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1.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 258-265, set. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012419

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to perform a systematic review to identify the most frequent uses of PLA/ PGA in alveolar bone regeneration and their results. A study was designed to answer the question: What are the most frequent uses of PLA/PLGA and their copolymers in alveolar bone regeneration?. A systematic search was done on MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS from April 1993 to December 2017. The search string used on MEDLINE was: (((polylactic acid) OR PLA) OR PLA-based copolymers) OR PLA blends) OR PLA scaffolds)) AND ((("Bone Regeneration"[Mesh]) OR bone regeneration) OR guided bone regeneration). The search was complemented by a manual review of the references from the articles included. Most of the studies selected were weak and, regarding the most frequent uses of PLA/PGA, 13 studies used it as a resorbable membrane, two as an absorbable mesh, one as an absorbable screw and three as filling material. Based on our results, the authors consider that PLA/PGA requires a delicate relation between the mechanical resistance and the degradation process. PLA/PGA does not interrupt bone regeneration; however, the influence in cellular events related to bone regeneration and later osseointegration have not been identified.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta revisión fue realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura para identificar los usos más frecuentes de PLA/PGA en regeneración ósea en área maxilofacial y sus resultados. Se diseñó un estudio para responder a la pregunta: ¿Cuáles son los usos más frecuentes de PLA/PLGA y sus copolímeros en regeneración ósea en el sector maxilofacial?. Los estudios seleccionados fueron en su mayoría débiles y sobre los usos más frecuentes de PLA/PGA, 13 estudios lo utilizaron como membrana reabsorbible, 2 estudios como malla absorbible, un estudio como tornillo absorbible y 3 estudios como material de relleno. En base a nuestros resultados, los autores estiman que PLA/PGA requiere una delicada relación entre la resistencia mecánica que ofrece y la degradación que se produce; PLA/ PGA no interrumpe la regeneración ósea, sin embargo, no se ha identificado la potencialidad o influencia que presenta en los eventos celulares de la regeneración y posterior oseointegración.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8043510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428646

RESUMO

The aim was to analyze histologically the bone repair in a mandibular osteotomy model with different gaps between the segments. Nine male rabbits who underwent osteotomies on the mandibular body were fixed with a 1.5 system plate and no bone graft; group 1 (2 mm gap between segments), group 2 (5 mm gap between segments), and group 3 (8 mm gap between segments) were included. After 8 weeks they were euthanized and the sample was processed for histological analysis. Group 1 showed advanced bone repair with cartilaginous tissue and cancellous bone, showing osteoblasts and type III collagenous fibers. In group 2, a more delayed ossification was observed, with an extensive area of peripheral ossifying cartilage and chondrocytes in greater number at the center of the defect; group 3 showed no evidence of ossification with fibrous tissue, a very low level of chondrocytes, and some bone sequestrate. We can conclude that, in this animal model, 2 or 5 mm gap in the osteotomy could be repaired as bone when fixation is used. The size of the gap is an important factor for the use of bone grafts considering endochondral ossification. This model can be used for graft analysis and related technologies.

3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 724-729, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002284

RESUMO

La influencia de la función respiratoria en el desarrollo de estructuras orofaciales y postura craneocervical ha sido ampliamente discutida. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar valores cefalométricos de la región craneocervical e hioidea en sujetos con respiración nasal y oral. Se incluyeron sujetos de entre 18 y 27 años, de ambos sexos, donde 20 presentaban diagnóstico de respiración oral y 20 no presentaban esta alteración; mediante telerradiografía lateral de cabeza y cuello se realizó análisis cefalométrico craneocervical de Rocabado y aplicación de la técnica de Penning, obteniendo medidas craneocervicales e hioideas, dimensión anterior nasofaríngea y curvatura cervical. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de normalidad Shapiro-Wilk y la prueba T para muestras independientes, considerando un valor de p <0,05 para obtener diferencias significativas; en aquellos parámetros en donde no se presentó distribución normal se aplicó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de estudio y los valores cefalométricos analizados, a excepción de la distancia entre la base del hueso occipital y el arco posterior del atlas (p=0,03). Existen limitadas diferencias cefalométricas entre sujetos con respiración oral y respiración nasal, no asociándose el espacio aéreo nasofaríngeo con las modalidades de respiración estudiadas. Deben ser consideradas condiciones de morfología facial o mandibular, para determinar más adecuadamente la influencia de los parámetros cefalométricos en el diagnóstico del modo respiratorio en estudios futuros.


