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1.
Glob Health Action ; 10(sup4): 1363506, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MANIFEST study in eastern Uganda employed a participatory multisectoral approach to reduce barriers to access to maternal and newborn care services. OBJECTIVES: This study analyses the effect of the intervention on the utilization of maternal and newborn services and care practices. METHODS: The quasi-experimental pre- and post-comparison design had two main components: community mobilization and empowerment, and health provider capacity building. The primary outcomes were utilization of antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care, and newborn care practices. Baseline (n = 2237) and endline (n = 1946) data were collected from women of reproductive age. The  data was analysed using difference in differences (DiD) analysis and  logistic regression. RESULTS: The DiD results revealed an 8% difference in early ANC attendance (p < 0.01) and facility delivery (p < 0.01). Facility delivery increased from 66% to 73% in the intervention area, but remained unchanged in the comparison area (64% vs 63%, p < 0.01). The DiD results also demonstrated a 20% difference in clean cord care (p < 0.001) and an 8% difference in delayed bathing (p < 0.001). The intervention elements that predicted facility delivery were attending ANC four times [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.74] and saving for maternal health (aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.39-3.21). Facility delivery and village health team (VHT) home visits were key predictors for clean cord care and skin-to-skin care. CONCLUSIONS: The multisectoral approach had positive effects on early ANC attendance, facility deliveries and newborn care practices. Community resources such as VHTs and savings are crucial to maternal and newborn outcomes and should be supported. VHT-led health education should incorporate practical measures that enable families to save and access transport services to enhance adequate preparation for birth.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Razão de Chances , Parto , Poder Psicológico , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 12: 14, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24976793

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High maternal and infant mortality continue to be major challenges to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals for many low and middle-income countries. There is now evidence that voucher initiatives can increase access to maternal health services. However, a dearth of knowledge exists on the cost implications of voucher schemes. This paper estimates the incremental costs of a demand and supply side intervention aimed at increasing access to maternal health care services. METHODS: This costing study was part of a quasi-experimental voucher study conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda to explore the impact of demand and supply - side incentives on increasing access to maternal health services. The provider's perspective was used and the ingredients approach to costing was employed. Costs were based on market prices as recorded in program records. Total, unit, and incremental costs were calculated. RESULTS: The estimated total financial cost of the intervention for the one year of implementation was US$525,472 (US$1 = 2200UgShs). The major cost drivers included costs for transport vouchers (35.3%), health system strengthening (29.2%) and vouchers for maternal health services (18.2%). The average cost of transport per woman to and from the health facility was US$4.6. The total incremental costs incurred on deliveries (excluding caesarean section) was US$317,157 and US$107,890 for post natal care (PNC). The incremental costs per additional delivery and PNC attendance were US$23.9 and US$7.6 respectively. CONCLUSION: Subsidizing maternal health care costs through demand and supply - side initiatives may not require significant amounts of resources contrary to what would be expected. With Uganda's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of US$55` (2012), the incremental cost per additional delivery (US$23.9) represents about 5% of GDP per capita to save a mother and probably her new born. For many low income countries, this may not be affordable, yet reliance on donor funding is often not sustainable. Alternative ways of raising additional resources for health must be explored. These include; encouraging private investments in critical sectors such as rural transport, health service provision; mobilizing households to save financial resources for preparedness, and financial targeting for the most vulnerable.

