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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12366, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451751

RESUMO

Deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase causes propionic acidemia and deficiencies of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase or its cofactor adenosylcobalamin cause methylmalonic acidemia. These inherited disorders lead to pathological accumulation of propionyl-CoA which is converted in Krebs cycle to methylcitrate (MCA) in a reaction catalyzed by citrate synthase. In healthy individuals where no propionyl-CoA accumulation occurs, this enzyme drives the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate to produce citric acid (CA), a normal Krebs cycle intermediate. The competitive synthesis of CA and MCA through the same enzymatic mechanism implies that increase in MCA production is accompanied by decrease in CA levels. In this study, we assessed MCA concentration and the ratio of MCA/CA as plausible markers for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias. We measured MCA and CA in dried blood spots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The reference ranges of MCA, CA and MCA/CA in 123 healthy individuals were ≤0.63 µmol/L, 36.6-126.4 µmol/L and 0.0019-0.0074, respectively. In patients with propionic and methylmalnic acidemias (n = 7), MCA concentration ranged between 1.0-12.0 µmol/L whereas MCA/CA was between 0.012-0.279. This is the first report to describe the potential role of MCA and MCA/CA in dried blood spots as diagnostic and monitoring biomarkers for inherited disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995231

RESUMO

Dihydropteridine reductase (QDPR) catalyzes the recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor in dopamine, serotonin, and phenylalanine metabolism. QDPR-deficient patients develop neurological symptoms including hypokinesia, truncal hypotonia, intellectual disability and seizures. The underlying pathomechanisms are poorly understood. We established a zebrafish model for QDPR deficiency and analyzed the expression as well as function of all zebrafish QDPR homologues during embryonic development. The homologues qdpra is essential for pigmentation and phenylalanine metabolism. Qdprb1 is expressed in the proliferative zones of the optic tectum and eye. Knockdown of qdprb1 leads to up-regulation of pro-proliferative genes and increased number of phospho-histone3 positive mitotic cells. Expression of neuronal and astroglial marker genes is concomitantly decreased. Qdprb1 hypomorphic embryos develop microcephaly and reduced eye size indicating a role for qdprb1 in the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation. Glutamine accumulation biochemically accompanies the developmental changes. Our findings provide novel insights into the neuropathogenesis of QDPR deficiency.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism are a diverse group of disorders with possible serious or life-threatening symptoms. They may be associated with neurological symptoms, renal stone disease or immunodeficiency. However, the clinical presentation can be nonspecific and mild so that a number of cases may be missed. Previously published assays lacked detection of certain diagnostically important biomarkers, including SAICAr, AICAr, beta-ureidoisobutyric acid, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine and orotidine, necessitating the use of separate assays for their detection. Moreover, the limited sensitivity for some analytes in earlier assays may have hampered the reliable detection of mild cases. Therefore, we aimed to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay that allows the simultaneous and sensitive detection of an extended range of purine and pyrimidine biomarkers in urine. METHODS: The assay was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS and clinically tested by analyzing ERNDIM Diagnostic Proficiency Testing (DPT) samples and further specimens from patients with various purine and pyrimidine disorders. RESULTS: Reliable determination of 27 analytes including SAICAr, AICAr, beta-ureidoisobutyric acid, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine and orotidine was achieved in urine following a simple sample preparation. The method clearly distinguished pathological and normal samples and differentiated between purine and pyrimidine defects in all clinical specimens. CONCLUSIONS: A LC-MS/MS assay allowing the simultaneous, sensitive and reliable diagnosis of an extended range of purine and pyrimidine disorders has been developed. The validated method has successfully been tested using ERNDIM Diagnostic Proficiency Testing (DPT) samples and further clinical specimens from patients with various purine and pyrimidine disorders. Sample preparation is simple and assay duration is short, facilitating an easier inclusion of the assay into the diagnostic procedures.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 487: 41-45, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217751