The influence of respiratory function on the development of orofacial structures and craniocervical posture has been widely discussed. The objective of the study was to compare cephalometric values of the craniocervical and hyoid region in subjects with nasal and oral respiration. Subjects between 18 and 27 years of age, of both sexes, were included, where 20 presented oral breathing diagnosis and 20 did not present this alteration; using lateral telerradiography of the head and neck, craniocervical cephalometric analysis was performed of Rocabado and Penning technique was applied, obtaining craniocervical and hyoid measurements, anterior nasopharyngeal dimension and cervical curvature. For the statistical analysis we used the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and the T test for independent samples, considering a value of p <0.05 to obtain significant differences; in those parameters where no normal distribution was presented, the MannWhitney U test was applied. No significant differences were found between the study groups and the cephalometric values ??analyzed, except for the distance between the base of the occipital bone and the posterior arch of the atlas (p=0.03). There are limited cephalometric differences between subjects with oral breathing and nasal breathing, with no association of the nasopharyngeal air space with the breathing modalities studied. Conditions of facial or mandibular morphology should be considered in order to determine more adequately the influence of cephalometric parameters in the diagnosis of the respiratory mode in future studies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Bucal , Postura , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Obstrução Nasal , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Telerradiologia , Estudo Observacional , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8217602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008113

RESUMO

Cyanoacrylate adhesives have been used in medicine and dentistry with some controversial opinions. The aim of this review was to summarize the relevant literature regarding the use of cyanoacrylate adhesives for oral wounds during dental and surgical procedures, with focus on the applications, indications, advantages, and disadvantages. In conclusion, in vivo and clinical studies have demonstrated in the last few years convincing results regarding the safety, efficacy, ease of application, and feasibility of all types of cyanoacrylate adhesives used in intra- and extraoral procedures.


Assuntos
Adesivos/uso terapêutico , Cianoacrilatos/uso terapêutico , Odontologia/tendências , Cicatrização , Humanos , Adesivos Teciduais
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 103-111, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990073

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Los exámenes imagenológicos tridimensionales en odontología son cada día mas frecuentes, contando también con algunas tecnologías gratuitas; el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar tres software gratuitos de conversión desde el formato DICOM al STL. Se evaluaron los programas computacionales 3DSlicer, InVesalius e ImageVis3D. La metodología empleada para evaluar fue basada en el modelo del proceso de evaluación de calidad, según la norma NBR ISO / IEC 9126-, incluyendo 6 observadores en la investigación. Se determinó que el programa más fácil de manipular en la etapa de segmentación, en la representación de volumen y en la conversión de archivos STL fue InVesalius, pero el programa más completo y preciso, para estas fases fue el software 3DSlider. Se puede concluir es necesario un entrenamiento adecuado para que la manipulación de estos programas sea lo más preciso posible.


ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional imaging in medical sciences nowadays is increasing and some of these technologies are free; the aim of this study was to analyze three free conversion software: 3DSlicer, InVesalius and ImageVis3D. The methodology used to evaluate the software was based on the model of the quality evaluation process, according to the standard NBR ISO/IEC 9126-1. It was observed that the easiest software to manipulate in the segmentation stage, in the representation of volume and in the conversion of STL (Standard Tessellation Language) files was InVesalius, but the most complete and precise software for these phases was the 3DSlider software. Thus, it was concluded that adequate training is necessary so that the handling of these three software is as accurate as possible.

7.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 47(7): 1015-1019, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate three rigid, stable fixation methods for sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), using finite element analysis. The hypothesis is that a customized miniplate presents better stress concentration and distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D model of a hemimandible was created, and a 10-mm-advancement SSRO was simulated and fixed as follows: 3-DCP group - one custom miniplate fixed by eight screws; 4-H2P group - two miniplates of four holes each, fixed by eight screws; and 6-H2P group - two miniplates of six holes each fixed by 12 screws. After a vertical loading of 100 N, the values for von Mises stress, modified von Mises stress, and maximum and minimum principal stresses were measured. RESULTS: The area of maximum principal stress was similar for the three groups - located in the upper miniplate, in the screw near the proximal segment osteotomy. The maximum von Mises stresses were 1580.4 MPa, 1005 MPa, and 977.56 MPa for the 3DCP, 4-H2P, and 6-H2P groups, respectively, showing an allowable displacement of 2.57 mm, 1.62 mm, and 1.52 mm for the 3DCP, 4-H2P, and 6-H2P groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: The customized miniplate did not present better stress distribution than two commonly used types of fixation. Fixation with two straight miniplates, either with four or six holes, offers adequate resistance for 10 mm linear advancements.