3.
Malar J ; 12: 170, 2013 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. The Ministry of Health (MoH) plans to scale up indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria vector control. However, there is limited information on community knowledge and perceptions towards IRS. This study assessed community knowledge and perceptions about IRS in Soroti district, eastern Uganda. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and it covered 770 randomly selected households in urban and rural settings in Soroti district, Eastern Uganda. The respondents were heads of household and or their proxies. The data were collected on the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of the insecticides that could be used for IRS, parts of the houses that would be sprayed, importance of IRS, role of household heads in IRS programme, frequency and the time of spraying. Responses to the questions on these areas were used to create a composite dependent variable categorized as knowledgeable if they had responded correctly to at least three questions or not knowledgeable about IRS if they responded correctly to less than three questions. In addition, respondents were asked if they thought the IRS programme would be beneficial or not. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out using SPSS version 17. RESULTS: Less than half, (48.6%, 374/770) of the respondents were knowledgeable about IRS. Urban residents (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.04-3.56) and those with secondary education or higher (AOR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72-8.52) were knowledgeable about IRS. Three-quarters, (74.4%, 354/473) of respondents who had ever heard of IRS, perceived it as beneficial. Two-thirds, (66.4%, 314/473) reported that IRS would have negative effects. Respondents who reported that, IRS programme is beneficial were: 23 years or older (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.07-4.38), had attained secondary education or higher (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.22-3.83) and were knowledgeable about IRS (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.17-4.17). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about IRS is inadequate and negative perceptions about its use are prominent especially among the rural and less educated individuals. To ensure householders' cooperation and participation in the IRS programme, adequate community mobilization and sensitization is needed prior to use of IRS for effective malaria control.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 13: 8, 2013 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23347473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) in health service delivery. METHODS: This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement 'projects' meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees' knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. RESULTS: Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84%) from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80%) were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and reporting. The projects implemented aimed to improve trainees' skills and competencies in M&E and CQI and the design of the projects was such that they could share these skills with other staff, with minimal interruptions of their work. CONCLUSIONS: The modular, work-based training model strengthens the capacity of the health workforce through hands-on, real-life experiences in the work-setting and improves institutional capacity, thereby providing a practical example of health systems strengthening through health workforce capacity building.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/normas , Ensino/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Uganda
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 4: 484, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22070908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teso sub-region of Eastern Uganda had superior indices of childhood survival during the period 1959 to 1969 compared to the national average. We analysed the reasons that could explain this situation with a view of suggesting strategies for reducing childhood mortality. METHODS: We compared the childhood mortalities and their average annual reduction rate (AARR) of Teso sub-region with those of Uganda for the period 1959 to 1969. We also compared indicators of social economic well being (such as livestock per capita and per capita intake of protein/energy). In addition data was compared on other important determinants of child survival such as level of education and rate of urbanisation. FINDINGS: In 1969 the infant mortality rate (IMR) for Teso was 94 per 1000 live births compared to the 120 for Uganda. Between 1959 and 1969 the AARR for IMR for Teso was 4.57% compared to 3% for Uganda. It was interesting that the AARR for Teso was higher than that that of 4.4.% required to achieve millennium development goal number four (MDG4). The rate of urbanisation and the level of education were higher in Uganda compared to Teso during the same period. Teso had a per capita ownership of cattle of 1.12 compared to Uganda's 0.44. Teso sub region had about 3 times the amount of protein and about 2 times the amount of calories compared to Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: We surmise that higher ownership of cattle and growing of high protein and energy foods might have been responsible for better childhood survival in Teso compared to Uganda.

6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD008405, 2011 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21735429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual practice, whereby health workers hold two or more jobs, is a common phenomenon globally. In resource constrained low- and middle-income countries dual practice poses an ongoing threat to the efficiency, quality and equity of health services, especially in the public sector. Identifying effective interventions to manage dual practice is important. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of regulations implemented to manage dual practice. SEARCH STRATEGY: Databases searched included: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2011, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations May 24, 2011 (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE, Ovid (1948 to May week 2 2011) (searched 26 May 2011); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to 2011 week 20) (searched 26 May 2011); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (1975 to present) (searched 04 December 2009); LILACS (searched January 2010); and AIM (December 2009) (searched 18 December 2009). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted-time-series studies. Dual practice was defined as holding more than one job. Studies for inclusion were those focusing on interventions to manage dual practice among health professionals employed in the public health sector. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently applied the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies when scanning the identified titles and abstracts. The same two review authors independently screened full reports of selected citations. At each stage, results were compared and discrepancies settled through discussion. MAIN RESULTS: No studies were found which were eligible for inclusion in this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to rigorously evaluate the effects of interventions implemented to manage dual practice among health workers. However, there is still much that is unknown about dual practice itself. The designing of studies to evaluate the effects of interventions to manage dual practice could benefit from prior studies to assess the various manifestations of dual practice, their prevalence and their likely impacts on health services delivery. These findings would then inform the design of studies to evaluate interventions to manage dual practice.


