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1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

6.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 106: 54-60, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471648

RESUMO

An international panel of experts representing 17 European countries and Israel convened to discuss current needs and future developments in BRCA testing and counselling and to issue consensus recommendations. The experts agreed that, with the increasing availability of high-throughput testing platforms and the registration of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitors, the need for genetic counselling and testing will rapidly increase in the near future. Consequently, the already existing shortage of genetic counsellors is expected to worsen and to compromise the quality of care particularly in individuals and families with suspected or proven hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. Increasing educational efforts within the breast cancer caregiver community may alleviate this limitation by enabling all involved specialities to perform genetic counselling. In the therapeutic setting, for patients with a clinical suspicion of genetic susceptibility and if the results may have an immediate impact on the therapeutic strategy, the majority voted that BRCA1/2 testing should be performed after histological diagnosis of breast cancer, regardless of oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Experts also agreed that, in the predictive and therapeutic setting, genetic testing should be limited to individuals with a personal or family history suggestive of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant and should also include high-risk actionable genes beyond BRCA1/2. Of high-risk actionable genes, all pathological variants (i.e. class IV and V) should be reported; class III variants of unknown significance, should be reported provided that the current lack of clinical utility of the variant is expressly stated. Genetic counselling should always address the possibility that already tested individuals might be re-contacted in case new information on a particular variant results in a re-classification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Consenso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 593-620, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446198

RESUMO

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Internacionalidade , Mutação/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Família , Geografia , Humanos
9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(4): pky078, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873510

RESUMO

Background: Full-term pregnancy (FTP) is associated with a reduced breast cancer (BC) risk over time, but women are at increased BC risk in the immediate years following an FTP. No large prospective studies, however, have examined whether the number and timing of pregnancies are associated with BC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: Using weighted and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models, we investigated whether reproductive events are associated with BC risk for mutation carriers using a retrospective cohort (5707 BRCA1 and 3525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and a prospective cohort (2276 BRCA1 and 1610 BRCA2 mutation carriers), separately for each cohort and the combined prospective and retrospective cohort. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no overall association with parity compared with nulliparity (combined hazard ratio [HRc] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.18). Relative to being uniparous, an increased number of FTPs was associated with decreased BC risk (HRc = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.91; HRc = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.82; HRc = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63, for 2, 3, and ≥4 FTPs, respectively, P trend < .0001) and increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with decreased BC risk (combined cohort P trend = .0003). Relative to being nulliparous, uniparous BRCA1 mutation carriers were at increased BC risk in the prospective analysis (prospective hazard ration [HRp] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, being parous was associated with a 30% increase in BC risk (HRc = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.69), and there was no apparent decrease in risk associated with multiparity except for having at least 4 FTPs vs. 1 FTP (HRc = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Conclusions: These findings suggest differential associations with parity between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with higher risk for uniparous BRCA1 carriers and parous BRCA2 carriers.

10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(2): pky023, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360853

RESUMO

Background: For BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the association between oral contraceptive preparation (OCP) use and breast cancer (BC) risk is still unclear. Methods: Breast camcer risk associations were estimated from OCP data on 6030 BRCA1 and 3809 BRCA2 mutation carriers using age-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study and birth cohort. Prospective, left-truncated retrospective and full-cohort retrospective analyses were performed. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, OCP use was not associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.56), but in the left-truncated and full-cohort retrospective analyses, risks were increased by 26% (95% CI = 6% to 51%) and 39% (95% CI = 23% to 58%), respectively. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, OCP use was associated with BC risk in prospective analyses (HR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.97), but retrospective analyses were inconsistent (left-truncated: HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.33; full cohort: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.81). There was evidence of increasing risk with duration of use, especially before the first full-term pregnancy (BRCA1: both retrospective analyses, P < .001 and P = .001, respectively; BRCA2: full retrospective analysis, P = .002). Conclusions: Prospective analyses did not show that past use of OCP is associated with an increased BC risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers in young middle-aged women (40-50 years). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, a causal association is also not likely at those ages. Findings between retrospective and prospective analyses were inconsistent and could be due to survival bias or a true association for younger women who were underrepresented in the prospective cohort. Given the uncertain safety of long-term OCP use for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, indications other than contraception should be avoided and nonhormonal contraceptive methods should be discussed.

