever was present in 3 patients. Five patients with MCD presented fever. No patients had HIV or human herpesvirus 8 infection. Autoinflammatory gene mutations were investigated in five patients. One patient with MCD carried a K695R heterozygous mutation in MEFV, another patient with MCD and Duchenne myopathy carried two variants in TNFRSF1A and one patient with UCD and fever episodes carried two heterozygous mutations, in IL10RA and IL36RN, respectively. Treatment of UCD was mainly surgical resection, steroids, and radiotherapy. Treatment of MCD included tocilizumab, rituximab, anakinra, steroids, chemotherapy, and splenectomy. Overall survival after a mean of 6.1 ± 6.4 years of follow-up, was 100% for both forms. CONCLUSION: Paediatric CD still seems underdiagnosed, with a significant diagnosis delay, especially for MCD, but new international criteria will help in the future. Unlike adult CD, which is strongly associated with HIV and human herpesvirus 8 infection, paediatric CD could be favored by primary activation of innate immunity and may affect life expectancy less.

12.
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(1): 66-81, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048120

RESUMO

Since 2013, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee (EC) on Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) has published an updated phenotypic classification of IEI, which accompanies and complements their genotypic classification into ten tables. This phenotypic classification is user-friendly and serves as a resource for clinicians at the bedside. There are now 430 single-gene IEI underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation. We herein report the 2019 phenotypic classification, including the 65 new conditions. The diagnostic algorithms are based on clinical and laboratory phenotypes for each of the ten broad categories of IEI.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(1): 24-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953710

RESUMO

We report the updated classification of Inborn Errors of Immunity/Primary Immunodeficiencies, compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. This report documents the key clinical and laboratory features of 430 inborn errors of immunity, including 64 gene defects that have either been discovered in the past 2 years since the previous update (published January 2018) or were characterized earlier but have since been confirmed or expanded upon in subsequent studies. The application of next-generation sequencing continues to expedite the rapid identification of novel gene defects, rare or common; broaden the immunological and clinical phenotypes of conditions arising from known gene defects and even known variants; and implement gene-specific therapies. These advances are contributing to greater understanding of the molecular, cellular, and immunological mechanisms of disease, thereby enhancing immunological knowledge while improving the management of patients and their families. This report serves as a valuable resource for the molecular diagnosis of individuals with heritable immunological disorders and also for the scientific dissection of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inborn errors of immunity and related human diseases.

15.
Amyloid ; 26(4): 197-202, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364863

RESUMO

Introduction: HHV8-negative Castleman disease (CD) is classified as hyaline vascular (HV) type, or mixed or plasma cell (PC) types. It may present as multicentric CD (MCD) or unicentric CD (UCD). CD is a rare cause of AA amyloidosis (AAA). We aimed to report the main features of CD with secondary AAA through a description of new cases and a systematic literature review. Patients and methods: New cases were identified from the French National Reference Center for AAA. A systematic literature review was performed to identify HHV8-negative CD cases associated with AAA. Results: Thirty-seven patients were analysed, consisting of two new cases and 35 from literature. Twenty-three had UCD and 14 had MCD. PC was the main histologic subtype (n = 25; 68%) in both UCD and MCD patients. Surgical excision of UCD was performed in 21 patients (91%) with a favourable outcome, except for four patients (19%). Clinical and biologic remission was achieved in six patients with MCD (43%), all of whom were treated with anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) therapy. Conclusions: AAA is a rare complication of CD, namely idiopathic MCD and UCD presenting with the PC histologic subtype. Surgical excision of UCD should be the first-line treatment whenever possible, while anti-IL-6 therapies seem effective for MCD.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/epidemiologia , Adulto , Amiloidose/etiologia , Amiloidose/terapia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/complicações , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/imunologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Br J Haematol ; 187(1): 124-128, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155716