RESUMO

Accumulation of methylcitrate is a biochemical hallmark of inborn errors of propionate metabolism, a group of disorders that include propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria and cobalamin defects. In clinical laboratories, this analyte is measured without quantification by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as part of urine organic acids. Here we describe a simple, sensitive and specific method to quantify methylcitrate in dried urine spots by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Methylcitrate is extracted and derivatized with 4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(2-aminoethylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole in a single step. A derivatization mixture was added to 3.2 mm disc of dried urine spots, incubated at 65 °C for 45 min and 4 µl of the reaction mixture were analyzed. Separation was achieved on C18 column with methylcitrate eluting at 3.8 min. Intraday and interday imprecision (n = 17) were ≤20.9%. The method was applied on dried urine spots from established patients and controls. In controls (n = 135), methylcitrate reference interval of 0.4-3.4 mmol/mol creatinine. In patients, methylcitrate ranged between 8.3 and 591 mmol/mol creatinine. Quantification of methylcitrate provides important diagnostic clues for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria and cobalamin disorders. The potential utilization of methylcitrate as monitoring biomarker of patients under treatment and whether it correlates with the clinical status has yet to be established.

6.
Science ; 361(6407): 1122-1126, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213915

RESUMO

Monitoring metabolites at the point of care could improve the diagnosis and management of numerous diseases. Yet for most metabolites, such assays are not available. We introduce semisynthetic, light-emitting sensor proteins for use in paper-based metabolic assays. The metabolite is oxidized by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and the sensor changes color in the presence of the reduced cofactor, enabling metabolite quantification with the use of a digital camera. The approach makes any metabolite that can be oxidized by the cofactor a candidate for quantitative point-of-care assays, as shown for phenylalanine, glucose, and glutamate. Phenylalanine blood levels of phenylketonuria patients were analyzed at the point of care within minutes with only 0.5 microliters of blood. Results were within 15% of those obtained with standard testing methods.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/química , Glicemia/análise , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Humanos , NADP/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3129, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087348

RESUMO

Since modern foods are unnaturally enriched in single metabolites, it is important to understand which metabolites are sensed by the human body and which are not. We previously showed that the fatty acid stearic acid (C18:0) signals via a dedicated pathway to regulate mitofusin activity and thereby mitochondrial morphology and function in cell culture. Whether this pathway is poised to sense changes in dietary intake of C18:0 in humans is not known. We show here that C18:0 ingestion rapidly and robustly causes mitochondrial fusion in people within 3 h after ingestion. C18:0 intake also causes a drop in circulating long-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting increased fatty acid beta-oxidation in vivo. This work thereby identifies C18:0 as a dietary metabolite that is sensed by our bodies to control our mitochondria. This could explain part of the epidemiological differences between C16:0 and C18:0, whereby C16:0 increases cardiovascular and cancer risk whereas C18:0 decreases both.

8.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(1-2): 86-95, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037505

RESUMO

Residual phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity is the main determinant of the metabolic phenotype in phenylketonuria (PKU). The genotypic heterogeneity of PKU, involving >1000 PAH variants and over 2500 different genotypes, makes genotype-based phenotype prediction challenging. While a relationship between PAH variants and the metabolic phenotype is well established, we questioned the importance of PAH expression and residual in vitro activity for the metabolic phenotype. Thirty-four PAH variants (p.F39 L, p.A47V, p.D59Y, p.I65S, p.R68G, p.R68S, p.E76G, p.A104D, p.D143G, p.R155H, p.R176L, p.V190A, p.G218 V, p.R241C, p.R243Q, p.P244L, p.R252W, p.R261Q, p.E280K, p.R297H, p.A300S, p.I306V, p.A309V, p.L311P, p.A313T, p.L348 V, p.V388 M, A403V, p.R408Q, p.R408W, p.R413P, p.D415N, p.Y417H, and p.A434D) were transiently transfected into COS-7 cells, and expression of PAH was investigated. Expression patterns were compared with in vitro PAH activity and allelic phenotype values (APVs). In vitro PAH activity was significantly higher (p < .01) in variants associated with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (PAH activity = 52.1 ±â€¯8.5%; APV = 6.7-10.0) than that in classic PKU variants (PAH activity = 21.1 ±â€¯7.0%; APV = 0-2.7). Mild PKU variants (PAH activity = 40.2 ±â€¯7.6%; APV = 2.8-6.6) were not significantly different from mild hyperphenylalaninemia, but there was a difference (p < .048) compared with classic PKU phenotypes.