8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 82-86, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990009

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to characterize a commercial beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) block allograft for use in maxillofacial reconstruction, evaluating its homogeneity, porosity and mineralization. Two commercial 5 x 5 x10 mm chronOS Vivify β-TCP blocks were used, which were evaluated by a STEM SU-3500 variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM-STEM) (Hitachi, Japan). For the semi-quantitative microanalysis of elements, the QUANTAX 100 energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer detector (EDX) (Bruker, Germany) was used. The homogeneity of the structural morphology, macropore and micropore size and component homogeneity were evaluated. The microscopic analysis showed micropores of 164.92 mm (± 35.032 mm) in diameter in the outer area and micropores in the inner area of 54.44 mm (± 17.676 mm). The formation of porosities and irregularities present in the block was heterogeneous between the outer and inner surfaces. The mineral content of the blocks presented homogeneity with the presence of carbon (2.02 %), oxygen (44.33 %), phosphate (16.62 %) and calcium (37.87 %). The β-TCP block can be used in bone reconstruction but the presence of reduced macropore and micropore sizes could limit efficiency in the substitution and bone regeneration phase.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar un aloinjerto de bloqueo de fosfato tricálcico (β-TCP) comercial para su uso en la reconstrucción maxilofacial, evaluando su homogeneidad, porosidad y mineralización. Se utilizaron dos bloques comerciales de 5 x 5 x 10 mm de vivify β-TCP de chronOS, que se evaluaron mediante un microscopio electrónico de barrido de presión variable STEM SU-3500 (SEM-STEM) (Hitachi, Japón). Para el microanálisis de elementos semicuantitativo, se utilizó el detector de espectrómetro de rayos X de dispersión de energía QUANTAX 100 (EDX) (Bruker, Alemania). Se evaluó la homogeneidad de la morfología estructural, el tamaño del macroporo y microporo y la homogeneidad de los componentes. El análisis microscópico mostró microporos de 164,92 mm (± 35,032 mm) de diámetro en el área externa y microporos en el área interna de 54,44 mm (± 17,676 mm). La formación de porosidades e irregularidades presentes en el bloque fue heterogénea entre las superficies externas e internas. El contenido mineral de los bloques presentó homogeneidad con la presencia de carbono (2,02 %), oxígeno (44,33 %), fosfato (16,62 %) y calcio (37,87 %). El bloque β-TCP se puede utilizar en la reconstrucción ósea, pero la presencia de macroporos y tamaños de microporos reducidos podría limitar la eficacia en la fase de sustitución y regeneración ósea.

9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 232-236, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990032

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The nasolabial region is the central esthetic unit of the face and is considered one of the most important determinants of the facial esthetic. The facial morphometry of soft tissues is a very important tool in facial surgery. Advances have been made recently in the capture and analysis of 3D images, which offer great development potential in the diagnosis and treatment of facial deformities. The aim of this study was to characterize the nasolabial region of patient candidates for orthognathic surgery using 3D facial captures. A study was conducted to characterize the width of the nasal base and the nasolabial angle in adult patients through 3D photographs. 30 subjects were included, taking two 3D photos each, one in a resting position and the other smiling. The three-dimensional capture was done with the 3dMDface System. The measurements were taken with the 3dMD Vultus software. The length of the alar base was an average of 34.3 ± 2.6 mm at rest, and 39.1 ± 2.9 mm smiling. The mean of the nasolabial angle was 104.6 ± 9.6° at rest and 105.4 ± 14.3º smiling. Additionally, the distance of the alar base smiling compared to its distance at rest increased an average of 4.83 mm, whereas the nasolabial angle smiling increased an average of 0.8º compared to at rest. In this study, the nasolabial angle did not present any significant changes so that its assessments in the case of facial modifications can be standard; the width of the nasal base is significantly modified with the smile and thus a more intense study of any type of modification in this area is required.


