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1.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545243

RESUMO

We investigated the relation between alcohol drinking and healthy ageing by means of a validated health status metric, using individual data from the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project. For the purposes of this study, the ATHLOS harmonised dataset, which includes information from individuals aged 65+ in 38 countries, was analysed (n = 135,440). Alcohol drinking was reflected by means of three harmonised variables: alcohol drinking frequency, current and past alcohol drinker. A set of 41 self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a specific health metric. In the harmonised dataset, the prevalence of current drinking was 47.5% while of past drinking was 26.5%. In the pooled sample, current alcohol drinking was positively associated with better health status among older adults ((b-coef (95% CI): 1.32(0.45 to 2.19)) and past alcohol drinking was inversely related (b-coef (95% CI): -0.83 (-1.51 to -0.16)) with health status. Often alcohol consumption appeared to be beneficial only for females in all super-regions except Africa, both age group categories (65-80 years old and 80+), both age group categories, as well as among all the financial status categories (all p < 0.05). Regional analysis pictured diverse patterns in the association for current and past alcohol drinkers. Our results report the need for specific alcohol intake recommendations among older adults that will help them maintain a better health status throughout the ageing process.

2.
Health Place ; 62: 102280, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479358

RESUMO

Depression and loneliness act in a synergistic way among older adults. We tested two indicators of the perceived neighborhood built environment (BE) as moderators of the association between these conditions in older European adults. Positive perceptions of neighborhood BE were related to lower levels of loneliness but not to major depressive disorder (MDD). Reporting low BE usability was significantly related to a higher likelihood of feeling lonely except for those suffering from MDD, whereas reporting low BE walkability was significantly related with a high likelihood of loneliness particularly among those with MDD. Therefore, improving neighborhood BE and, specifically, its walkability, might result in a reduction in the prevalence of loneliness.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 258: 113087, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between loneliness and all-cause mortality over a six-year follow-up period using the overall sample and by age groups (18-59 years and 60+ years). METHOD: Data from a longitudinal, prospective study of a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish non-institutionalized adult population were analysed (n = 4467). Mortality was ascertained via linkage to the National Death Index or obtained during the household visits. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to measure loneliness. Sex, age, education, physical activity, tobacco consumption, body mass index, disability, depression, living situation, and social participation were also considered as covariates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were carried out. RESULTS: A higher level of loneliness was not associated with mortality risk in fully covariate-adjusted models over the entire population (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.94, 1.12). The interaction term between loneliness and age groups was significant, indicating that the rate for survival of loneliness varied by age (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.63 for young- and middle-aged individuals; HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.04 for older adults). CONCLUSIONS: The development of interventions aimed at tackling loneliness among young- and middle-aged adults might contribute to a mortality risk reduction. Future research is warranted to test whether our results can be replicated.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of European psychologisation of depression versus somatisation in non-European populations has been the basis of several studies of cultural psychopathology in the general population. Little is currently known about cross-cultural differences and similarities in late-life depression symptom reporting. We cross-culturally compared symptom reporting in the context of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among community-dwelling older adults from Spain and Nigeria. METHODS: We relied on data from two household multistage probability samples comprising 3,715 persons aged 65 years or older in the Spanish and Nigerian populations. All participants underwent assessments for MDD using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cross-cultural comparison of broad somatic and psychological categories as well as relationship and influence of individual symptoms were analysed using the Symptom Network Analysis approach. RESULTS: Current MDD was diagnosed in 232 and 195 older persons from Spain and Nigeria, respectively. The symptom network of the two samples were invariant in terms of global strength, S(GSPAIN , GNIGERIA ) = 7.56, P = .06, with psychological and somatic symptoms demonstrating centrality in both countries. However, country-specific relationships and influence of individual symptoms were found in the network structure of both samples, M(GSPAIN , GNIGERIA ) = 2.95, P < .01. CONCLUSION: Broad somatic and psychological symptoms categories contributed to the structural network of older Africans and their peers from the Spanish population. Variations in the relationship and influence of individual symptoms suggests that the functional and "communicative" role of individual symptoms may be differentiated by context specific imperatives.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384818