9.
World J Pediatr ; 14(5): 470-481, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn screening (NBS) in Germany currently includes 15 target disorders. Recent diagnostic improvements suggest an extension of the screening panel. METHODS: Since August 2016, a prospective study evaluating 26 additional target disorders (25 metabolic disorders and vitamin B12-deficiency) in addition to the German screening panel is performed at the Newborn Screening Center Heidelberg. First-tier results from tandem-MS screening are complemented by second-tier strategies for 15 of the additional target disorders. NBS results of seven patients diagnosed symptomatically with one of the additional target disorders by selective screening since August 2016 are retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Over a 13-month period, 68,418 children participated in the study. Second-tier analyses were performed in 5.4% of samples. Only 59 (0.1%) of study participants had abnormal screening results for one of the additional target disorders. Target disorders from the study panel were confirmed in 12 children: 1 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (CoA)-lyase deficiency, 1 citrullinemia type I, 1 multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficiency, 1 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase-deficiency, and 8 children with maternal vitamin B12-deficiency. In addition, six of seven patients diagnosed symptomatically outside the study with one of the target disorders would have been identified by the study strategy in their NBS sample. CONCLUSIONS: Within 13 months, the study "Newborn Screening 2020" identified additional 12 children with treatable conditions while only marginally increasing the recall rate by 0.1%. Maternal vitamin B12-deficiency was the most frequent finding. Even more children could benefit from screening for the additional target disorders by extending the NBS panel for Germany and/or other countries.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1018-1030, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754768

RESUMO

Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolic cofactor used by around 4% of cellular enzymes. Its role is to carry and transfer acetyl and acyl groups to other molecules. Cells can synthesize CoA de novo from vitamin B5 (pantothenate) through five consecutive enzymatic steps. Phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS) catalyzes the second step of the pathway during which phosphopantothenate reacts with ATP and cysteine to form phosphopantothenoylcysteine. Inborn errors of CoA biosynthesis have been implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a group of rare neurological disorders characterized by accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia and progressive neurodegeneration. Exome sequencing in five individuals from two unrelated families presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed biallelic mutations in PPCS, linking CoA synthesis with a cardiac phenotype. Studies in yeast and fruit flies confirmed the pathogenicity of identified mutations. Biochemical analysis revealed a decrease in CoA levels in fibroblasts of all affected individuals. CoA biosynthesis can occur with pantethine as a source independent from PPCS, suggesting pantethine as targeted treatment for the affected individuals still alive.

11.
Acta Diabetol ; 55(6): 585-592, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546577

RESUMO

AIMS: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an endogenous activator of AMPK, a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss and/or reduction of AMPK signaling plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The loss of AMPK in diabetes could be due to a loss of AICAR. The aim of this study was to characterize urine levels of AICAR in diabetes and determine whether an association exists with respect to late complications, e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. METHODS: Urine AICAR was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 223 patients consisting of 5 healthy controls, 63 patients with pre-diabetes, 29 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 126 patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes. For statistical analyses, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis were performed to investigate the associations of urinary AICAR excretion within different groups and different clinical parameters. RESULTS: The mean urine AICAR for all 223 patients was 694.7 ± 641.1 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in urine AICAR between the control and patients with diabetes (592.3 ± 345.1 vs. 697.1 ± 646.5 ng/ml). No association between any of the biochemical and/or clinical parameters measured and urine AICAR was found, with the exception of age of patient (R = - 0.34; p < 0.01) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = 0.19; p = 0.039). These results were confirmed additionally by linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical diabetes is not associated with a change in endogenous AICAR levels. Loss of AICAR may therefore not be a mechanism by which AMPK signaling is reduced in diabetes.