RESUMEN: La región nasolabial es la unidad estética central de la cara y se considera uno de los determinantes más importantes de la estética facial. La morfometría facial en tejidos bandos, es una herramienta de gran importancia en Cirugía Facial. En el último tiempo, se han realizado avances en captura y análisis de imágenes 3D, las cuales ofrecen un gran potencial de desarrollo en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las deformidades faciales. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue caracterizar mediante capturas faciales 3D la región nasolabial de pacientes candidatos a cirugía ortognática. Se realizó un estudio para caracterizar a través de fotografías tridimensionales de pacientes adultos el ancho de la base nasal y el ángulo nasolabial. Se incluyeron 30 sujetos, tomando 2 fotografías 3D a cada uno, una en posición de reposo y otra en sonrisa. Se realizó la captura tridimensional con la camara facial 3dMDface System. Las mediciones fueron realizadas con el software 3dMD Vultus. La longitud de base alar en reposo, fue en promedio de 34,3 ± 2,6 mm, y de 39,1 ± 2,9 mm, en sonrisa. Por otra parte, la media del ángulo nasolabial en reposo fue de 104,6 ± 9,6° y en sonrisa, de 105,4 ± 14,3º. Por otro lado, la distancia de la base alar en sonrisa respecto a su distancia en reposo, aumentó un promedio de 4,83 mm, mientras que el ángulo nasolabial en sonrisa, aumentó en promedio 0,8º respecto a la posición de reposo. En esta investigación, el ángulo nasolabial no presentó cambios significativos de forma que su valoración frente a modificaciones faciales puede ser estándar; el ancho de base nasal se modifica significativamente con la sonrisa de forma que su estudio debe ser más agudo frente a cualquier tipo de modificación en esta zona.

10.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1509-1513, Dec. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-975729

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease is a systemic, multifocal, immune-mediated disorder that can affect multiple organs and may present as a tumor, with rare cases described in the maxillofacial region. A female patient, 53 years old, presenting tumor-like mass in the right mandibular region. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested well circumscribed nodular lesion adjacent to the branch / body of the mandible, extending posteriorly to the masseter muscle. During the surgical procedure of excision, a lesion was observed adhering to the right masseter muscle, but it was possible to remove it completely. Histopathological and immunehistochemical analysis suggested diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, furthermore, IgG4 serum count was increased. Actually, the patient continues on periodical followups in our service and by other specialties. Can be concluded that precise diagnosis of this pathology depends on many factors, being challenging and the treatment involves multidisciplinary evaluation due to the possibility of involvement of several other organs.


La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una condición sistémica, multifocal, mediada por una alteración de la respuesta inmune que puede afectar diferentes órganos o puede presentarse como un tumor, raramente descrito en el área maxilofacial. Se describe el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 53 años de edad, presentando una masa tumoral en el ángulo mandibular derecho. La resonancia magnética sugirió un área nodular bien delimitada adyacente al cuerpo mandibular y extendida posteriormente hasta el musculo masetero. Durante la escisión quirúrgica, la lesión se presentaba adherida al musculo de forma lateral siendo posible el retiro total de la lesión. El estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquimico determinó el diagnóstico de enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 presentando un conteo de igG4 aumentado. Actualmente, la paciente continua con seguimiento por la especialidad. Se puede concluir que el diagnóstico preciso de esta patología depende de algunos factores; el tratamiento debe ser multidsciplinario debido a la inclusión de diferentes órganos en la enfermedad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Imunoglobulina G , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico por imagem , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the mechanical characteristics of five techniques for the functionally stable fixation of simulated sagittal split ramus osteotomy with 10 mm of advancement and to evaluate the screw insertion torque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty polyurethane hemimandibles with sagittal split ramus osteotomy and containing an advancement of 10 mm fixed and distributed as follows: Customized 3D Plate Group: 1 customized 3D miniplate; 4-Hole Plate Group: 2 miniplates with 4 holes; 6-Hole Plate Group: 2 miniplates with 6 holes; Hybrid Group: 1 flat miniplate with 4 holes and 1 bicortical screw; and Bicortical Screw Group: 3 bicortical screws. We conducted a mechanical test using vertical linear loading with a displacement velocity of 1 mm/min on a universal testing machine and assessed the screw insertion torque using a digital torque wrench. RESULTS: The means of strength for the 1-, 3- and 5-mm displacements were determined by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the post hoc Tukey test. Statistically significant differences were observed only for the 5-mm displacement (F = 3.36; p = 0.01). There was a difference between the 4-H2P and HG groups (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The customized miniplate, the fixation methods with three bicortical screws, or with two straight miniplates with either 4 or 6 holes, all offer a similar mechanical resistance suitable for fixation.

