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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare autosomal dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis, with a prevalence of 0.2-1/10,000. Features include bilateral and symmetrical malar and mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities due to abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration and differentiation. To date, three genes have been identified: TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D. Despite a large number of patients with a molecular diagnosis, some remain without a known genetic anomaly. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing for four individuals with TCS but who were negative for pathogenic variants in the known causative genes. The effect of the pathogenic variants was investigated in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identified three novel pathogenic variants in POLR1B. Knockdown of polr1b in zebrafish induced an abnormal craniofacial phenotype mimicking TCS that was associated with altered ribosomal gene expression, massive p53-associated cellular apoptosis in the neuroepithelium, and reduced number of NCC derivatives. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic variants in the RNA polymerase I subunit POLR1B might induce massive p53-dependent apoptosis in a restricted neuroepithelium area, altering NCC migration and causing cranioskeletal malformations. We identify POLR1B as a new causative gene responsible for a novel TCS syndrome (TCS4) and establish a novel experimental model in zebrafish to study POLR1B-related TCS.

3.
J Cell Sci ; 132(16)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371485

RESUMO

Expression of hyperactive RAF kinases, such as the oncogenic B-RAF-V600E mutant, in normal human cells triggers a proliferative arrest that blocks tumor formation. We discovered that glucocorticoids delayed the entry into senescence induced by B-RAF-V600E in human fibroblasts, and allowed senescence bypass when the cells were regularly passaged, but that they did not allow proliferation of cells that were already senescent. Transcriptome and siRNA analyses revealed that the EGR1 gene is one target of glucocorticoid action. Transcription of the EGR1 gene is activated by the RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway and acts as a sensor of hyper-mitogenic pathway activity. The EGR1 transcription factor regulates the expression of p15 and p21 (encoded by CDKN2B and CDKN1A, respectively) that are redundantly required for the proliferative arrest of BJ fibroblasts upon expression of B-RAF-V600E. Our results highlight the need to evaluate the action of glucocorticoid on cancer progression in melanoma, thyroid and colon carcinoma in which B-RAF-V600E is a frequent oncogene, and cancers in which evasion from senescence has been shown.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7550, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101892

RESUMO

High-throughput RNA-sequencing has become the gold standard method for whole-transcriptome gene expression analysis, and is widely used in numerous applications to study cell and tissue transcriptomes. It is also being increasingly used in a number of clinical applications, including expression profiling for diagnostics and alternative transcript detection. However, despite its many advantages, RNA sequencing can be challenging in some situations, for instance in cases of low input amounts or degraded RNA samples. Several protocols have been proposed to overcome these challenges, and many are available as commercial kits. In this study, we systematically test three recent commercial technologies for RNA-seq library preparation (TruSeq, SMARTer and SMARTer Ultra-Low) on human biological reference materials, using standard (1 mg), low (100 ng and 10 ng) and ultra-low (<1 ng) input amounts, and for mRNA and total RNA, stranded and unstranded. The results are analyzed using read quality and alignment metrics, gene detection and differential gene expression metrics. Overall, we show that the TruSeq kit performs well with an input amount of 100 ng, while the SMARTer kit shows decreased performance for inputs of 100 and 10 ng, and the SMARTer Ultra-Low kit performs relatively well for input amounts <1 ng. All the results are discussed in detail, and we provide guidelines for biologists for the selection of an RNA-seq library preparation kit.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845214

RESUMO

The triggering and development of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Despite the identification of more than one hundred genetic variants associated with the disease, not all the cases can be explained. Here, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing in 9 multiplex families (N = 30) to identify rare variants susceptible to play a role in the disease pathogenesis. We pre-selected 77 genes which carried rare variants with a complete segregation with RA in the studied families. Follow-up linkage and association analyses with pVAAST highlighted significant RA association of 43 genes (p-value < 0.05 after 106 permutations) and pinpointed their most likely causal variant. We re-sequenced the 10 most significant likely causal variants (p-value ≤ 3.78*10-3 after 106 permutations) in the extended pedigrees and 9 additional multiplex families (N = 110). Only one SNV in SUPT20H: c.73A>T (p.Lys25*), presented a complete segregation with RA in an extended pedigree with early-onset cases. In summary, we identified in this study a new variant associated with RA in SUPT20H gene. This gene belongs to several biological pathways like macro-autophagy and monocyte/macrophage differentiation, which contribute to RA pathogenesis. In addition, these results showed that analyzing rare variants using a family-based approach is a strategy that allows to identify RA risk loci, even with a small dataset.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Copy number variants (CNVs) could explain a part of the missing heritability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our goal is to investigate the association of RA with CNVs of three functional candidate genes, Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and Fcγ receptor type IIIAB (FCGR3B). METHODS: We quantified the absolute copy number of GSTM1, GSTT1 and FCGR3B genes using droplet digital PCR. Transmission of copy number alleles was investigated in trio families with RA using family-based association tests (Transmission Disequilibrium Test and Genotype Haplotype Relative Risk). Clinical, environmental and biological data on RA patients were also used to stratify patients sample in analysis. RESULTS: Copy numbers from zero to three were identified. Genotype combinations characterised in 182 trios allowed testing the association with RA. Genotypes without null allele of FCGR3B gene were significantly associated with RA (3.41x10-7). Three copy numbers of this gene is observed only in cases of RA (n=14) and a protective effect of null allele was characterised (OR=0.3 (0.17-0.53)). CONCLUSIONS: CNVs in FCGR3B are associated with RA in our set of samples. This gene may play a role in physiopathology of this disease.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 414-430, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820047

