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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 497, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delivery in a facility with a skilled health provider is considered the most important intervention to reduce maternal and early newborn deaths. Providing care close to people's homes is an important strategy to facilitate equitable access, but many women are known to bypass the closest delivery facility for a higher level one. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mothers in rural Uganda bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth care and the determinants for their choice. METHODS: The study used data collected as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information power (EQUIP) study in the Mayuge District of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2014. In this study, bypassing was defined as delivering in a health facility that was not the nearest childbirth facility to the mother's home. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between bypassing the nearest health facility for childbirth and the different independent factors. RESULTS: Of all women delivering in a health facility, 45% (499/1115) did not deliver in the nearest facility regardless of the level of care. Further, after excluding women who delivered in health centre II (which is not formally equipped to provide childbirth care) and excluding those who were referred or had a caesarean section (because their reasons for bypassing may be different), 29% (204/717) of women bypassed their nearest facility to give birth in another facility, 50% going to the only hospital of the district. The odds of bypassing increased if a mother belonged to highest wealth quintile compared to the lowest quintile (AOR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.12-4.46) and decreased with increase of readiness of score of the nearest facility for childbirth (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of bypassing the nearest childbirth facility in this rural Ugandan setting was 29%, and was associated primarily with the readiness of the nearest facility to provide care as well as the wealth of the household. These results suggest inequalities in bypassing for better quality care that have important implications for improving Uganda's maternal and newborn health outcomes.

2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 54, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the greatest challenges that countries face regarding the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child health regard the actions required to improve neonatal health; these interventions have to be informed by evidence. In view of the persisting high numbers of newborn deaths in Uganda, we aimed to define a locally contextualised national research agenda for newborn health to guide national investments towards SDG targets. METHODS: We adopted a systematic approach for priority-setting adapted from the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. We identified and listed local newborn researchers and experts in Uganda by reviewing the PubMed database, through a snowballing technique, and engaged the Ministry of Health. Participants were requested to generate at least three research questions. The collated questions were sent to the same expert group to be rated using five criteria, including answerability, scalability, impact, generalisability and speed. FINDINGS: Of the 300 researchers and stakeholders contacted, 104 responded (36%) and generated 304 questions. These questions were collated and duplicates removed giving a condensed list of 41 research questions. These questions were then rated by 82 experts. Of the top 15 research questions, 86.7% (13/15) were in the service delivery and 6.7% (1/15) in the development domain, while only 6.7% (1/15) was in the group 'other'. None of the leading 15 questions was in the discovery domain. Strategies to improve quality of intrapartum care featured high in the responses, while research around care for premature babies was not a perceived focus of research. CONCLUSIONS: The focus of improved evidence to guide and innovate service delivery, foremost intrapartum care, reflects the importance of this area as accelerated improvement is likely to yield fast and sustained survival gains in the neonatal period and beyond in Uganda. We recommend that other countries adapt a similar approach in defining priority reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health areas for investment in order to accelerate progress towards achieving the SDGs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Objetivos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Assistência Perinatal , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Uganda
3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214995, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delivery in health facilities is a proxy for skilled birth attendance, which is an important intervention to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. We investigated the determinants of facility based deliveries among women in urban slums of Kampala city, Uganda. METHODS: A cross sectional study using quantitative methods was used. A total of 420 mothers who had delivered in the past one year preceding the survey, were randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine independent predictors of facility based deliveries. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of respondents attended at least one antenatal care visit and 66.1%delivered in a health facility. Independent predictors of health facility births included exposure to media concerning facility delivery (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6-3.9), ANC attendance less than 4 times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9) and timing of first ANC visit in the 2 and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (OR = 0.5 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). CONCLUSION: Despite good physical access, a third of mothers did not deliver in health facilities. Increasing health facility births among the slum dwellers can be improved through interventions geared at increased awareness, starting ANC in early stages of pregnancy and attending at least 4 ANC visits.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Health Policy Plan ; 33(1): e1-e13, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304250