12.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(3): 309-319, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-975750

RESUMO

RESUMEN: La reconstrucción de la cabeza y el cuello contempla avances importantes a lo largo de los años. Los colgajos microvasculares se han convertido en la primera opción de tratamiento en grandes defectos del territorio maxilofacial, mientras tanto, la tecnología con el uso de microscopía y luego las imágenes como CT, angiografía por tomografía computarizada, dispositivo ultrasónico, RNM o Doppler contribuyen a lograr una predictibilidad excepcional de estos colgajos microvasculares. Por lo general, la técnica de anastomosis consiste en una sutura de 9-0 en 360°, pero existen autores que han descrito diversos métodos que no son de sutura con un rendimiento aceptable. Existe un buen número de diferentes colgajos microvasculares, cuatro de ellos son los más comunes en la reconstrucción maxilofacial: fíbula, ilíaco, antebrazo radial, escápula. Además el colgajo anterolateral, muy útil en defectos de piel y tejidos blandos. La evolución de los colgajos microvasculares implica los colgajos quiméricos, muy útiles en defectos grandes. El objetivo de este artículo es describir y exponer el desarrollo de la microcirugía y las diversas opciones de colgajos microvasculares en la reconstrucción maxilofacial.


ABSTRACT: Head and neck reconstruction have shown important advances over the years. Microvasculars flaps transfer has become the first treatment option in large defects of the maxillofacial area. Meanwhile technology through the use of microscopy and the subsequent use of images such as CT, CT angiography, RNM or Doppler ultrasonic device, and additional new techniques have contributed to an exceptional predictability of these microvascular flaps. Typically, the anastomosis technique consists in 9-0 suture in 360°, but since the vascular flaps exist, authors have described diverse non-suture methods with acceptable performance. There are a number of different microvasculars flaps, four of them are the most common in maxillofacial reconstruction: fibula, iliac, radial forearm, scapula. In addition the anterolateral tight flap, very useful in skin and soft tissues defects. The microvascular flaps evolution involves the chimeric flaps that are useful in large defects. The aim of this article is to describe and expose microsurgery development and the diverse microvascular flap options in maxillofacial reconstruction.

13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1143-1148, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954243

RESUMO

The aim was to describe the star volume analysis in ridge preservation using different grafting materials. Bilateral extraction of the first mandibular molars of sixteen male rabbits was performed, divided at random into four groups (n= 4 in each group) according to graft, using: blood clot (G1), xenograft (G2), pure phase beta-tricalcium phosphate (G3) and biphasic calcium phosphate (60 % HA / 40 % beta-TCP) (G4). Rabbits were euthanized at 4, 6, or 8 wk post-extraction; the trabecular bone structures was evaluated by star volume analysis. The Levene test was used to analyze variance, as was the independent sample t-test. A P-value of < 0.001 was used to establish a statistically significant. The star volume analysis of the mandibular trabecula shows that the marrow space star volume (V*m.space) was higher than the trabecular star volume (V*tr). At 6-week post-extraction, new trabecular bone was evident. At 8-week post-extraction V*tr increase in all groups and the V*m.space diminish, suggesting coarsening of the internal architecture. In G2, some trabecular bone was observed in the central region. In G3, most of the socket regions were occupied by newly formed and loose trabecular bone and in the G4, the sockets were almost entirely filled with trabecular bone. Star volume analysis is adequate to analysis of bone patterns formation using bone substitutes.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el volumen estrella en preservación alveolar utilizando diferentes injertos óseos. La exodoncia bilateral del primer molar mandibular de 16 conejos machos fue realizada, dividiéndolos en 4 grupos (n= 4 en cada grupo) de acuerdo al injerto utilizado, siendo: coágulo sanguíneo (G1), xenoinjerto (G2), beta-tricalcio fosfato puro (G3) y fosfato de calcio bifásico (60 % HA / 40 % beta-TCP) (G4). Los conejos fueron sometidos a eutanasia a las 4, 6 u 8 semanas post exodoncia; el trabeculado óseo fue evaluado por medio del volumen estrella. La prueba de Levene fue utilizado para el análisis de varianza y luego la prueba t-test para muestras independientes. El valor de P menor a 0.001 fue establecido como significancia estadística. El análisis del volumen estrella del trabeculado mostró que el espacio medular de volumen estrella (V*m.space) fue mayor que trabeculado (V*tr). A 6 semanas post exodoncia, nuevo trabeculado óseo fue evidente. A las 8 semanas post exodoncia V*tr aumenta en todos los grupos y el V*m.space disminuye, sugiriendo un engrosamiento de la arquitectura interna. En el grupo G2, algún trabeculado óseo fue observado en la región central. En el G3, la mayoría del alveolo fue ocupado por nuevo hueso y perdió trabeculado óseo y en G4, el alveolo fue ocupado casi enteramente por hueso trabecular. El análisis de volumen estrella es adecuado para analizar el modelo de formación ósea utilizando sustitutos óseos.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Alvéolo Dental/anatomia & histologia , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar , Extração Dentária , Cicatrização , Substitutos Ósseos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(8)2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050009