Assuntos
Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Ribonucleotídeos/urina , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/urina , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/urina , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 364-374, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396028

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic defects in the glycoconjugate biosynthesis. >100 types of CDG are known, most of them cause multi-organ diseases. Here we describe a boy whose leading symptoms comprise cutis laxa, pancreatic insufficiency and hepatosplenomegaly. Whole exome sequencing identified the novel hemizygous mutation c.542T>G (p.L181R) in the X-linked ATP6AP1, an accessory protein of the mammalian vacuolar H+-ATPase, which led to a general N-glycosylation deficiency. Studies of serum N-glycans revealed reduction of complex sialylated and appearance of truncated diantennary structures. Proliferation of the patient's fibroblasts was significantly reduced and doubling time prolonged. Additionally, there were alterations in the fibroblasts' amino acid levels and the acylcarnitine composition. Especially, short-chain species were reduced, whereas several medium- to long-chain acylcarnitines (C14-OH to C18) were elevated. Investigation of the main lipid classes revealed that total cholesterol was significantly enriched in the patient's fibroblasts at the expense of phophatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Within the minor lipid species, hexosylceramide was reduced, while its immediate precursor ceramide was increased. Since catalase activity and ACOX3 expression in peroxisomes were reduced, we assume an ATP6AP1-dependent impact on the ß-oxidation of fatty acids. These results help to understand the complex clinical characteristics of this new patient.

13.
Circulation ; 137(24): 2592-2608, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrients are transported through endothelial cells before being metabolized in muscle cells. However, little is known about the regulation of endothelial transport processes. Notch signaling is a critical regulator of metabolism and angiogenesis during development. Here, we studied how genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endothelial Notch signaling in adult mice affects endothelial fatty acid transport, cardiac angiogenesis, and heart function. METHODS: Endothelial-specific Notch inhibition was achieved by conditional genetic inactivation of Rbp-jκ in adult mice to analyze fatty acid metabolism and heart function. Wild-type mice were treated with neutralizing antibodies against the Notch ligand Delta-like 4. Fatty acid transport was studied in cultured endothelial cells and transgenic mice. RESULTS: Treatment of wild-type mice with Delta-like 4 neutralizing antibodies for 8 weeks impaired fractional shortening and ejection fraction in the majority of mice. Inhibition of Notch signaling specifically in the endothelium of adult mice by genetic ablation of Rbp-jκ caused heart hypertrophy and failure. Impaired heart function was preceded by alterations in fatty acid metabolism and an increase in cardiac blood vessel density. Endothelial Notch signaling controlled the expression of endothelial lipase, Angptl4, CD36, and Fabp4, which are all needed for fatty acid transport across the vessel wall. In endothelial-specific Rbp-jκ-mutant mice, lipase activity and transendothelial transport of long-chain fatty acids to muscle cells were impaired. In turn, lipids accumulated in the plasma and liver. The attenuated supply of cardiomyocytes with long-chain fatty acids was accompanied by higher glucose uptake, increased concentration of glycolysis intermediates, and mTOR-S6K signaling. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or displacing glucose as cardiac substrate by feeding a ketogenic diet prolonged the survival of endothelial-specific Rbp-jκ-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies Notch signaling as a novel regulator of fatty acid transport across the endothelium and as an essential repressor of angiogenesis in the adult heart. The data imply that the endothelium controls cardiomyocyte metabolism and function.

14.
Hepatology ; 68(2): 707-722, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059455

RESUMO

Postnatal liver development is characterized by hepatocyte growth, proliferation, and functional maturation. Notably, canonical Wnt signaling in hepatocytes has been identified as an important regulator of final adult liver size and metabolic liver zonation. The cellular origin of Wnt ligands responsible for homeostatic liver/body weight ratio (LW/BW) remained unclear, which was also attributable to a lack of suitable endothelial Cre driver mice. To comprehensively analyze the effects of hepatic angiocrine Wnt signaling on liver development and metabolic functions, we used endothelial subtype-specific Stab2-Cre driver mice to delete Wls from hepatic endothelial cells (HECs). The resultant Stab2-Cretg/wt ;Wlsfl/fl (Wls-HECKO) mice were viable, but showed a significantly reduced LW/BW. Specifically, ablation of angiocrine Wnt signaling impaired metabolic zonation in the liver, as shown by loss of pericentral, ß-catenin-dependent target genes such as glutamine synthase (Glul), RhBg, Axin2, and cytochrome P450 2E1, as well as by extended expression of periportal genes such as arginase 1. Furthermore, endothelial subtype-specific expression of a c-terminally YFP-tagged Wls fusion protein in Wls-HECKO mice (Stab2-Cretg/wt ;Wlsfl/fl ;Rosa26:Wls-YFPfl/wt [Wls-rescue]) restored metabolic liver zonation. Interestingly, lipid metabolism was altered in Wls-HECKO mice exhibiting significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, while maintaining normal plasma triglyceride and blood glucose concentrations. On the contrary, zonal expression of Endomucin, LYVE1, and other markers of HEC heterogeneity were not altered in Wls-HECKO livers. CONCLUSION: Angiocrine Wnt signaling controls liver growth as well as development of metabolic liver zonation in mice, whereas intrahepatic HEC zonation is not affected. (Hepatology 2017).