RESUMO

The association between anxiety and vascular dementia (VaD) is unclear. We aimed to reliably estimate the association between anxiety and VaD risk using meta-analysis to pool new results from a large community-based cohort (Zaragoza Dementia and Depression (ZARADEMP) study) and results from previous studies. ZARADEMP participants (n = 4057) free of dementia were followed up on for up to 12 years. Cases and subcases of anxiety were determined at baseline. A panel of four psychiatrists diagnosed incident cases of VaD by consensus. We searched for similar studies published up to October 2019 using PubMed and Web of Science. Observational studies reporting associations between anxiety and VaD risk, and adjusting at least for age, were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) from each study were combined using fixed-effects models. In the ZARADEMP study, the risk of VaD was 1.41 times higher among individuals with anxiety (95% CI: 0.75-2.68) compared with non-cases (p = 0.288). Pooling this result with results from two previous studies yielded an OR of 1.65 (95% CI: 1.07-2.53; p = 0.022). These findings indicate that anxiety is associated with an increased risk of VaD. Taking into account that anxiety is commonly observed in the elderly, treating and preventing it might reduce the prevalence and incidence of VaD. However, whether anxiety is a cause of a prodrome of VaD is still unknown, and future research is needed to clarify this.

6.
Brain Sci ; 10(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331406

RESUMO

(1) Cognitive decline differs among individuals and cognition function domains. We sought to identify distinct groups of immediate and delayed verbal memory in two age subsamples (50-64, 65+ years), and to analyze associated factors. (2) Latent class mixed models were used to identify verbal memory trajectories in a sample of Spanish community-dwelling individuals over 8 years' follow up. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among trajectories. (3) Different trajectories were identified. In the case of immediate verbal memory, these were: very low/decline (6.3%), low/stable (38.2%), medium/slow decline (43.4%), and high/slow decline (12.2%) in the middle-aged group, and low/decline (20.4%), medium/slow decline (60.4%), and high/slow decline (19.2%) in the older subsample. In delayed verbal memory, more distinct patterns were found: very low/decline (12.4%), low/stable (51.4%), medium/accelerated decline (24.7%), and high/slow increase (11.4%) in the younger group, and low/slow decline (34.4%), medium/decline (52.7%), and high/slow decline (12.9%) in the older group. (4) Overall, low initial performance and decline were associated with older age, lower education, and higher diabetes/stroke prevalence. Differences found suggests heterogeneity in cognitive ageing. The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in those with worse cognition suggests that early interventions to prevent those conditions should be targeted in midlife to delay cognitive decline.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 424-428, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature has shown that the effect of depression on all-cause mortality is stronger in men. However, it is less clear whether depression affects older and younger people equally. The present study is aimed to analyze whether depression is associated to all-cause mortality in different age and gender groups. METHODS: We analyzed a nationally representative sample of the Spanish adult population that was followed-up on for a period of 6 years (n = 4583). Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to test whether baseline depression was associated to all-cause mortality in the total sample and in the different gender and age specific groups, separately. RESULTS: Unadjusted analyses revealed that depression was associated with higher likelihood of having a shorter survival and dying, in the total sample and in both groups of men (18-64 and 65+ years). However, adjusted analyses stratified by age groups and gender revealed that depression was only a significant factor for all-cause mortality in 18-64 aged men (HR: 6.11; 95%CI= 2.16,17.23). LIMITATIONS: Cause-specific mortality was not examined. Young adults and middle-aged participants were not analyzed separately. CONCLUSIONS: The depression and all-cause mortality relationship was only found among young and middle-aged men. Further studies should consider whether the significant association between depression and all-cause mortality in young and middle-aged men is due to a behavior of seeking help less, the way depression is shaped in adult men, or to other clinical or health-system related factors.