RESUMO

Platelet-Rich fibrin (PRF) is a three-dimensional (3-D) autogenous biomaterial obtained via simple and rapid centrifugation from the patient's whole blood samples, without including anti-coagulants, bovine thrombin, additives, or any gelifying agents. At the moment, it is safe to say that in oral and maxillofacial surgery, PRFs (particularly, the pure platelet-rich fibrin or P-PRF and leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin or L-PRF sub-families) are receiving the most attention, essentially because of their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and user-friendliness/malleability; they are a fairly new "revolutionary" step in second-generation therapies based on platelet concentration, indeed. Yet, the clinical effectiveness of such surgical adjuvants or regenerative platelet concentrate-based preparations continues to be highly debatable, primarily as a result of preparation protocol variability, limited evidence-based clinical literature, and/or poor understanding of bio-components and clinico-mechanical properties. To provide a practical update on the application of PRFs during oral surgery procedures, this critical review focuses on evidence obtained from human randomized and controlled clinical trials only. The aim is to serve the reader with current information on the clinical potential, limitations, challenges, and prospects of PRFs. Accordingly, reports often associate autologous PRFs with early bone formation and maturation; accelerated soft-tissue healing; and reduced post-surgical edema, pain, and discomfort. An advanced and original tool in regenerative dentistry, PRFs present a strong alternative and presumably cost-effective biomaterial for oro-maxillo-facial tissue (soft and hard) repair and regeneration. Yet, preparation protocols continue to be a source of confusion, thereby requiring revision and standardization. Moreover, to increase the validity, comprehension, and therapeutic potential of the reported findings or observations, a decent analysis of the mechanico-rheological properties, bio-components, and their bioactive function is eagerly needed and awaited; afterwards, the field can progress toward a brand-new era of "super" oro-dental biomaterials and bioscaffolds for use in oral and maxillofacial tissue repair and regeneration, and beyond.

15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(2): 103-109, jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954249

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (TTM) consisten en un conjunto de condiciones patológicas que afectan la articulación temporomandibular (ATM), los músculos de la masticación y las estructuras asociadas. Estudios epidemiológicos estiman que 40 % a 75 % de la población adulta presenta por lo menos un signo de TTM, como ruido articular y 33 % por lo menos un síntoma, como dolor facial o en la ATM. La toxina botulínica (BoNT) es una neurotoxina producida por la bacteria anaerobia Clostridium botulinum, solo la toxina A y B son utilizadas en la práctica clínica después de la aprobación de la Food and Drug Administration en 1989 y 2000; actualmente continúan siendo utilizadas para tratar varias condiciones de dolor, incluyendo la espasticidad muscular, distonia, dolor de cabeza y dolor miofascial. Las propuestas del mecanismo de acción fueron sugeridas a mediados de 1950 manifestando que esta neurotoxina posee alta afinidad con la sinapsis colinérgicas, ocasionando un bloqueo en la liberación de acetilcolina de esos terminales nerviosos, sin alterar la conducción neural de las señales eléctricas o en la síntesis de almacenamiento de acetilcolina. La inyección intramuscular en dosis y localización apropiada, provoca denervación química parcial y disminución de la contractura, sin ocasionar parálisis completa a lo que se le atribuye ser un innovador y eficaz método de tratamiento para el dolor crónico asociada con hiperactividad de los músculos masticatorios. La toxina botulínica tipo A es ser una alternativa para el control de la sintomatología dolorosa presente en los TTMs de etiología miogénica. Los autores recomiendan realizar un correcto diagnóstico, ya que la indicación de este tipo de tratamiento con diagnósticos incorrectos lleva a resultados inciertos.


ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) is a term that was used to describe a set of pathological conditions that affect temporomandibular joint (TMJ), muscles of mastication and associated structures. Epidemiological studies estimates that 40 % to 75 % of the adult population has at least one sign of TMD, such as joint noise and 33 % presented some symptom such as facial or joint pain. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are two types of toxin (A and B) used in clinical practice that were approved by Food and Drug Administration in 1989 and 2000. These medications are in use to treat various diseases including muscle spasticity, dystonia, headache and myofascial pain. The mechanisms of action were suggested in the mid-1950s, this neurotoxin seems to have an action at cholinergic synapses, causing a block in the release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals without altering the neural conduction of the electrical signals. The synthesis and storage of acetylcholine were preserved. Intramuscular injection in appropriate doses and location causes partial chemical denervation and decreased contracture, without causing complete paralysis of muscles. Due to this features, it has been considered an innovative and effective method to treat chronic pain associated with hyperactivity of masticatory muscles. The botulinum toxin type A appears to be an alternative method for pain control present in TMDs that have myogenic etiology. The authors recommend a correct diagnosis, since the indication of this type of treatment associated with an incorrect diagnosis leads to uncertain outcomes, creating false conclusions.