RESUMO

We report the off-label use of bortezomib combined with dexamethasone in eight adults with severe and multi-refractory warm auto-immune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA). After six cycles of induction therapy, 6 of the 8 patients achieved response (3 complete response, 3 response). Response was obtained after a median of 2 (1-4) cycles. After a median follow-up of 14 (6-36) months, six patients maintained a response (bortezomib/dexamethasone maintenance, n = 4); five patients experienced at least one moderate adverse event, including peripheral neuropathy (n = 2). These results suggest that bortezomib/dexamethasone combination is a promising approach with acceptable toxicity for treating severe refractory wAIHA in adults.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/sangue , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cell Rep ; 27(3): 762-775.e5, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995475

RESUMO

Direct bacterial recognition by innate receptors is crucial for bacterial clearance. Here, we show that the IgA receptor CD89 is a major innate receptor that directly binds bacteria independently of its cognate ligands IgA and c-reactive protein (CRP). This binding is only partially inhibited by serum IgA and induces bacterial phagocytosis by CD11c+ dendritic cells and monocytes and/or macrophages, suggesting a physiological role in innate host defense. Blood phagocytes from common variable immunodeficiency patients bind, internalize, and kill bacteria in a CD89-dependent manner, confirming the IgA independence of this mechanism. In vivo, CD89 transgenic mice are protected in two different models of sepsis: a model of pneumonia and the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) polymicrobial model of infection. These data identify CD89 as a first-line innate receptor for bacterial clearance before adaptive responses can be mounted. Fc receptors may emerge as a class of innate receptors for various bacteria with pleiotropic roles.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/patologia , Receptores Fc/genética , Sepse/imunologia
18.
Br J Haematol ; 186(2): 269-273, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016730

RESUMO

We retrospectively analysed 71 cases of Unicentric Castleman disease, a rare, usually asymptomatic, benign lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a unique nodal mass. Although surgery is considered as the gold standard therapy, only 38 patients (54%) underwent initial surgical resection and 95% were cured. An additional 9 patients had surgery after an attempt at medical reduction. Reduction therapy was used in 21 patients with a 55% response rate, but without evidence for an optimal regimen. Radiotherapy was limited to 8 patients because of associated toxicity. Watch and wait was considered in 13 asymptomatic patients and 11 of these remained stable for up to 17 years.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/mortalidade , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/terapia , Adulto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 13: 303-309, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911587

RESUMO

Although the risk of developing lymphoma has decreased in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, this cancer remains the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) outcome does not differ for HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected patients. We propose to develop a new treatment for HIV-associated high-risk lymphoma based on autologous transplantation of two genetically modified products: CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSPCs). The cells will be transduced ex vivo with the Cal-1 lentiviral vector encoding for both a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against CCR5 (sh5) and the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor C46. The transduced cells will be resistant to HIV infection by two complementary mechanisms: impaired binding of the virus to the cellular CCR5 co-receptor and decreased fusion of the virus as C46 interacts with gp41 and inhibits HIV infection. This phase I/II pilot study, also entitled GENHIV, will involve two French participating centers: Saint Louis Hospital and Necker Hospital in Paris. We plan to enroll five HIV-1-infected patients presenting with high-risk lymphoma and require a treatment with ASCT. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and success of engraftment of Cal-1 gene-transduced CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD34+ HSPCs.

20.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701532

RESUMO

Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for Burkitt lymphoma, a B-cell malignancy which occurs after a chromosomal translocation rearranging the MYC oncogene with an immunoglobulin gene locus, usually the IGH heavy chain gene locus. We have previously reported that the HIV protein Tat which circulates in all HIV-positive individuals whatever their immune status caused an increased rate of colocalization between IGH and MYC in B-cells nuclei. We here present in vitro evidence that Tat activates the expression of the AICDA gene that encodes the activation-induced cytidine deaminase whose physiological function is to create double-strand breaks for immunoglobulin gene maturation. In the presence of Tat, DNA damage was observed concomitantly in both MYC and IGH, followed by DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining. AICDA was further found overexpressed in vivo in peripheral blood B-cells from HIV-infected individuals. Thus, the capacity of Tat to spontaneously penetrate B-cells could be sufficient to favor the occurrence of MYC-IGH oncogenic rearrangements during erroneous repair, a plausible cause for the increased incidence of Burkitt lymphoma in the HIV-infected population.

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