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(1): 91-99, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098534

RESUMO

Glutaric aciduria type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, inherited defect of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Deficiency of this protein in L-lysine degradation leads to the characteristic accumulation of nontoxic glutarylcarnitine and neurotoxic glutaric acid (GA), glutaryl-CoA, and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. Untreated patients develop bilateral lesions of basal ganglia resulting in a complex movement disorder with predominant dystonia in infancy and early childhood. The current pathomechanistic concept strongly focuses on imbalanced neuronal energy metabolism due to accumulating metabolites, whereas little is known about the pathomechanistic role of astrocytes, which are thought to be in constant metabolic crosstalk with neurons. We found that glutaric acid (GA) causes astrocytic cell death under starvation cell culture conditions, i.e. low glucose, without glutamine and fetal calf serum. Glutamine completely abolished GA-induced toxicity, suggesting involvement of glutaminolysis. Increasing dependence on glutaminolysis by chemical induction of hypoxia signaling-potentiated GA-induced toxicity. We further show that GA disturbs glutamine degradation by specifically inhibiting glutamate dehydrogenase. Summarizing our study shows that pathologically relevant concentrations of GA block an important step in the metabolic crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes, ultimately leading to astrocytic cell death.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184897, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test). We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL. METHODS: The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients. RESULTS: Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min) sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid. CONCLUSIONS: A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test) which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn screening panel (?Newborn screening 2020"; Newborn Screening Center, University Hospital Heidelberg).


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Citratos/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Ácido Láctico/análogos & derivados , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Acidemia Propiônica/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
17.
Klin Padiatr ; 229(2): 59-66, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444650

RESUMO

Background For the new cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening program in Germany the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) implemented a new screening protocol using immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) as first and pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) as second tier. Gene analysis with a panel of 31 CFTR-mutations is used as third tier to increase the positive predictive value (PPV) which is known to be low in pure biochemical IRT/PAP protocols. Methods For post hoc analysis the data pool (n=372 906) of a study evaluating a pure biochemical IRT/PAP protocol was used for assessment of the 3-step G-BA protocol in comparison with an alternative screening protocol recommended by the authors. The difference between the 2 protocols is the procedure when IRT>99.9th percentile. In the G BA protocol PAP and DNA analysis will be by-passed while in the alternative protocol only the PAP step will be circumvented. Results Both 3-tier IRT/PAP+SN/DNA protocols did not lose sensitivity due to addition of genetic analysis when the results were compared to those of the 2-tier biochemical IRT/PAP protocol. However, the protocols provide different results regarding PPV. The G-BA protocol showed with 351 a much higher number of false-positively detected newborns (PPV 20.2%) when compared to 31 false-positively detected newborns in the alternative protocol (PPV 69.6%). Conclusions The G-BA protocol had a worse performance when compared with the alternative protocol recommended by the authors. The higher number of false-positively detected newborns using the G-BA protocol will lead to more consultations including sweat tests, will create more anxiety in parents, and will result in higher costs after screening.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/prevenção & controle , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Carboxipeptidase B/genética , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose Cística/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Alemanha , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tripsina/genética
18.
World J Pediatr ; 13(2): 136-143, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn screening is a precondition for early diagnosis and successful treatment of remethylation disorders and classical homocystinuria (cystathionine-ß-synthase deficiency). Newborn screening for classical homocystinuria using total homocysteine measurement in dried blood spots has been very successfully performed for many years for newborns from Qatar. METHODS: A new optimized newborn screening strategy for remethylation disorders and homocystinuria was developed and evaluated for newborns from Qatar using total homocysteine measurement as first-tier and methionine, methionine-phenylalanine-ratio and propionylcarnitine as second-tiers. Proposed cut-offs were also retrospectively evaluated in newborn screening samples of 12 patients with remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency from Qatar and Germany. RESULTS: Over a 12 months period, the proposed strategy led to a decrease in the recall rate in homocysteine screening for Qatar from 1.09% to 0.68%, while allowing for additional systematic inclusion of remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency into the screening panel for Qatar. In the evaluated period the applied strategy would have detected all patients with classical homocystinuria identified by the previous strategy and in addition 5 children with maternal nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency and one patient with an isolated remethylation disorder. Additional retrospective evaluation of newborn screening samples of 12 patients from Germany and Qatar with remethlyation disorders or vitamin B12 deficiency showed that all of these patients would have been detected by the cut-offs used in the proposed new strategy. In addition, an adapted strategy for Germany using methionine, methionine-phenylalanine-ratio and propionylcarnitine as first-tier, and homocysteine as a second-tier test was also positively evaluated retrospectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed strategy for samples from Qatar allows inclusion of remethylation disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency in the screening panel, while lowering the recall rate. An adapted second-tier strategy is presented for screening in Germany and will be prospectively evaluated over the next years in a pilot project named "Newborn Screening 2020".