Assuntos
Emprego , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Setor Público
7.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 11 Suppl 1: S10, 2011 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21410997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a number of intermediate transport initiatives have been used in some developing countries, available evidence reveals a dearth of local knowledge on the effect of these rural informal transport mechanisms on access to maternal health care services, the cost of implementing such schemes and their scalability. This paper, attempts to provide insights into the functioning of the informal transport markets in facilitating access to maternal health care. It also demonstrates the role that higher institutions of learning can play in designing projects that can increase the utilization of maternal health services. OBJECTIVES: To explore the use of intermediate transport mechanisms to improve access to maternal health services, with emphasis on the benefits and unintended consequences of the transport scheme, as well as challenges in the implementation of the scheme. METHODS: This paper is based on the pilot phase to inform a quasi experimental study aimed at increasing access to maternal health services using demand and supply side incentives. The data collection for this paper included qualitative and quantitative methods that included focus group interviews, review of project documents and facility level data. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in attendance of antenatal, and delivery care services, with the contracted transporters playing a leading role in mobilizing mothers to attend services. The project also had economic spill-over effects to the transport providers, their families and community generally. However, some challenges were faced including difficulty in setting prices for paying transporters, and poor enforcement of existing traffic regulations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The findings indicate that locally existing resources such as motorcycle riders, also known as "boda boda" can be used innovatively to reduce challenges caused by geographical inaccessibility and a poor transport network with resultant increases in the utilization of maternal health services. However, care must be taken to mobilize the resources needed and to ensure that there is enforcement of laws that will ensure the safety of clients and the transport providers themselves.

8.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 11 Suppl 1: S11, 2011 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21410998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport, and financial burdens are some of the demand side constraints to maternal health services in Uganda, while supply side problems include poor quality services related to unmotivated health workers and inadequate supplies. Most public health interventions in Uganda have addressed only selected supply side issues, and universities have focused their efforts on providing maternal services at tertiary hospitals. To demonstrate how reforms at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) can lead to making systemic changes that can improve maternal health services, a demand and supply side strategy was developed by working with local communities and national stakeholders. METHODS: This quasi-experimental trial is conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda. The supply side component includes health worker refresher training and additions of minimal drugs and supplies, whereas the demand side component involves vouchers given to pregnant women for motorcycle transport and the payment to service providers for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. The trial is ongoing, but early analysis from routine health information systems on the number of services used is presented. RESULTS: Motorcyclists in the community organized themselves to accept vouchers in exchange for transport for antenatal care, deliveries and postnatal care, and have become actively involved in ensuring that women obtain care. Increases in antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were demonstrated, with the number of safe deliveries in the intervention area immediately jumping from <200 deliveries/month to over 500 deliveries/month in the intervention arm. Voucher revenues have been used to obtain needed supplies to improve quality and to pay health workers, ensuring their availability at a time when workloads are increasing. CONCLUSIONS: Transport and service vouchers appear to be a viable strategy for rapidly increasing maternal care. MakCHS can design strategies together with stakeholders using a learning-by-doing approach to take advantage of community resources.

9.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 11 Suppl 1: S14, 2011 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21411001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) to be competitive and sustainable. METHODS: A stakeholder and sustainability analysis of 25 key informant interviews was conducted among past, current and potential stakeholders of MakCHS to obtain their perspectives and contributions to sustainability of the College in its role to improve health outcomes. RESULTS: The College has multiple internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders from Uganda wanted the College to use its enormous academic capacity to fulfil its vision, take initiative, and be innovative in conducting more research and training relevant to the country's health needs. Many stakeholders felt that the initiative for collaboration currently came more from the stakeholders than the College. External stakeholders felt that MakCHS was insufficiently marketing itself and not directly engaging the private sector or Parliament. Stakeholders also identified the opportunity for MakCHS to embrace information technology in research, learning and training, and many also wanted MakCHS to start leadership and management training programmes in health systems. The need for MakCHS to be more vigorous in training to enhance professionalism and ethical conduct was also identified. DISCUSSION: As a constituent of a public university, MakCHS has relied on public funding, which has been inadequate to fulfill its mission. Broader networking, marketing to mobilize resources, and providing strong leadership and management support to inspire confidence among its current and potential stakeholders will be essential to MakCHS' further growth. MakCHS' relevance is hinged on generating research knowledge for solving the country's contemporary health problems and starting relevant programs and embracing technologies. It should share new knowledge widely through publications and other forms of dissemination. Whether institutional leadership is best in the hands of academicians or professional managers is a debatable matter. CONCLUSIONS: This study points towards the need for MakCHS and other African public universities to build a broad network of partnerships to strengthen their operations, relevance, and sustainability. Conducting stakeholder and sustainability analyses are instructive toward this end, and have provided information and perspectives on how to make long-range informed choices for success.