RESUMO

Background: Quality improvement (QI) methods engage stakeholders in identifying problems, creating strategies called change ideas to address those problems, testing those change ideas and scaling them up where successful. These methods have rarely been used at the community level in low-income country settings. Here we share experiences from rural Tanzania and Uganda, where QI was applied as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) intervention with the aim of improving maternal and newborn health. Village volunteers were taught how to generate change ideas to improve health-seeking behaviours and home-based maternal and newborn care practices. Interaction was encouraged between communities and health staff. Aim: To describe experiences implementing EQUIP's QI approach at the community level. Methods: A mixed methods process evaluation of community-level QI was conducted in Tanzania and a feasibility study in Uganda. We outlined how village volunteers were trained in and applied QI techniques and examined the interaction between village volunteers and health facilities, and in Tanzania, the interaction with the wider community also. Results: Village volunteers had the capacity to learn and apply QI techniques to address local maternal and neonatal health problems. Data collection and presentation was a persistent challenge for village volunteers, overcome through intensive continuous mentoring and coaching. Village volunteers complemented health facility staff, particularly to reinforce behaviour change on health facility delivery and birth preparedness. There was some evidence of changing social norms around maternal and newborn health, which EQUIP helped to reinforce. Conclusions: Community-level QI is a participatory research approach that engaged volunteers in Tanzania and Uganda, putting them in a central position within local health systems to increase health-seeking behaviours and improve preventative maternal and newborn health practices.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , População Rural , Tanzânia , Uganda , Voluntários
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30(Suppl 1): 14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858918

RESUMO

Globally, even though improvements have been made to effective surveillance and response, communicable diseases such as cholera remain high priorities for national health programs, especially in Africa. High-quality surveillance information coupled with adequate laboratory facilities are effective in curbing outbreaks from such diseases, ultimately reducing morbidity and mortality. One way of building this capacity is through simulation of response to such health events. This case study based on a cholera outbreak investigated by FETP trainees in October 2015 in Uganda can be used to reinforce skills of frontline FETP trainees and other novice public health practitioners through a practical simulation approach. This activity should be completed in 2.5 hours.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Epidemiologia/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2017: 3458684, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209538

RESUMO

Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children. Immediate outcomes of disclosure included children getting scared and crying, although such instances often gave way to more enduring positive experiences for the parents, such as support in adherence to medical care, help in household chores, and a decrease in financial demands from the children. Country-specific interventions are needed to improve the process of parental HIV disclosure to children and this should encompass preparation on how to deal with the immediate psychological challenges associated with the parent's disclosure.