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Homocistinúria/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Homocistinúria/sangue , Homocistinúria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28129384

RESUMO

Elevated serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was previously reported to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events. TMAO originates from the microbiota-dependent breakdown of food-derived phosphatidylcholine (PC) to trimethylamine (TMA), which is oxidized by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases to TMAO. Our aim was to investigate the predominant site of absorption of the bacterial PC-breakdown product TMA. A healthy human proband was exposed to 6.9 g native phosphatidylcholine, either without concomitant treatment or during application with the topical antibiotic rifaximin, or exposed only to 6.9 g of a delayed-release PC formulation. Plasma and urine concentrations of TMA and TMAO were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (plasma) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (urine). Native PC administration without concomitant treatment resulted in peak plasma TMAO levels of 43 ± 8 µM at 12 h post-ingestion, which was reduced by concomitant rifaximin treatment to 22 ± 8 µM (p < 0.05). TMAO levels observed after delayed-release PC administration were 20 ± 3 µM (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the peak urinary concentration at 24 h post-exposure dropped from 252 ± 33 to 185 ± 31 mmol/mmol creatinine after rifaximin treatment. In contrast, delayed-release PC resulted in even more suppressed urinary TMAO levels after the initial 12-h observation period (143 ± 18 mmol/mmol creatinine) and thereafter remained within the control range (24 h: 97 ± 9 mmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 24 h vs. 12 h), indicating a lack of substrate absorption in distal intestine and large bowel. Our results showed that the microbiota in the small intestine generated the PC breakdown product TMA. The resulting TMAO, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was suppressed by topical-acting antibiotics or when PC was presented in an intestinally delayed release preparation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Metilaminas/sangue , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Masculino , Metilaminas/urina , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Óxidos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/administração & dosagem , Rifamicinas/administração & dosagem , Rifaximina , Fatores de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
20.
Clin Immunol ; 175: 51-55, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916705

RESUMO

The prognosis of children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) depends on a presymptomatic diagnosis and early treatment before complications occur. We established and tested a simplified, practical and economic newborn screening method based on the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) on dried blood spots (DBSs) through qPCR. Our method was validated by the analysis of 11 positive controls, which all showed an absence of TRECs, thus yielding a sensitivity of 100%. Further, we analyzed 6034 anonymized newborns of whom 6031 (99,95%) showed a normal TREC qPCR with a median of 600 estimated TREC copies/1.6mm punch. The test showed a recall-rate of 0.05%. We present a highly sensitive, specific and time- and cost-effective method of TREC quantification, which is suitable for SCID newborn screening. In comparison to established methods, our test requires only 25% of the input material, doesn't require DNA purification and significantly reduces time and cost requirement.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , DNA/genética , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia
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