RESUMO

Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer's or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aß processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10-7), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imunidade/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(4): 449-457, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659681

RESUMO

Although recent Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified novel associations for common variants, there has been no comprehensive exome-wide search for low-frequency variants that affect the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We conducted a meta-analysis of 11 studies comprising 8,332 cases and 16,087 controls of European ancestry and 382 cases and 1,476 controls of African American ancestry genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used the seqMeta package in R to conduct single variant and gene-based rare variant tests. In the single variant analysis, we limited our analysis to the 64,794 variants with at least 40 minor alleles across studies (minor allele frequency [MAF] ~0.08%). We confirmed associations with previously identified VTE loci, including ABO, F5, F11, and FGA. After adjusting for multiple testing, we observed no novel significant findings in single variant or gene-based analysis. Given our sample size, we had greater than 80% power to detect minimum odds ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.8 for a single variant with MAF of 0.01 and 0.005, respectively. Larger studies and sequence data may be needed to identify novel low-frequency and rare variants associated with VTE risk.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tamanho da Amostra , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia
9.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 104, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322407

RESUMO

Astrocyte reactivity and neuroinflammation are hallmarks of CNS pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific role of reactive astrocytes is still debated. This controversy may stem from the fact that most strategies used to modulate astrocyte reactivity and explore its contribution to disease outcomes have only limited specificity. Moreover, reactive astrocytes are now emerging as heterogeneous cells and all types of astrocyte reactivity may not be controlled efficiently by such strategies.Here, we used cell type-specific approaches in vivo and identified the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, as necessary and sufficient for the induction and maintenance of astrocyte reactivity. Modulation of this cascade by viral gene transfer in mouse astrocytes efficiently controlled several morphological and molecular features of reactivity. Inhibition of this pathway in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease improved three key pathological hallmarks by reducing amyloid deposition, improving spatial learning and restoring synaptic deficits.In conclusion, the JAK2-STAT3 cascade operates as a master regulator of astrocyte reactivity in vivo. Its inhibition offers new therapeutic opportunities for Alzheimer's disease.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951575

RESUMO

In this work we present a systematic effort to summarize current biological pathway knowledge concerning Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). We are constructing a detailed molecular map based on exhaustive literature scanning, strict curation criteria, re-evaluation of previously published attempts and most importantly experts' advice. The RA map will be web-published in the coming months in the form of an interactive map, using the MINERVA platform, allowing for easy access, navigation and search of all molecular pathways implicated in RA, serving thus, as an on line knowledgebase for the disease. Moreover the map could be used as a template for Omics data visualization offering a first insight about the pathways affected in different experimental datasets. The second goal of the project is a dynamical study focused on synovial fibroblasts' behavior under different initial conditions specific to RA, as recent studies have shown that synovial fibroblasts play a crucial role in driving the persistent, destructive characteristics of the disease. Leaning on the RA knowledgebase and using the web platform Cell Collective, we are currently building a Boolean large scale dynamical model for the study of RA fibroblasts' activation.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 996-1006, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695756

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of human genome coding regions allows the simultaneous screen of a large number of genes, significantly improving the diagnosis of non-syndromic intellectual disabilities (ID). HTS studies permit the redefinition of the phenotypical spectrum of known disease-causing genes, escaping the clinical inclusion bias of gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing. We studied a cohort of 903 patients with ID not reminiscent of a well-known syndrome, using an ID-targeted HTS of several hundred genes and found de novo heterozygous variants in TCF4 (transcription factor 4) in eight novel patients. Piecing together the patients from this study and those from previous large-scale unbiased HTS studies, we estimated the rate of individuals with ID carrying a disease-causing TCF4 mutation to 0.7%. So far, TCF4 molecular abnormalities were known to cause a syndromic form of ID, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), which combines severe ID, developmental delay, absence of speech, behavioral and ventilation disorders, and a distinctive facial gestalt. Therefore, we reevaluated ten patients carrying a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in TCF4 (eight patients included in this study and two from our previous ID-HTS study) for PTHS criteria defined by Whalen and Marangi. A posteriori, five patients had a score highly evocative of PTHS, three were possibly consistent with this diagnosis, and two had a score below the defined PTHS threshold. In conclusion, these results highlight TCF4 as a frequent cause of moderate to profound ID and broaden the clinical spectrum associated to TCF4 mutations to nonspecific ID.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621323

