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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on Candida bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in Europe are limited. We performed a retrospective multicenter European study of the epidemiology and outcome of neonatal and pediatric candidemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All first positive blood cultures from patients ≤ 18 years of age with candidemia were registered. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and causative Candida species were collected and analyzed. Regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with mortality. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred ninety-five episodes of candidemia (57.8% male) were reported from 23 hospitals in 10 European countries. Of the 1395 episodes, 36.4% occurred in neonates (≤ 44 weeks postmenstrual age), 13.8% in infants (> 44 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year) and 49.8% in children and adolescents. Candida albicans (52.5%) and Candida parapsilosis (28%) were the predominant species. A higher proportion of candidemia caused by C. albicans was observed among neonatal patients (60.2%) with highest rates of C. parapsilosis seen among infants (42%). Children admitted to hematology-oncology wards presented the highest rates of non-albicans Candida species. Candidemia because of C. albicans was more frequent than non-albicans Candida in Northern versus Southern Europe (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.9; P < 0.001). The all-cause mortality at 30 days was 14.4%. All-cause mortality was higher among patients admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care units than other wards. Over time, no significant changes in species distribution were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This first multicenter European study shows unique characteristics of the epidemiology of pediatric candidemia. The insights obtained from this study will be useful to guide clinical management and antifungal stewardship.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354696

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)1 gain of function (GOF) pathogenic variants have been associated with increased levels of phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT1-dependent cellular responses. Delayed dephosphorylation was proposed as the underlying mechanism leading to the characteristically raised pSTAT1 levels. We examined the levels of STAT1 protein and message as well as rates of STAT1 phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and degradation associated with STAT1 GOF pathogenic variants. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 STAT1 GOF patients carrying 10 different pathogenic variants in the coiled-coil, DNA binding, and SH2 domains and healthy donors were used to study STAT1 levels and phosphorylation (pSTAT1) following IFNγ and IFNα stimulation. STAT1 protein levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunoblot. STAT1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT1 protein degradation was studied using cycloheximide. Patient IFNγ and IFNα induced peak pSTAT1 was higher than in healthy controls. The velocity of pSTAT1 dephosphorylation after treatment of IFNγ stimulated CD14+ monocytes with the Janus Kinase (JAK)-inhibitor ruxolitinib was significantly faster in patient cells. STAT1 protein levels in patient CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were higher than in healthy donors. There was a strong and positive correlation between CD14+ STAT1 protein levels and peak pSTAT1 levels. Patient fresh PBMC STAT1 mRNA levels were increased at rest and after 16 h of incubation. STAT1 protein degradation was similar in patient and healthy volunteer cells. Patient IFNγ receptors 1 and 2 and JAK2 levels were normal. One patient in our cohort was treated with the oral JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib. Treatment was associated with normalization of both STAT1 protein and peak pSTAT1 levels. After JAK inhibitor treatment was stopped the patient's CD14+ monocyte STAT1 protein and peak phosphorylation levels increased proportionally. These findings suggest that patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have higher levels of total STAT1 protein, leading to high levels of pSTAT1 after stimulation, despite rapid STAT1 dephosphorylation and normal degradation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111319

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a novel primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by heterozygous gain of function mutations in PI3Kδ catalytic p110δ (PIK3CD) or regulatory p85α (PIK3R1) subunits leading to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. Patients with APDS present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and lymphoproliferation. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for APDS patients and screened for eligibility criteria. A total of 243 APDS patients were identified from 55 articles. For all patients, demographic, clinical, immunologic, and molecular data were collected. Overall, 179 APDS1 and 64 APDS2 patients were identified. The most common clinical manifestations were respiratory tract infections (pneumonia (43.6%), otitis media (28.8%), and sinusitis (25.9%)), lymphoproliferation (70.4%), autoimmunity (28%), enteropathy (26.7%), failure to thrive (20.6%), and malignancy (12.8%). The predominant immunologic phenotype was hyper-IgM syndrome (48.1%). Immunologic profiling showed decreased B cells in 74.8% and CD4+ T cells in 64.8% of APDS patients. The c.3061 G>A (p. E1021K) mutation in APDS1 with 85% frequency and c.1425+1 G> (A, C, T) (p.434-475del) mutation in APDS2 with 79% frequency were hotspot mutations. The majority of APDS patients were placed on long-term immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Immunosuppressive agents such as rituximab, tacrolimus, rapamycin, and leniolisib were also administered for autoimmunity and inflammatory complications. In addition, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was used in 12.8% of patients. APDS has heterogynous clinical manifestations. It should be suspected in patients with history of recurrent respiratory infections, lymphoproliferation, and raised IgM levels. Moreover, HSCT should be considered in patients with severe and complicated clinical manifestations with no or insufficient response to the conventional therapies.