8.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(4): 611-619, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590962

RESUMO

Objectives: People who report better subjective well-being tend to be healthier in their daily behaviours. The objective of this study is to assess whether different components of subjective well-being are prospectively associated with different healthy lifestyle behaviours and to assess whether these associations differ by age.Method: A total of 1,892 participants aged 50+ living in Spain were interviewed in 2011-12 and 2014-15. Life satisfaction was measured with the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale. Positive and negative affect were assessed using the Day Reconstruction Method. Physical activity was assessed with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2. The remaining healthy lifestyle behaviours were self-reported. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) models were run.Results: Not having a heavy episodic alcohol drinking was the healthy lifestyle behaviour most fulfilled (97.97%), whereas the intake of five or more fruits and vegetables was the least followed (33.12%). GEE models conducted over the 50-64 and the 65+ age groups showed that a higher life satisfaction was significantly related to a higher physical activity in both groups. Relationships between a higher negative affect and presenting a lower level of physical activity, and a higher positive affect and following the right consumption of fruits and vegetables and being a non-daily smoker, were only found in the older group.Conclusion: The relationship between subjective well-being and healthy lifestyle behaviours was found fundamentally in those aged 65+ years. Interventions focused on incrementing subjective well-being would have an impact on keeping a healthy lifestyle and, therefore, on reducing morbidity and mortality.

9.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 337, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between trajectories of verbal episodic memory and burden of cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older community-dwellers. METHODS: We analysed data from 4372 participants aged 50-64 and 3005 persons aged 65-79 years old from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing who were repeatedly evaluated every 2 years and had six interviews of a 10-year follow-up. We measured the following baseline risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity and obesity to derive a cardiovascular risk factor score (CVRFs). Adjusted linear mixed effect regression models were estimated to determine the association between number of CVFRs and six repeated measurements of verbal memory scores, separately for middle-aged and older adults. RESULTS: CVRFs was not significantly associated with memory at baseline. CVFRs was significantly associated with memory decline in middle-aged (50-64y), but not in older (65-79y) participants. This association followed a dose-response pattern with increasing number of CVFRs being associated with greater cognitive decline. Comparisons between none versus some CVRFs yielded significant differences (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that the effect of cumulative CVRFs on subsequent cognitive deterioration is age-dependent. CVRFs are associated with cognitive decline in people aged 50-64 years, but not in those aged ≥65 years. Although modest, the memory decline associated with accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in midlife may increase the risk of late-life dementia.

10.
J Aging Health ; : 898264319891026, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789063

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to identify the patterns of multimorbidity in older adults and explored their association with sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors. Method: The sample included 9,171 people aged 50+ from Wave 2 of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was performed on 26 chronic diseases to determine clusters of common diseases within individuals and their association with sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors. Result: Three latent classes were identified: (a) a cardiorespiratory/arthritis/cataracts class, (b) a metabolic class, and (c) a relatively healthy class. People aged 70 to 79 were 9.91 times (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = [5.13, 19.13]) more likely to be assigned to the cardiorespiratory/arthritis/cataracts class, while regular drinkers and physically inactive people were 0.33 times (95% CI = [0.24, 0.47]) less likely to be assigned to this class. Conclusion: Future research should investigate these patterns further to gain more insights into the needs of people with multimorbidity.

11.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597461

RESUMO

Objective: Childhood financial hardship is associated with depression throughout the life course, including older adulthood. However, it is still unclear the extent to which occupation, education level and household income are mediators of this association. We aimed to examine the association between childhood financial hardship and late-life depression, and potential socioeconomic mediators using community-based data. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 3623 non-institutionalized older Spanish adults aged 50+ was used. The associations between childhood financial hardship and depression, socioeconomic mediator variables and confounding variables such as chronic physical conditions, number of close people, and loneliness, were assessed through logistic regression models. Mediation analyses of socioeconomic variables were carried out. Results: Older Spanish adults who experienced a poor childhood financial situation were nine times more likely to obtain a lower level of education than those with a good childhood financial situation, and about three times more likely to suffer from depression. Participants' education level mediated about 35-40% of the association between childhood financial hardship and late-life depression whereas we found no significant mediation effect of household income and occupation skill. Conclusion: Improving access to the educational system during the life course might result in a reduction in the prevalence of depression in the general population of older adults and particularly among individuals with low socioeconomic status.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382535

