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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(12): 126402, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597091

RESUMO

The spin polarization in nonmagnetic materials is conventionally attributed to the outcome of spin-orbit coupling when the global inversion symmetry is broken. The recently discovered hidden spin polarization indicates that a specific atomic site asymmetry could also induce measurable spin polarization, leading to a paradigm shift in research on centrosymmetric crystals for potential spintronic applications. Here, combining spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical calculations, we report distinct spin-momentum-layer locking phenomena in a centrosymmetric, layered material, BiOI. The measured spin is highly polarized along the Brillouin zone boundary, while the same effect almost vanishes around the zone center due to its nonsymmorphic crystal structure. Our work demonstrates the existence of momentum-dependent hidden spin polarization and uncovers the microscopic mechanism of spin, momentum, and layer locking to each other, thus shedding light on the design metrics for future spintronic materials.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 9059-9065, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628444

RESUMO

Chalcogenide phase-change materials show strikingly contrasting optical and electrical properties, which has led to their extensive implementation in various memory devices. By performing spin-, time-, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with the first-principles calculation, we report the experimental results that the crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 is topologically nontrivial in the vicinity of the Dirac semimetal phase. The resulting linearly dispersive bulk Dirac-like bands that cross the Fermi level and are thus responsible for conductivity in the stable crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 can be viewed as a 3D analogue of graphene. Our finding provides us with the possibility of realizing inertia-free Dirac currents in phase-change materials.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(11): 116401, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573222

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted great attention and spurred rapid development in both fundamental research and device applications. The search for exotic physical properties, such as magnetic and topological order, in 2D materials could enable the realization of novel quantum devices and is therefore at the forefront of materials science. Here, we report the discovery of twofold degenerate Weyl nodal lines in a 2D ferromagnetic material, a single-layer gadolinium-silver compound, based on combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations. These Weyl nodal lines are symmetry protected and thus robust against external perturbations. The coexistence of magnetic and topological order in a 2D material is likely to inform ongoing efforts study the rich physics in 2D topological ferromagnets.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2298, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127112

RESUMO

The peculiar metallic electronic states observed in the Kondo insulator, samarium hexaboride (SmB6), has stimulated considerable attention among those studying non-trivial electronic phenomena. However, experimental studies of these states have led to controversial conclusions mainly due to the difficulty and inhomogeneity of the SmB6 crystal surface. Here, we show the detailed electronic structure of SmB6 with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of the three-fold (111) surface where only two inequivalent time-reversal-invariant momenta (TRIM) exist. We observe the metallic two-dimensional state was dispersed across the bulk Kondo gap. Its helical in-plane spin polarisation around the surface TRIM indicates that SmB6 is topologically non-trivial, according to the topological classification theory for weakly correlated systems. Based on these results, we propose a simple picture of the controversial topological classification of SmB6.

6.
Adv Mater ; 30(2)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171690

RESUMO

2D anisotropic Dirac cones are observed in χ3 borophene, a monolayer boron sheet, using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Dirac cones are centered at the X and X' points. The data also reveal that the hybridization between borophene and Ag(111) is very weak, which explains the preservation of the Dirac cones. As χ3 borophene has been predicated to be a superconductor, the results may stimulate further research interest in the novel physics of borophene, such as the interplay between Cooper pairs and the massless Dirac fermions.

7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1919, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203768

RESUMO

Conventional Rashba spin polarization is caused by the combination of strong spin-orbit interaction and spatial inversion asymmetry. However, Rashba-Dresselhaus-type spin-split states are predicted in the centrosymmetric LaOBiS2 system by recent theory, which stem from the local inversion asymmetry of active BiS2 layer. By performing high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have investigated the electronic band structure and spin texture of superconductor LaO0.55F0.45BiS2. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the local spin polarization of both the valence band and the conduction band. In particular, the coexistence of Rashba-like and Dresselhaus-like spin textures has been observed in the conduction band. The finding is of key importance for fabrication of proposed dual-gated spin-field effect transistor. Moreover, the spin-split band leads to a spin-momentum locking Fermi surface from which superconductivity emerges. Our demonstration not only expands the scope of spintronic materials but also enhances the understanding of spin-orbit interaction-related superconductivity.