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies are becoming routinely used for the detection of novel and clinically actionable DNA variants at a pangenomic scale. Such analyses are now used in the clinical practice to enable precision medicine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are still one of the most abundant source of cancer clinical specimen, unfortunately this method of preparation is known to degrade DNA and therefore compromise subsequent analysis. Some studies have reported that variant detection can be performed on FFPE samples sequenced with NGS techniques, but few or none have done an in-depth coverage analysis and compared the influence of different state-of-the-art FFPE DNA extraction kits on the quality of the variant calling. Here, we generated 42 human whole-exome sequencing data sets from fresh-frozen (FF) and FFPE samples. These samples include normal and tumor tissues from two different organs (liver and colon), that we extracted with three different FFPE extraction kits (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit and GeneRead DNA FFPE kit from Qiagen, Maxwell™ RSC DNA FFPE Kit from Promega). We determined the rate of concordance of called variants between matched FF and FFPE samples on all common variants (representing at least 86% of the total number of variants for SNVs). The concordance rate is very high between all matched FF / FFPE pairs, with equivalent values for the three kits we analyzed. On the other hand, when looking at the difference between the total number of variants in FF and FFPE, we find a significant variation for the three different FFPE DNA extraction kits. Coverage analysis shows that FFPE samples have less good indicators than FF samples, yet the coverage quality remains above accepted thresholds. We detect limited but statistically significant variations in coverage indicator values between the three FFPE extraction kits. Globally, the GeneRead and QIAamp kits have better variant calling and coverage indicators than the Maxwell kit on the samples used in this study, although this kit performs better on some indicators and has advantages in terms of practical usage. Taken together, our results confirm the potential of FFPE samples analysis for clinical genomic studies, but also indicate that the choice of a FFPE DNA extraction kit should be done with careful testing and analysis beforehand in order to maximize the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fixação de Tecidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Criopreservação , DNA/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Fixadores , Formaldeído , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 932, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500350

RESUMO

While admixed populations offer a unique opportunity to detect selection, the admixture in most of the studied populations occurred too recently to produce conclusive signals. By contrast, Malagasy populations originate from admixture between Asian and African populations that occurred ~27 generations ago, providing power to detect selection. We analyze local ancestry across the genomes of 700 Malagasy and identify a strong signal of recent positive selection, with an estimated selection coefficient >0.2. The selection is for African ancestry and affects 25% of chromosome 1, including the Duffy blood group gene. The null allele at this gene provides resistance to Plasmodium vivax malaria, and previous studies have suggested positive selection for this allele in the Malagasy population. This selection event also influences numerous other genes implicated in immunity, cardiovascular diseases, and asthma and decreases the Asian ancestry genome-wide by 10%, illustrating the role played by selection in recent human history.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Seleção Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Humanos , Madagáscar , Análise Espacial
15.
Malar J ; 17(1): 61, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe forms of malaria (SM) are an outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection and can cause death especially in children under 4 years of age. RNASE3 (ECP) has been identified as an inhibitor of Plasmodium parasites growth in vitro, and genetic analysis in hospitalized Ghanaian subjects has revealed the RNASE3 +371G/C (rs2073342) polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for cerebral malaria. The +371 C allele results in an Arg/Thr mutation that abolishes the cytotoxic activity of the ECP protein. The present study aims to investigate RNASE3 gene polymorphisms and their putative link to severe malaria in a malaria cohort from Senegal. METHODS/RESULTS: Patients enrolled from hospitals were classified as having either uncomplicated (UM) or severe malaria (SM). The analysis of the RNASE3 gene polymorphisms was performed in 241 subjects: 178 falciparum infected (96 SM, 82 UM) and 63 non-infected subjects as population control group (CTR). Six frequent SNPs (MAF > 3%) were identified, and one SNP was associated with malaria severity by performing a logistic regression analysis SM vs.UM: RNASE3 +499G/C (rs2233860) under age, sex as covariates and HbS/HbC polymorphisms adjustment (p = 0.003, OR 0.43, CI 95% 0.20-0.92). The polymorphisms: +371G/C (rs2073342), +499G/C (rs2233860) and +577A/T (rs8019343) defined a haplotype risk (G-G-T) for malaria severity (Fisher exact test, p = 0.03) (OR 4.1, IC 95% (1.1-14.9). CONCLUSION: In addition to the previously described association of +371G/C polymorphism in Ghanaians cohort, the RNASE3 +499G/C polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to SM in a Senegalese population. The haplotype +371G/+499G/+577T defined by RNASE3 polymorphisms was associated with severity. The genetic association identified independently in the Senegalese population provide additional evidence of a role of RNASE3 (ECP) in malaria severity.