RESUMO

This study sought to determine the association between levels of fruit and vegetable consumption and time to death, and to explore potential moderators. We analyzed a nationally-representative sample of 1699 older adults aged 65+ who were followed up for a period of 6 years. Participants were classified into low (≤3 servings day), medium (4), or high (≥5) consumption using tertiles. Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models (by age, gender, cohabiting, education, multimorbidity, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and obesity) were calculated. The majority of participants (65.7%) did not meet the recommendation of five servings per day. High fruit and vegetable intake increased by 27% the probability of surviving among older adults with two chronic conditions, compared to those who consumed ≤3 servings per day (HR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.21-0.69). However, this beneficial effect was not found for people with none, one chronic condition or three or more, indicating that this protective effect might not be sufficient for more severe cases of multimorbidity. Given a common co-occurrence of two non-communicable diseases in the elderly and the low frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in this population, interventions to promote consuming five or more servings per day could have a significant positive impact on reducing mortality.


Assuntos
Dieta , Frutas , Mortalidade , Verduras , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Espanha
13.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(11): 1613-1622, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of loneliness and social isolation on cognition over a 3-year follow-up period in middle- and older-aged adults. METHODS: Data from a Spanish nationally representative sample were analyzed (n = 1691; aged 50 years or older). Loneliness, social isolation, and cognition (immediate recall, delayed recall, verbal fluency, forward digit span, backward digit span, and a composite cognitive score) were assessed both at baseline and at follow-up. Adjusted generalized estimating equations models were performed. RESULTS: Loneliness was significantly associated with lower scores in the composite cognitive score, immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and backward digit span (B = -0.14 to B = -3.16; P < .05) and with a more rapid decline from baseline to follow-up in two out of six cognitive tests. Higher social isolation was associated with lower scores in the composite cognitive score, verbal fluency, and forward digit span (B = -0.06 to B = -0.85; P < .05). The effect of loneliness and social isolation on cognition remained significant after the exclusion of individuals with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Both loneliness and social isolation are associated with decreased cognitive function over a 3-year follow-up period. The development of interventions that include the enhancement of social participation and the maintenance of emotionally supportive relationships might contribute to cognitive decline prevention and risk reduction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
15.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 493-502, 16 jun., 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180476

RESUMO

Objetivo. Realizar un metaanálisis de estudios de cohortes prospectivos, con base poblacional, que investiguen el riesgo de demencia y enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) según la depresión clínicamente relevante, diagnosticada con criterios del Geriatric Mental State (GMS). Pacientes y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de los estudios publicados en PubMed y Web of Science hasta enero de 2018 para identificar todos los estudios longitudinales sobre la asociación entre la depresión clínicamente relevante (diagnosticada con criterios del GMS) y el riesgo de demencia y EA en los ancianos. Se calculó el riesgo relativo agrupado para examinar la depresión como un posible factor de riesgo para la demencia en estudios comunitarios, así como la fracción poblacional de demencia y EA atribuible a la depresión. Resultados. Seis estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para la revisión sistemática. Todos ellos proporcionaron suficiente información para realizar un metaanálisis. Los participantes con depresión clínicamente relevante tuvieron un riesgo un 54% más elevado de demencia (p = 0,026) y una fracción atribuible poblacional del 8,6%. Los pacientes con EA tuvieron un riesgo un 50% más alto (p = 0,038) y una fracción atribuible poblacional del 10,8%. Conclusión. La depresión clínicamente relevante se asocia con un mayor riesgo de demencia y EA en la comunidad, con un impacto potencial mayor que otros factores de riesgo conocidos. Los estudios futuros deben explorar los mecanismos que vinculan la depresión con la demencia y la EA, así como si un tratamiento eficaz de la depresión clínicamente relevante podría prevenir la demencia y el desarrollo de la EA