7.
Glob Health Action ; 10(sup4): 1345495, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventable maternal and newborn deaths can be averted through simple evidence-based interventions, such as the use of community health workers (CHWs), also known in Uganda as village health teams. However, the CHW strategy faces implementation challenges regarding training packages, supervision, and motivation. OBJECTIVES: This paper explores knowledge levels of CHWs, describes the coverage of home visits, and shares lessons learnt from setting up and implementing the CHW strategy. METHODS: The CHWs were trained to conduct four home visits: two during pregnancy and two after delivery. The aim of the visits was to promote birth preparedness and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services. Mixed methods of data collection were employed. Quantitative data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0 to determine the level and predictors of CHW knowledge of MNH. Qualitative data from 10 key informants and 15 CHW interviews were thematically analyzed to assess the implementation experiences. RESULTS: CHWs' knowledge of MNH improved from 41.3% to 77.4% after training, and to 79.9% 1 year post-training. However, knowledge of newborn danger signs declined from 85.5% after training to 58.9% 1 year later. The main predictors of CHW knowledge were age (≥ 35 years) and post-primary level of education. The level of coverage of at least one CHW visit to pregnant and newly delivered mothers was 57.3%. Notably, CHW reports complemented the facility-based health information. CHWs formed associations, which improved teamwork, reporting, and general performance, and thus maintained low dropout rates at 3.6%. Challenges included dissatisfaction with the quarterly transport refund of 6 USD and lack of means of transportation such as bicycles. CONCLUSIONS: CHWs are an important resource in community-based health information and improving demand for MNH services. However, the CHW training and supervision models require strengthening for improved performance. Local solutions regarding CHW motivation are necessary for sustainability.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(Suppl 1): 51, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maternal and newborn mortality have decreased 44 and 46% respectively between 1990 and 2015, achievement of ambitious Sustainable Development Goal targets requires accelerated progress. Mortality reduction requires a renewed focus on the continuum of maternal and newborn care from the household to the health facility. Although barriers to accessing skilled care are documented for specific contexts, there is a lack of systematic evidence on how women and families identify maternal and newborn illness and make decisions and subsequent care-seeking patterns. The focus of this multi-country study was to identify and describe illness recognition, decision-making, and care-seeking patterns across various contexts among women and newborns who survived and died to ultimately inform programmatic priorities moving forward. METHODS: This study was conducted in seven countries-Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria, India, Indonesia, and Nepal. Mixed-methods were utilized including event narratives (group interviews), in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FDGs), rapid facility assessments, and secondary analyses of existing program data. A common protocol and tools were developed in collaboration with study teams and adapted for each site, as needed. Sample size was a minimum of five cases of each type (e.g., perceived postpartum hemorrhage, maternal death, newborn illness, and newborn death) for each study site, with a total of 84 perceived PPH, 45 maternal deaths, 83 newborn illness, 55 newborn deaths, 64 IDIs/FGDs, and 99 health facility assessments across all sites. Analysis included coding within and across cases, identifying broad themes on recognition of illness, decision-making, and patterns of care seeking, and corresponding contextual factors. Technical support was provided throughout the process for capacity building, quality assurance, and consistency across sites. CONCLUSION: This study provides rigorous evidence on how women and families recognize and respond to maternal and newborn illness. By using a common methodology and tools, findings not only were site-specific but also allow for comparison across contexts.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Mortalidade Materna , Nepal , Nigéria , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(Suppl 1): 47, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To enhance understanding of the roles of community-based initiatives in poor rural societies, we describe and explore illness recognition, decision-making, and appropriate care-seeking for mothers and newborn illnesses in two districts in eastern Uganda where in one implementation district, a facility and community quality improvement approach was implemented. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using qualitative methods. We conducted 48 event narratives: eight maternal and newborn deaths and 16 maternal and newborn illnesses. Additionally, we conducted six FGDs with women's saving groups and community leaders. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically using Atlas.ti software. RESULTS: Women and caretakers reported that community initiatives including the presence of community health workers and women's saving groups helped in enhancing illness recognition, decision-making, and care-seeking for maternal and newborn complications. Newborn illness seemed to be less well understood, and formal care was often delayed. Care-seeking was complicated by accessing several stations from primary to secondary care, and often, the hospital was reached too late. CONCLUSIONS: Our qualitative study suggests that community approaches may play a role in illness recognition, decision-making, and care-seeking for maternal and newborn illness. The role of primary facilities in providing care for maternal and newborn emergencies might need to be reviewed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Tomada de Decisões , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Mortalidade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , População Rural , Cônjuges/psicologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166405, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescent childbearing remains a major challenge to improving neonatal mortality especially in Sub Saharan countries which are still struggling with high neonatal mortality rates. We explored essential newborn care practices and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Western Uganda. METHODS: Data were collected among 410 adolescent mothers with children aged one to six months in Hoima district. Three composite variables (appropriate neonatal breastfeeding, cord care and thermal protection) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with practice of essential newborn care. RESULTS: Appropriate newborn feeding, optimal thermal protection and dry cord care were practiced by 60.5%, 67.2% and 31% of adolescent mothers respectively. Independent predictors' of cord care were: knowledge of cord care (AOR 5.34, 95% CI (1.51-18.84) and having delivered twins (AOR 0.04, 95% CI (0.01-0.22). The only predictor of thermal care was knowledge (AOR 25.15, 95% CI (7.01-90.20). Staying in a hospital for more than one day postpartum (AOR 2.45, 95%CI (1.23-4.86), knowledge of the correct time of breastfeeding initiation (AOR 14.71, 95% CI (5.20-41.58), predicted appropriate neonatal feeding, whereas; adolescent mothers who had had a caesarean delivery (AOR 0.19, 95% CI (I 0.04-0.96) and a male caretaker in the postnatal period (AOR 0.18, 95% CI (0.07-0.49) were less likely to practice the recommended newborn feeding. CONCLUSION: Sub optimal essential newborn care practice was noted especially suboptimal cord care. Adolescent mothers should be a focus of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 33194, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. DESIGNS: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda. Case scenarios were conducted with a medical officer observing CHWs in their management of children suspected of having malaria, pneumonia, or diarrhea. Performance data were collected using a pretested questionnaire with a checklist used by