16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(2): 137-141, jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954255

RESUMO

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un caso clínico con la utilización de un innovador sistema de osteosíntesis basado en la mezcla de hidroxiapatita (HA) y acido poliláctico (PLLA). La paciente fue admitida en el Hospital Abraham González Peña de Lautaro (Chile) debido a una deformidad facial que exigió realizar una cirugía ortognática monomaxilar para avance y aumento transversal del maxilar; se utilizaron placas de tipo L y tornillos de HA/PLLA de 5 mm para la fijación maxilar, realizando la cirugía sin complicaciones; el proceso técnico y alta hospitalaria se ejecutó de forma convencional. Se realizó un análisis de la literatura donde se analiza la versatilidad, la seguridad y la estabilidad de segmentos cuando se utiliza este innovador material y se concluye que este tipo de osteosíntesis es aplicable a cirugía maxilofacial, exigiendo una curva de aprendizaje por parte del cirujano, necesaria para obtener resultados adecuados.


ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to show a clinical case, where was used an innovative osteosynthesys system based on the mixture of hidroxiapatite (HA) and polilactic acid (PLLA). The patient was admitted into Abraham González Peña Hospital (Chile), showing a facial deformity to treat with monomaxillary orthognathic surgery for advance and transversal increase of the maxilla.; were used type L plates and 5 mm screws of HA/PLLA for the internal fixation, performing the surgery without complications; the technical process and the ALTA hospital was realized in a conventional strategy. Was realized a literature review showing the versatility, safe and stability of bone segment when used this innovative material and it´s concluded that this osteosynthesis system can be used normally in maxillofacial surgery; a learning curve to learn about this material is needed by surgeons.

17.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 169-174, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-893206

RESUMO

RESUMEN: Los análisis cefalométricos, a partir de una radiografía lateral de cráneo, son amplios y variados considerando tanto los patrones funcionales como los de estética facial. Entre las técnicas de medición en cefalometría, Ricketts y de McNamara son ampliamente utilizados; ambas le entregan importancia a determinar la posición del maxilar y de la mandíbula con diferentes relaciones esqueletales. El objetivo de esta investigación es comparar ambas técnicas en una población joven de Ecuador; se realizó un análisis de concordancia utilizando el índice kappa de Cohen entre los resultados de las mediciones correspondientes a 44 radiografías cefálicas laterales de sujetos jóvenes entre 18 y 27 años de edad, de ambos sexos. En relación a la posición maxilar, el 56,82 % (IC 95 %: 42,18 % - 71,45 %) coinciden en el diagnóstico de protrusión maxilar; el índice de concordancia kappa de Cohen fue de 0,599 (IC 95 %: 0,354 - 0,854) con un valor p<0,05. En relación a la posición mandibular, el 50,0 % (IC 95 %: 35,23 % - 64,77 %) coinciden en el diagnóstico de retrusión mandibular; el índice kappa de Cohen fue de 0,460 (IC 95 % 0,229 - 0,691) con un valor p<0,05. Se concluye que, a pesar de manejar puntos de referencia cefalométricos diferentes, las dos técnicas de medición cráneo-facial son útiles para el estudio de posición de maxila y mandíbula. Existen diferencias entre algunos analisis de ambos estudios que pueden incidir en la selección terapéutica de potenciales pacientes.


SUMMARY: The cephalometric analyses from a lateral cranial radiograph, are wide and varied considering both functional and facial aesthetic patterns. Among the measurement techniques in cephalometry, Ricketts and McNamara are widely used; they both give importance to determine the position of the maxilla and mandible with different skeletal relationships. The objective of this research is to compare both techniques in a young population of Ecuador. A concordance analysis was performed using Cohen's kappa index between the results of the measurements corresponding to 44 lateral cephalic radiographs of young subjects between 18 and 27 years of age, of both sexes. In relation to the maxillary position, 56.82 % (95 % CI: 42.18 % - 71.45 %) coincide in the diagnosis of maxillary protrusion. Cohen's kappa concordance index was 0.599 (95 % CI: 0.354-0.854) with a p-value < 0.05. In relation to the mandibular position, 50.0 % (95% CI: 35.23 % 64.77 %) coincide in the diagnosis of mandibular retrusion. Cohen's kappa index was 0.460 (95 % CI 0.229 - 0.691) with a p-value < 0.05. It is concluded that, despite handling different cephalometric reference points, the two craniofacial measurement techniques are useful for the study of maxilla and mandible position. There are differences between some analyses of both studies that may affect the therapeutic selection of potential patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Cefalometria/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Equador , Telerradiologia
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 362-366, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893235