8.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(48): 483001, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130454

RESUMO

Since the discovery of the Rashba effect on crystal surfaces and also the discovery of topological insulators, spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) has become more and more important, as the technique can measure directly the electronic band structure of materials with spin resolution. In the same way that the discovery of high-Tc superconductors promoted the development of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the discovery of this new class of materials has stimulated the development of new SARPES apparatus with new functions and higher resolution, such as spin vector analysis, ten times higher energy and angular resolution than conventional SARPES, multichannel spin detection, and so on. In addition, the utilization of vacuum ultra violet lasers also opens a pathway to the realization of novel SARPES measurements. In this review, such recent trends in SARPES techniques and measurements will be overviewed.

9.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1007, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044100

RESUMO

Topological nodal line semimetals, a novel quantum state of materials, possess topologically nontrivial valence and conduction bands that touch at a line near the Fermi level. The exotic band structure can lead to various novel properties, such as long-range Coulomb interaction and flat Landau levels. Recently, topological nodal lines have been observed in several bulk materials, such as PtSn4, ZrSiS, TlTaSe2 and PbTaSe2. However, in two-dimensional materials, experimental research on nodal line fermions is still lacking. Here, we report the discovery of two-dimensional Dirac nodal line fermions in monolayer Cu2Si based on combined theoretical calculations and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. The Dirac nodal lines in Cu2Si form two concentric loops centred around the Γ point and are protected by mirror reflection symmetry. Our results establish Cu2Si as a platform to study the novel physical properties in two-dimensional Dirac materials and provide opportunities to realize high-speed low-dissipation devices.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(6): 3493-3500, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545300

RESUMO

Inducing magnetism into topological insulators is intriguing for utilizing exotic phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) for technological applications. While most studies have focused on doping magnetic impurities to open a gap at the surface-state Dirac point, many undesirable effects have been reported to appear in some cases that makes it difficult to determine whether the gap opening is due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking or not. Furthermore, the realization of the QAHE has been limited to low temperatures. Here we have succeeded in generating a massive Dirac cone in a MnBi2Se4/Bi2Se3 heterostructure, which was fabricated by self-assembling a MnBi2Se4 layer on top of the Bi2Se3 surface as a result of the codeposition of Mn and Se. Our experimental results, supported by relativistic ab initio calculations, demonstrate that the fabricated MnBi2Se4/Bi2Se3 heterostructure shows ferromagnetism up to room temperature and a clear Dirac cone gap opening of ∼100 meV without any other significant changes in the rest of the band structure. It can be considered as a result of the direct interaction of the surface Dirac cone and the magnetic layer rather than a magnetic proximity effect. This spontaneously formed self-assembled heterostructure with a massive Dirac spectrum, characterized by a nontrivial Chern number C = -1, has a potential to realize the QAHE at significantly higher temperatures than reported up to now and can serve as a platform for developing future "topotronics" devices.

11.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(28): 285501, 2017 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530634

RESUMO

We have investigated the influence of metal adsorbates (sodium and cobalt) on the occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of MoS2(0 0 0 1) and WSe2(0 0 0 1), through a combination of both photoemission and inverse photoemission. The electronic structure is rigidly shifted in both the WSe2 and MoS2 systems, with either Na or Co adsorption, generally as predicted by accompanying density functional theory based calculations. Na adsorption is found to behave as an electron donor (n-type) in MoS2, while Co adsorption acts as an electron acceptor (p-type) in WSe2. The n-type transition metal dichalcogenide (MoS2) is easily doped more n-type with Na deposition while the p-type transition metal dichalcogenide (WSe2) is easily doped more p-type with Co deposition. The binding energy shifts have some correlation with the work function differences between the metallic adlayer and the transition metal dichalcogenide substrate.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14216, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139646

RESUMO

The generally accepted view that spin polarization in non-magnetic solids is induced by the asymmetry of the global crystal space group has limited the search for spintronics materials mainly to non-centrosymmetric materials. In recent times it has been suggested that spin polarization originates fundamentally from local atomic site asymmetries and therefore centrosymmetric materials may exhibit previously overlooked spin polarizations. Here, by using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we report the observation of helical spin texture in monolayer, centrosymmetric and semiconducting PtSe2 film without the characteristic spin splitting in conventional Rashba effect (R-1). First-principles calculations and effective analytical model analysis suggest local dipole induced Rashba effect (R-2) with spin-layer locking: opposite spins are degenerate in energy, while spatially separated in the top and bottom Se layers. These results not only enrich our understanding of the spin polarization physics but also may find applications in electrically tunable spintronics.