Aim. To carry out a meta-analysis of population-based prospective cohort studies to investigate the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to clinically relevant depression, assessed with Geriatric Mental State (GMS) criteria. Patients and methods. A systematic literature search of the studies published in PubMed and Web of Science up to January 2018 was performed to identify all longitudinal studies on the association between clinically relevant depression (diagnosed with GMS criteria) and risk of dementia in the elderly. We calculated pooled relative risks to examine depression as a possible risk factor for dementia in community studies, as well as to compute population attributable fraction (PAF). Results. Six studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. All of them provided enough information to perform a meta-analysis. Participants with clinically relevant depression had a 54% higher risk of dementia (p = 0.026) with a PAF attributable to clinically relevant depression of 8.6%. The numbers for AD were 50% higher risk (p = 0.038) and a PAF of 10.8%. Conclusion. Clinically relevant depression is associated with an increased risk for dementia and AD in the community, with a potential impact higher than other known/recognized risk factors. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking depression and dementia and AD as well as whether an effective treatment of clinically significant depression could prevent dementia and AD development


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/complicações , Demência/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Psychol Aging ; 34(4): 475-485, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081662

RESUMO

We determined whether the course of depression was associated with accelerated decline or deficits in verbal episodic memory and verbal fluency in depressed older adults compared with controls, and whether this was modified by age of onset. There were 1,027 Spanish community-dwelling adults aged 60+ who participated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Word-list recall and animal naming tasks were performed at the two time points. Participants were classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for 12-month depression at baseline and follow-up: controls, lifetime, remittent, incident, and persistent depression. Adjusted mixed regression models were fitted and interactions time*depression groups explored. Compared with controls, remittent, incident, and persistent depression were significantly related to worse verbal fluency, and remittent and incident depression to worse verbal episodic memory. In the subsample of subjects with depression, interactions were not significant, and age of onset was not related to either accelerated decline or cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that a history of depression per se might not be associated with cognitive deficits. Older people with late life depression are at higher risk for persistent cognitive deficits, even after the affective episode has remitted, and cognitive deficits might be detectable long before the episode appears. Overall, these findings would support the idea that depression during lifetime would not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment whereas late life depression could represent a prodrome for future dementia. Monitoring the neuropsychological functioning of older people with remittent, incident, and persistent depression is indicated, regardless of the age of onset. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 627-633, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of panic attacks (PA) and panic disorder (PD) over the lifespan, determine the main correlates and analyze the potential moderating role of age. METHOD: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a nationally-representative sample of 4,569 non-institutionalized adults. Three panic groups were created according to results in the CIDI interview: non-panic, PA (without PD) and PD. Panic groups were used as outcomes in adjusted multinomial regression models where several correlates were investigated. Interactions between each covariate and age were explored. RESULTS: The highest prevalence rates of PA (9.5%) and PD (3.3%) were found in people aged 30-39 and 40-49, respectively. Respondents aged 80 + presented the lowest rates. In the adjusted multinomial model, younger ages, having depression, and poorer levels of quality of life were significant correlates for both PA and PD, whereas being female and having 2 or more chronic conditions were only significant for PA (not for PD) and being a frequent drinker (last 12-months) only for PD. Age significantly interacted with frequent alcohol consumption in the last 12-months for PD. The predicted probability of having PD decreased with age for life-abstainer or occasional drinkers, whereas the probability increased with older ages for frequent drinkers. LIMITATIONS: Low prevalence of PA and PD resulted in large confidence intervals whereas self-reports could be affected by recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that the probability of having PA and PD decreases as people age and that the significant risk factors are independent of age. However, older adults with a frequent drink pattern seem to be at higher risk of PD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the trajectories of PD and alcohol consumption over the lifespan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695093