16.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 830-835, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by a recognisable craniofacial appearance and a typical 'BOS' posture. BOS is caused by sporadic mutations ofASXL1. However, several typical patients with BOS have no molecular diagnosis, suggesting clinical and genetic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVES: To expand the phenotypical spectrum of autosomal recessive variants of KLHL7, reported as causing Crisponi syndrome/cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CS/CISS1)-like syndrome. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in two families with a suspected recessive mode of inheritance. We used the Matchmaker Exchange initiative to identify additional patients. RESULTS: Here, we report six patients with microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, including exophthalmos, nevus flammeus of the glabella and joint contractures with a suspected BOS posture in five out of six patients. We identified autosomal recessive truncating mutations in the KLHL7 gene. KLHL7 encodes a BTB-kelch protein implicated in the cell cycle and in protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recently, biallelic mutations in the KLHL7 gene were reported in four families and associated with CS/CISS1, characterised by clinical features overlapping with our patients. CONCLUSION: We have expanded the clinical spectrum of KLHL7 autosomal recessive variants by describing a syndrome with features overlapping CS/CISS1 and BOS.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/genética , Genes Recessivos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 59: 220.e1-220.e9, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789839

RESUMO

We performed whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in 927 late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) cases, 852 early-onset AD (EOAD) cases, and 1273 controls from France. We assessed the evidence for gene-based association of rare variants with AD in 6 genes for which an association with such variants was previously claimed. When aggregating protein-truncating and missense-predicted damaging variants, we found exome-wide significant association between EOAD risk and rare variants in SORL1, TREM2, and ABCA7. No exome-wide significant signal was obtained in the LOAD sample, and significance of the order of 10-6 was observed in the whole AD group for TREM2. Our study confirms previous gene-level results for TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 and provides a clearer insight into the classes of rare variants involved. Despite different effect sizes and varying cumulative minor allele frequencies, the rare protein-truncating and missense-predicted damaging variants in TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 contribute similarly to the heritability of EOAD and explain between 1.1% and 1.5% of EOAD heritability each, compared with 9.12% for APOE ε4.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(9): 1373-1384, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714976

RESUMO

We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10-4) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10-8) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10-10, odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF)cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10-10, OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10-14, OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Razão de Chances , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
19.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14995, 2017 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28489069

RESUMO

The senescence of mammalian cells is characterized by a proliferative arrest in response to stress and the expression of an inflammatory phenotype. Here we show that histone H2A.J, a poorly studied H2A variant found only in mammals, accumulates in human fibroblasts in senescence with persistent DNA damage. H2A.J also accumulates in mice with aging in a tissue-specific manner and in human skin. Knock-down of H2A.J inhibits the expression of inflammatory genes that contribute to the senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and over expression of H2A.J increases the expression of some of these genes in proliferating cells. H2A.J accumulation may thus promote the signalling of senescent cells to the immune system, and it may contribute to chronic inflammation and the development of aging-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Citocinas/genética , Histonas/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pele/metabolismo
20.
Haematologica ; 102(6): 1006-1016, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255014

RESUMO

Congenital macrothrombocytopenia is a family of rare diseases, of which a significant fraction remains to be genetically characterized. To analyze cases of unexplained thrombocytopenia, 27 individuals from a patient cohort of the Bleeding and Thrombosis Exploration Center of the University Hospital of Marseille were recruited for a high-throughput gene sequencing study. This strategy led to the identification of two novel FLI1 variants (c.1010G>A and c.1033A>G) responsible for macrothrombocytopenia. The FLI1 variant carriers' platelets exhibited a defect in aggregation induced by low-dose adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), a defect in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion, a reduced mepacrine uptake and release and a reduced CD63 expression upon TRAP stimulation. Precise ultrastructural analysis of platelet content was performed using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. Remarkably, dense granules were nearly absent in the carriers' platelets, presumably due to a biogenesis defect. Additionally, 25-29% of the platelets displayed giant α-granules, while a smaller proportion displayed vacuoles (7-9%) and autophagosome-like structures (0-3%). In vitro study of megakaryocytes derived from circulating CD34+ cells of the carriers revealed a maturation defect and reduced proplatelet formation potential. The study of the FLI1 variants revealed a significant reduction in protein nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity properties. Intraplatelet flow cytometry efficiently detected the biomarker MYH10 in FLI1 variant carriers. Overall, this study provides new insights into the phenotype, pathophysiology and diagnosis of FLI1 variant-associated thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Adulto , Plaquetas/patologia , Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Núcleo Celular/química , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Megacariócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/genética , Trombocitopenia/congênito , Transcrição Genética , Adulto Jovem
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