13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13315, 2016 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819655

RESUMO

Recently, noncentrosymmetric superconductor BiPd has attracted considerable research interest due to the possibility of hosting topological superconductivity. Here we report a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spin-resolved ARPES study of the normal state electronic and spin properties of BiPd. Our experimental results show the presence of a surface state at higher-binding energy with the location of Dirac point at around 700 meV below the Fermi level. The detailed photon energy, temperature-dependent and spin-resolved ARPES measurements complemented by our first-principles calculations demonstrate the existence of the spin-polarized surface states at high-binding energy. The absence of such spin-polarized surface states near the Fermi level negates the possibility of a topological superconducting behaviour on the surface. Our direct experimental observation of spin-polarized surface states in BiPd provides critical information that will guide the future search for topological superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric materials.

14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12690, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576449

RESUMO

A synergistic effect between strong electron correlation and spin-orbit interaction has been theoretically predicted to realize new topological states of quantum matter on Kondo insulators (KIs), so-called topological Kondo insulators (TKIs). One TKI candidate has been experimentally observed on the KI SmB6(001), and the origin of the surface states (SS) and the topological order of SmB6 has been actively discussed. Here, we show a metallic SS on the clean surface of another TKI candidate YbB12(001) using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The SS shows temperature-dependent reconstruction corresponding to the Kondo effect observed for bulk states. Despite the low-temperature insulating bulk, the reconstructed SS with c-f hybridization is metallic, forming a closed Fermi contour surrounding on the surface Brillouin zone and agreeing with the theoretically expected behaviour for SS on TKIs. These results demonstrate the temperature-dependent holistic reconstruction of two-dimensional states localized on KIs surface driven by the Kondo effect.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(20): 206803, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24289701

RESUMO

A topological surface state that is protected physically under the Bi2Te3-like five-layer block has been revealed on the Pb-based topological insulator (TI) PbBi4Te7 by bulk sensitive angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). Furthermore, conservation of the spin polarization of the hidden topological surface states is directly confirmed by bulk-sensitive spin ARPES observation. This finding paves the way to realize the real spintronics devices by TIs that are operable in the real environment.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 25(23): 232201, 2013 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23670139

RESUMO

We have found a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of iron adatoms on a surface of the prototypical three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 by using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. The orbital magnetic moment of Fe is strongly enhanced at lower coverage, where angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows coexistence of non-trivial topological states at the surface.

17.
Adv Mater ; 24(13): 1675-92, 2012 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22378596

RESUMO

In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Varredura por Sonda/instrumentação , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Metais/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Nanofios/química , Nanofios/ultraestrutura , Software
18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 82(10): 103302, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22047286

RESUMO

Highly efficient spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer named ESPRESSO (Efficient SPin REsolved SpectroScopy Observation) machine has been developed at the beamline BL-9B in Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. Combination of high-resolution hemispherical electron analyzer and the high-efficient spin detector based on very low energy electron diffraction by the ferromagnetic target makes the high-energy resolution and angular resolution compatible with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission (SARPES) measurement. 7.5 meV in energy and ±0.18° in angular resolution have been achieved with spin resolution. The ESPRESSO machine, combination of quick energy-band dispersion measurement and Fermi surface mapping by two-dimensional electron detector for the spin integrated ARPES and the high-efficient spin analysis by the efficient spin detector realizes the comprehensive investigation of spin electronic structure of materials.

19.
Nat Commun ; 1: 17, 2010 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20975678

RESUMO

The generation of spin-polarized electrons at room temperature is an essential step in developing semiconductor spintronic applications. To this end, we studied the electronic states of a Ge(111) surface, covered with a lead monolayer at a fractional coverage of 4/3, by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), spin-resolved ARPES and first-principles electronic structure calculation. We demonstrate that a metallic surface-state band with a dominant Pb 6p character exhibits a large Rashba spin splitting of 200 meV and an effective mass of 0.028 m(e) at the Fermi level. This finding provides a material basis for the novel field of spin transport/accumulation on semiconductor surfaces. Charge density analysis of the surface state indicated that large spin splitting was induced by asymmetric charge distribution in close proximity to the nuclei of Pb atoms.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(15): 156805, 2010 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20482008

RESUMO

The electronic structure of ultrathin Ag(111) films covered with a square root(3) x square root(3)-Bi/Ag ordered alloy was investigated by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Surface-state (SS) bands, spin split by the Rashba interaction, selectively couple to the quantum-well state (QWS) bands, originally spin degenerate, in the metal film. Gaps are found to open between QWS and SS with parallel spins, while free-electron-like QWS dispersions are observed for antiparallel spin configurations. The present results demonstrate that in a nonmagnetic metal film the spin degeneracy of the valence levels can be lifted by hybridization with Rashba-type SS bands.

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