the medical officer to score the CHWs. The primary outcome, CHW performance, is defined as the ability to diagnose and treat malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia appropriately. Participants were described using a three group performance score (good vs. moderate vs. poor). A binary measure of performance (good vs. poor) was used in multivariable logistic regression to show an association between good performance and a range of independent variables. The qualitative component comprised seven key informant interviews with experts who had informed knowledge with regard to the functionality of CHWs in Lira district. RESULTS: Overall, 347 CHWs (88.3%) had poor scores in managing malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia, 26 (6.6%) had moderate scores, and 20 (5.1%) had good scores. The factors that were positively associated with performance were secondary-level education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-4.92) and meeting with supervisors in the previous month (AOR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12-5.70). Those factors negatively associated with CHW performance included: serving 100-200 households (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.12-0.50), serving more than 200 households (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.10-0.48), and an initial training duration lasting 2-3 days (AOR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.41). The qualitative findings reinforced the quantitative results by indicating that refresher training, workload, and in-kind incentives were important determinants of performance. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of CHWs in Lira was inadequate. There is a need to consider pre-qualification testing before CHWs are appointed. Providing ongoing support and supervision, and ensuring that CHWs have at least secondary education can be helpful in improving their performance. Health system managers also need to ensure that the CHWs' workload is moderated as work overload will reduce performance. Finally, although short training programs are beneficial to some degree, they are not sufficient and should be followed up with regular refresher training.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 547, 2016 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of parental HIV status is associated with a number of positive outcomes such as improved adherence to clinic appointments, lower levels of parental anxiety and depression, and mutual emotional support between parents and their children. Very few studies in low-resource settings have addressed the issues of parental disclosure of their HIV status to their children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult parents attending HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment clinic at Makerere University Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Kampala, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the Parent Disclosure Interview (PDI) questionnaire which is a standard tool developed specifically for HIV infected parents. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.1. RESULTS: Of 344 participants, only 37 % had told at least one of their children that they were HIV positive. Barriers to disclosure were fear that children may tell other people about the parent's HIV status, desire not to worry or upset children and perceptions that children may not understand. Age of the parent, religion and having someone committed to care of the children were positively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV positives status. Attainment of tertiary level of education was negatively associated with parental disclosure of their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: Parental disclosure of a positive HIVstatus to their children is still low in urban Kampala. There is therefore need to develop locally relevant interventions so as to increase rates of parental disclosure of a positive HIV status to their children and thus promote open and honest discussions about HIV/AIDS at family level.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pobreza , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 130 Suppl 1: S43-50, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26054252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare implementation bottlenecks for effective coverage of screening for syphilis, HIV, and anemia in antenatal care in rural Tanzania and Uganda; and explore the underlying determinants and perceived solutions to overcome these bottlenecks. METHODS: In this multiple case study, we analyzed data collected as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) project between November 2011 and April 2014. Indicators from household interviews (n=4415 mothers) and health facility surveys (n=122) were linked to estimate coverage in stages of implementation between which bottlenecks can be identified. Key informant interviews (n=15) were conducted to explore underlying determinants and analyzed using a framework approach. RESULTS: Large differences in implementation were found within and between countries. Availability and effective coverage was significantly lower for all tests in Uganda compared with Tanzania. Syphilis screening had the lowest availability and effective coverage in both countries. The main implementation bottleneck was poor availability of tests and equipment. Key informant interviews validated these findings and perceived solutions included the need for improved procurement at the central level. CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce essential screening as a missed opportunity, caused by a lack of integration of funding and support for comprehensive antenatal care programs.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/normas , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , População Rural , Tanzânia , Uganda
14.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 23968, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have been employed in a number of low- and middle-income countries as part of primary health care strategies, but the packages vary across and even within countries. The experiences and motivations of a multipurpose CHW in providing maternal and newborn health have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the perceptions of community members and experiences of CHWs around promoting maternal and newborn care practices, and the self-identified factors that influence the performance of CHWs so as to inform future study design and programme implementation. DESIGN: Data were collected using in-depth interviews with six local council leaders, ten health workers/CHW supervisors, and eight mothers. We conducted four focus group discussions with CHWs. Respondents included 14 urban and 18 rural CHWs. Key themes explored included the experience of CHWs according to their various roles, and the facilitators and barriers they encounter in their work particular to provision of maternal and newborn care. Qualitative data were analysed using manifest content analysis methods. RESULTS: CHWs were highly appreciated in the community and seen as important contributors to maternal and newborn health at grassroots level. Factors that positively influence CHWs included being selected by and trained in the community; being trained in problem-solving skills; being deployed immediately after training with participation of local leaders; frequent supervision; and having a strengthened and responsive supply of services to which families can be referred. CHWs made use of social networks to identify pregnant and newly delivered women, and were able to target men and the wider family during health education activities. Intrinsic motivators (e.g. community appreciation and the prestige of being 'a doctor'), monetary (such as a small transport allowance), and material incentives (e.g. bicycles, bags) were also important to varying degrees. CONCLUSIONS: There is a continued role for CHWs in improving maternal and newborn care and linking families with health services. However, the process for building CHW programmes needs to be adapted to the local setting, including the process of training, deployment, supervision, and motivation within the context of a responsive and available health system.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Uganda , População Urbana
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