11.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163936, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723784

RESUMO

Due to its palindromic setup, AZFc (Azoospermia Factor c) region of chromosome Y is one of the most unstable regions of the human genome. It contains eight gene families expressed mainly in the testes. Several types of rearrangement resulting in changes in the cumulative copy number of the gene families were reported to be associated with diseases such as male infertility and testicular germ cell tumors. The best studied AZFc rearrangement is gr/gr deletion. Its carriers show widespread phenotypic variation from azoospermia to normospermia. This phenomenon was initially attributed to different gr/gr subtypes that would eliminate distinct members of the affected gene families. However, studies conducted to confirm this hypothesis have brought controversial results, perhaps, in part, due to the shortcomings of the utilized subtyping methodology. This proof-of-concept paper is meant to introduce here a novel method aimed at subtyping AZFc rearrangements. It is able to differentiate the partial deletion and partial duplication subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family. The keystone of the method is the determination of the copy number of the gene family member-specific variant(s) in a series of sequence family variant (SFV) positions. Most importantly, we present a novel approach for the correct interpretation of the variant copy number data to determine the copy number of the individual DAZ family members in the context of frequent interloci gene conversion.Besides DAZ1/DAZ2 and DAZ3/DAZ4 deletions, not yet described rearrangements such as DAZ2/DAZ4 deletion and three duplication subtypes were also found by the utilization of the novel approach. A striking feature is the extremely high concordance among the individual data pointing to a certain type of rearrangement. In addition to being able to identify DAZ deletion subtypes more reliably than the methods used previously, this approach is the first that can discriminate DAZ duplication subtypes as well.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Deleção de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adulto , Proteína 1 Suprimida em Azoospermia , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Fam Cancer ; 15(1): 85-97, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446593

RESUMO

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome with considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, defined by the development of multiple adenomas throughout the colorectum. FAP is caused either by monoallelic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC, or by biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH, this latter usually presenting with milder phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of Hungarian FAP patients. Mutation screening of 87 unrelated probands from FAP families (21 of them presented as the attenuated variant of the disease, showing <100 polyps) was performed using DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Twenty-four different pathogenic mutations in APC were identified in 65 patients (75 %), including nine cases (37.5 %) with large genomic alterations. Twelve of the point mutations were novel. In addition, APC-negative samples were also tested for MUTYH mutations and we were able to identify biallelic pathogenic mutations in 23 % of these cases (5/22). Correlations between the localization of APC mutations and the clinical manifestations of the disease were observed, cases with a mutation in the codon 1200-1400 region showing earlier age of disease onset (p < 0.003). There were only a few, but definitive dissimilarities between APC- and MUTYH-associated FAP in our cohort: the age at onset of polyposis was significantly delayed for biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers as compared to patients with an APC mutation. Our data represent the first comprehensive study delineating the mutation spectra of both APC and MUTYH in Hungarian FAP families, and underscore the overlap between the clinical characteristics of APC- and MUTYH-associated phenotypes, necessitating a more appropriate clinical characterization of FAP families.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Genes APC , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 31(25): 3091-9, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: Analysis of pooled observational cohort data, self-reported at enrollment and at follow-up from the International BRCA1, and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and Breast Cancer Family Registry. Eligible women were BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers diagnosed with unilateral BC since 1970 and no other invasive cancer or tamoxifen use before first BC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CBC associated with tamoxifen use were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for year and age of diagnosis, country, and bilateral oophorectomy and censoring at contralateral mastectomy, death, or loss to follow-up. RESULTS: Of 1,583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after first BC diagnosis. There were 520 CBCs over 20,104 person-years of observation. The adjusted HR estimates were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.55) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.50) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. After left truncating at recruitment to the cohort, adjusted HR estimates were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.13) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.05) based on 657 BRCA1 and 426 BRCA2 mutation carriers with 100 CBCs over 4,392 person-years of prospective follow-up. HRs did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the first BC (missing for 56% of cases). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that tamoxifen use is associated with a reduction in CBC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further follow-up of these cohorts will provide increased statistical power for future prospective analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS Genet ; 9(3): e1003212, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544013