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to ascertain the distance from the mandibular canal to the lateral, medial and upper zones of the mandibular ramus in order to identify safety margins that reduce the risk of nerve injuries in the process of removing a bone graft. A descriptive study was conducted, analyzing bilaterally 20 CBCT exams from different patients, taking measurements at 4 points in the central, lateral and medial areas of the corresponding mandibular ramus, which was located at a distance of 5 mm between each line, starting at the distal point of the second molar. Forty hemimandibles were included in this study, estimating a vertical distance for the 4 points of analysis, from between 16 and 17 mm, a distance laterally of 5 mm approximately and medially approximately from 3 to 3.9 mm; the lateral zone was significantly larger than the medial zone. It is estimated that the maximum achievement of a bone block from the area posterior to the second molar must be 13 mm deep and 3 mm laterally to minimize the risks of injuries to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la distancia que existe desde el canal mandibular a la zona lateral, medial y a la zona superior de la rama mandibular a fin de identificar márgenes de seguridad que minimicen el riesgo de lesiones nerviosas en el proceso de retiro de un injerto óseo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, analizando bilateralmente 20 exámenes CBCT de pacientes distintos, realizando mediciones en 4 puntos de la zona central, lateral y medial de la rama mandibular correspondiente, los cuales fueron ubicados con distancia de 5 mm entre cada línea, iniciando en el punto distal del segundo molar. Cuarenta hemimandíbulas fueron incluidas en esta investigación, estimando una distancia vertical, para los 4 puntos de análisis, de entre 16 y 17 mm, una distancia hacia lateral de 5 mm aproximadamente y hacia medial aproximadamente de 3 a 3,9 mm; la zona lateral fue significativamente mas grande que la zona medial. Se estima, que la obtención máxima de un bloque óseo desde la zona posterior al segundo molar debe ser con 13 mm de profundidad y 3 mm desde lateral para minimizar los riesgos de lesiones al paquete neurovascular alveolar inferior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante Ósseo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Sítio Doador de Transplante/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Sítio Doador de Transplante/anatomia & histologia
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(3): 599-602, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381639

RESUMO

The diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) requires a combined assessment consisting of clinical, radiological, and histopathological examination. The etiology of this condition is unknown. The purpose of this study is to report a rare case of UCH in a monozygotic twin. A 15-year-old girl was referred to our department complaining of facial asymmetry and malocclusion. Computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging reveal enlargement of the left condyle and condylar neck, and an increased uptake that was diagnosed as active UCH. During the investigation of family and co-twin facial profile, no cases of UCH were identified. From the case reported in this study, the authors raise a hypothesis that can exist some environmental factor that is related in the development of condylar hyperplasia given the occurrence of this disease in one of twins.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/etiologia , Assimetria Facial/etiologia , Má Oclusão/etiologia , Côndilo Mandibular/patologia , Adolescente , Doenças Ósseas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/complicações , Hiperplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia/patologia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(2): e158-e161, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303850

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of complications related to orthognathic surgery performed by surgeons in train. A retrospective study was conducted between 2005 and 2014, analyzing the clinical records of patients treated in the authors' Department. Patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were included, under a bidimensional analysis and with the conventional orthosurgical sequence; intraoperative complications were identified, such as the occurrence of a bad split, bleeding, tissue injury, among others and postoperative variables such as impaired sensation, infection, and alterations in the osteosynthesis systems. A statistical analysis was done using χ and Student t tests, considering a statistical significance when P < 0.05. Two hundred fifty patients were included with an average follow-up of 13 months; 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men; 18.8% of the subjects presented some type of intraoperative or postoperative complication; excluding relapse and complications due to loss of bonding of the orthodontic device, a 12.4% complication rate was observed; intraoperative complications were 8% and postoperative complications 10.4%. Only the sensorineural alterations were associated with the mandibular surgery (P < 0.05). Finally, orthognathic surgery is relatively safe and produces a low number of complications when it is performed by surgeons in train.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção/etiologia , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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