10.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 3: 77-85, 2009 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19936148

RESUMO

This paper examines the community's perspectives and perceptions on quality of health care delivery in two Uganda districts. The paper addresses community concerns on service quality. It focuses on the poor because they are a vulnerable group and often bear a huge burden of disease. Community views were solicited and obtained using eight focus group discussions, six in-depth and 12 key informant interviews. User perceptions and definitions of the quality of health services depended on a number of variables related to technical competence, accessibility to services, interpersonal relations and presence of adequate drugs, supplies, staff, and facility amenities. Results indicate that service delivery to the poor in the general population is perceived to be of low quality. The factors that were mentioned as affecting the quality of services delivered were inadequate trained health workers, shortage of essential drugs, poor attitude of the health workers, and long distances to health facilities. This paper argues that there should be an improvement in the quality of health services with particular attention being paid to the poor. Despite wide focus on improvement of the existing infrastructure and donor funding, there is still low satisfaction with health services and poor perceived accessibility.

11.
Int J Equity Health ; 8: 39, 2009 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19909514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. RESULTS: The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. CONCLUSION: Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider targeting subsidies to the poor and rural populations. Public private partnerships should be broadened to increase access to health services among the vulnerable.

12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 9: 146, 2009 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19671198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. METHODS: The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women) were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women) were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. RESULTS: Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. CONCLUSION: There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the communities of the right to participate in the improvement of the services they receive, to assume their position as stakeholders. Various avenues could be instituted including using associations in communities, rapid appraisal methods and community meetings.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Hospitais Comunitários , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Uganda
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (2): CD007018, 2009 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19370668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current and projected crisis because of a shortage of health workers in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires that effective strategies for expanding the numbers of health workers are quickly identified in order to inform action by policymakers, educators, and health managers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of changes in the pre-licensure education of health professionals on health-worker supply. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to week 3, October 2007), MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 to week 3, October 2007), CINAHL (October 2007), LILACS (week 4, November 2007), ERIC (1966 to week 3, February 2008), and Sociological Abstracts (October 2007). We searched WHO (WHOLIS) (February 2008), World Bank, Google Scholar, and human resources on health-related websites to obtain grey literature. Key experts in human resources for health were contacted to identify unpublished studies. The reference lists of included studies were searched for additional articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies that measured increased numbers of health workers ultimately available for recruitment into the health workforce or improved patient to health professional ratios as their primary outcomes were considered. Although the focus of the review was on LMIC, we included studies regardless of where they were done. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Heterogeneity between the two included studies precluded meta-analysis; therefore, data were presented separately for each study. MAIN RESULTS: Two studies of the 7880 identified from searching the electronic databases met the inclusion criteria. Both studies were controlled before and after studies, of moderate to high risk of bias, that explored the effects of interventions to improve retention of minority groups in health professional training institutions. These studies reported that an intervention comprising of a package of student support activities including social, academic, and career guidance and mentorship resulted in an increase in the number of minority students who enrolled and graduated from health training institutions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence to estimate the likely effects of interventions in pre-licensure education to increase health-worker supply is generally insufficient or unavailable, particularly in LMICs. Promising innovations from a high-income country include providing financial support to health professional students or introducing mechanisms to identify and encourage potential students and offering support to 'at risk' students. These and other promising interventions should be evaluated in LMIC.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Grupos Minoritários , Orientação Vocacional/métodos , Humanos
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