RESUMO

BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4)). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 12(1): 49-55, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21145788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 mismatch-repair genes and leads to a high risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. We previously showed that constitutional 3' end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of MSH2 in EPCAM-expressing tissues, resulting in tissue-specific MSH2 deficiency. We aim to establish the risk of cancer associated with such EPCAM deletions. METHODS: We obtained clinical data for 194 carriers of a 3' end EPCAM deletion from 41 families known to us at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands and compared cancer risk with data from a previously described cohort of 473 carriers from 91 families with mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion. FINDINGS: 93 of the 194 EPCAM deletion carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer; three of the 92 women with EPCAM deletions were diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Carriers of an EPCAM deletion had a 75% (95% CI 65-85) cumulative risk of colorectal cancer before the age of 70 years (mean age at diagnosis 43 years [SD 12]), which did not differ significantly from that of carriers of combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (69% [95% CI 47-91], p=0·8609) or mutations in MSH2 (77% [64-90], p=0·5892) or MLH1 (79% [68-90], p=0·5492), but was higher than noted for carriers of MSH6 mutation (50% [38-62], p<0·0001). By contrast, women with EPCAM deletions had a 12% [0-27] cumulative risk of endometrial cancer, which was lower than was that noted for carriers of a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (55% [20-90], p<0·0001) or of a mutation in MSH2 (51% [33-69], p=0·0006) or MSH6 (34% [20-48], p=0·0309), but did not differ significantly from that noted for MLH1 (33% [15-51], p=0·1193) mutation carriers. This risk seems to be restricted to deletions that extend close to the MSH2 gene promoter. Of 194 carriers of an EPCAM deletion, three had duodenal cancer and four had pancreatic cancer. INTERPRETATION: EPCAM deletion carriers have a high risk of colorectal cancer; only those with deletions extending close to the MSH2 promoter have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. These results underscore the effect of mosaic MSH2 deficiency, leading to variable cancer risks, and could form the basis of an optimised protocol for the recognition and targeted prevention of cancer in EPCAM deletion carriers.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Risco
16.
BMC Med Genet ; 11: 169, 2010 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21118512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis and mucocutaneous pigmentation. The genetic predisposition for PJS has been shown to be associated with germline mutations in the STK11/LKB1 tumor suppressor gene. The aim of the present study was to characterize Hungarian PJS patients with respect to germline mutation in STK11/LKB1 and their association to disease phenotype. METHODS: Mutation screening of 21 patients from 13 PJS families were performed using direct DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Comparative semi-quantitative sequencing was applied to investigate the mRNA-level effects of nonsense and splice-affecting mutations. RESULTS: Thirteen different pathogenic mutations in STK11, including a high frequency of large genomic deletions (38%, 5/13), were identified in the 13 unrelated families studied. One of these deletions also affects two neighboring genes (SBNO2 and GPX4), located upstream of STK11, with a possible modifier effect. The majority of the point mutations (88%, 7/8) can be considered novel. Quantification of the STK11 transcript at the mRNA-level revealed that the expression of alleles carrying a nonsense or frameshift mutation was reduced to 30-70% of that of the wild type allele. Mutations affecting splice-sites around exon 2 displayed an mRNA processing pattern indicative of co-regulated splicing of exons 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of sensitive techniques may assure a high (100%) STK11 mutation detection frequency in PJS families. Characterization of mutations at mRNA level may give a deeper insight into the molecular consequences of the pathogenic mutations than predictions made solely at the genomic level.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Éxons , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Urol Oncol ; 28(5): 492-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19162511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but it is unclear if familial TGCT represents a unique entity with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Here we describe a collection of familial TGCT cases from an international consortium, in an effort to elucidate any clinical characteristics that are specific to this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Families with >or=2 cases of TGCT enrolled at 18 of the sites participating in the International Testicular Cancer Linkage Consortium were included. We analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics of 985 cases from 461 families. RESULTS: A majority (88.5%) of families had only 2 cases of TGCT. Men with seminoma (50% of cases) had an older mean age at diagnosis than nonseminoma cases (P = 0.001). Among individuals with a history of cryptorchidism, TGCT was more likely to occur in the ipsilateral testis (kappa = 0.65). Cousin pairs appeared to represent a unique group, with younger age at diagnosis and a higher prevalence of cryptorchidism than other families. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathologic characteristics in these familial TGCT cases were similar to those generally described for nonfamilial cases. However, we observed a unique presentation of familial TGCT among cousin pairs. Additional studies are needed to further explore this observation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Adulto , Criptorquidismo/genética , Hérnia Inguinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Fam Cancer ; 8(4): 451-6, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19609727