RESUMO

(1) Purpose: This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of strategies used in the professional (re)integration of persons with mental disorders (MD) in European countries; (2) Methods: We conducted a search for scientific publications available in relevant electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, CDR-HTA, CDR-DARE, and Cochrane Library). The present study collected evidence on the effectiveness, from 2011 to 2016, of employment strategies for persons with MDs; (3) Results: A total of 18 studies were included, representing 5216 participants (aged 18⁻65, mean age of 38.5 years old) from 7 countries. Job access programs demonstrated effectiveness in four out of six studies. Return to work (RTW) interventions showed significant positive results in two studies, while four studies did not refer to effectiveness. There were inconsistent results in another four studies; (4) Conclusions: Our findings highlight the complexities of the implementation of employment strategies (job access and return to work). Job access strategies seem to improve employment outcomes. The effectiveness of return to work strategies remains unclear. The involvement and commitment of physicians, employment specialists, and employers, and employees capacity for self-care seem decisive for employment re-integration success. Further analyses are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions and corroborate our results, with longer follow-ups.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Reabilitação Vocacional , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emprego/economia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Reabilitação Vocacional/economia
19.
Exp Gerontol ; 106: 137-144, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Frailty is characterized by several deficits in multiple health related domains. Although cognition is among the important components of frailty, there is lack of evidence on the role of specific neuro-cognitive dimensions. The primary aim of the present work was to evaluate the multidimensional definition of frailty, and to assess whether neuro-cognitive function is a constituent of the frailty syndrome among adults aged ≥50 years living in three European countries. As a secondary aim, the construct validity of the created frailty index was tested (with inpatient and outpatient hospitalization), as well as its determinants. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional, community-based, nationally-representative survey conducted in Finland, Poland and Spain (n = 7987 individuals aged ≥50 years). Socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle and social factors were assessed using validated procedures. Cognitive function was assessed with the following tests: learning and short-term memory, working memory and verbal fluency. A frailty index was constructed based on 31 frailty attributes. Principal component analysis was used to identify the components of the frailty index. Logistic and Poisson regression analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: The factor analysis on the components of the index extracted three main dimensions for frailty (disability and daily functioning, cognitive function, chronic health conditions), confirming the multiple dimensions of frailty. Various socio-demographic (e.g., financial status, education level) and lifestyle habits (alcohol consumption) were related with frailty. The presence of frailty was associated with 3.1 times higher odds for inpatient hospitalization (95%CI 2.75 to 3.51). Frailty was also related with higher frequency of outpatient visits. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that frailty is a multidimensional concept with three major dimensions. Neuro-congitive function seems to be a separate dimension of the frailty syndrome. Smoking habits and alcohol intake were positively related with frailty while inpatient and outpatient hospitalization were found to be associated to the level of frailty.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 53(3): 259-268, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect of biomedical and psychosocial well-being, based on distinct successful aging models (SA), on time to mortality, and determine whether this effect was modified by socioeconomic status (SES) in a nationally representative sample of older Spanish adults. METHODS: Data were taken from a 3-year follow-up study with 2783 participants aged 50 or over. Vital status was ascertained using national registers or asking participants' relatives. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the time to death by SES, and levels of biomedical and psychosocial SA. Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to explore interactions between SES and SA models while adjusting for gender, age, and marital status. RESULTS: Lower levels of SES and biomedical and psychosocial SA were associated with low probability of survival. Only the interaction between SES and biomedical SA was significant. Biomedical SA impacted on mortality rates among individuals with low SES but not on those with medium or high SES, whereas psychosocial SA affected mortality regardless of SES. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting equal access to health care system and improved psychosocial well-being could be a protective factor against premature mortality in older Spanish adults with low SES.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura , Classe Social , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Regressão , Espanha
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