RESUMO

One of the clinical hallmarks of hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders is a younger-than-usual age at diagnosis. Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but data on whether familial TGCT cases are diagnosed at an earlier age are inconclusive. Here we compared the age at diagnosis of familial TGCT cases with that of population cases in several countries. Familial TGCT is defined as affected individuals from families with >or=2 cases of TGCT. Age at diagnosis of familial cases from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, Norway, and Hungary was compared to cases identified in population-based cancer registries from the respective country, using the generalized estimation equation method. Age at diagnosis was statistically significantly younger for familial TGCT cases from North America (P = 0.024), the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001), and Australia and New Zealand (P = 0.0033) compared with population cases. When stratified by histology, the difference in age at diagnosis distribution between familial and population cases was observed for seminoma cases from North America (P = 0.002) and the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001) and non-seminoma cases from the United Kingdom (P = 0.029) and Australia and New Zealand (P = 0.0023). In summary, we found that the age at diagnosis for familial TGCT cases is, on the average, 2-3 years younger than that for the population cases in North America, United Kingdom, and Australia and New Zealand. The younger age at diagnosis might be suggestive of a genetic basis for familial TGCT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anticancer Res ; 29(6): 1971-80, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19528454

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to elucidate the anticancer activity of Ribavirin, an antiviral drug and a known inhibitor of inositide-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using human cancer cell lines, the potential of the drug to inhibit growth and induce the apoptotic and differentiation pathways was investigated by cytological methods. The effect exerted upon gene expression was studied in K562 cells by Q-PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with Ribavirin resulted in a significant growth inhibition (IC(50)=15 microM) via activating apoptosis and the differentiation pathway in K562 cells. It also modulated the expression of about 60 out of 85 genes having roles in cell proliferation, purine biosynthesis, translation initiation, oncogenic signaling and cell survival (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ribavirin is a potent anticancer agent, being a strong inducer of apoptosis and a moderate inducer of differentiation in K562 cells. These effects are mediated through the modulation of key molecular and metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia/patologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 18(2): 601-10, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19190154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated in a small number of studies. METHODS: We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox proportional hazards framework. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had ever used OC were at a significantly reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence intervals, 0.37-0.73; P = 0.0002) and increasing duration of OC use was associated with a reduced ovarian cancer risk (P trend = 0.0004). The protective effect of OC use for BRCA1 mutation carriers seemed to be greater among more recent users. Tubal ligation was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence intervals, 0.22-0.80; P = 0.008). The number of ovarian cancer cases in BRCA2 mutation carriers was too small to draw definitive conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide further confirmation that OC use, number of full-term pregnancies, and tubal ligation are associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers to a similar relative extent as in the general population.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Esterilização Tubária
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