4.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(2): 112-116, feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181151

RESUMO

Introduction: Development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) in the context of typhoid fever (TF) is a very rare but serious complication. Methods: Description of the first pediatric case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic area complicated by sHLH. A systematic literature review of sHLH in the context of TF was performed with extraction of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. Results: The literature search revealed 17 articles (22 patients). Fifteen patients were eligible for data analysis (53.4% children). All patients had fever and pancytopenia. Transaminases and LDH were frequently elevated (46.6%). Salmonella typhi was detected mainly by blood culture (64.3%). All the patients received antibiotics whereas immunomodulation (dexamethasone) was used in two cases. Conclusions: A high suspicion index for this condition is needed even in non-endemic areas. The addition of immunmodulation to standard antimicrobial therapy should be considered in selected cases


Introducción: El síndrome hemofagocítico (HLH) secundario en el contexto de fiebre tifoidea es una complicación rara pero seria. Métodos: Descripción del primer caso pediátrico de fiebre tifoidea adquirida en área no endémica complicada con síndrome hemofagocítico y revisión sistemática de la literatura de casos de HLH secundarios a fiebre tifoidea. Descripción de datos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de laboratorio, diagnóstico y manejo. Resultados: La búsqueda bibliográfica reveló 17 artículos (22 pacientes). Quince pacientes eran elegibles para el análisis (53,4% niños). La fiebre y la pancitopenia estaban siempre presentes, y las transaminasas y la LDH estaban frecuentemente elevados (46,6%). La detección de S. typhi se realizó mediante hemocultivo, principalmente (64,3%). Todos los pacientes reportados recibieron antibióticos; la dexametasona fue usada como tratamiento inmunomodulador en 2 de los casos. Conclusiones: Mantener alto el grado de sospecha de esta condición es necesario, incluso en áreas no endémicas, ya que el uso de tratamiento inmunomodulador junto al tratamiento antimicrobiano puede ser determinante para una evolución clínica favorable


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/complicações , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Ásia/epidemiologia , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Países Desenvolvidos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças Endêmicas , Febre/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico
5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(12): 1029-1041, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 fulfill fundamental functions in nonimmune and immune cells. The description and follow-up of patients with germline mutations that result in either loss-of-function or gain-of-function have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of these regulators. Depending on the type of mutations, clinical symptoms are complex and can include infection susceptibility, immune dysregulation as well as characteristic nonimmune features. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview about mechanistic concepts, clinical manifestations, diagnostic process, and traditional as well as innovative treatment options aiming to help the clinical immunologist to better understand and manage these complex and rare diseases. Clinical and research papers were identified and summarized through PubMed Internet searches, and expert opinions are provided. Expert commentary: The last several years have seen an explosion in the clinical descriptions and pathogenesis knowledge of the diseases caused by GOF and LOF mutations in STAT1 and STAT3. However, harmonization of laboratory testing and follow-up in international cohorts is needed to increase our knowledge about the natural history of these disorders as well as the development of curative or supportive targeted therapies.

7.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) in the context of typhoid fever (TF) is a very rare but serious complication. METHODS: Description of the first pediatric case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic area complicated by sHLH. A systematic literature review of sHLH in the context of TF was performed with extraction of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: The literature search revealed 17 articles (22 patients). Fifteen patients were eligible for data analysis (53.4% children). All patients had fever and pancytopenia. Transaminases and LDH were frequently elevated (46.6%). Salmonella typhi was detected mainly by blood culture (64.3%). All the patients received antibiotics whereas immunomodulation (dexamethasone) was used in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: A high suspicion index for this condition is needed even in non-endemic areas. The addition of immunmodulation to standard antimicrobial therapy should be considered in selected cases.

8.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

10.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 188: 94-102, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305966

RESUMO

The CTLA-4 checkpoint regulates the activation of T cells. Individuals with heterozygous mutations in CTLA-4 have a complex phenotype typically characterized by antibody deficiency alongside variable autoimmunity. Despite severe disease in some individuals, others remain largely unaffected with reasons for this variation unknown. We studied a large family carrying a single point mutation in CTLA-4 leading to an amino acid change R75W and compared both unaffected with affected individuals. We measured a variety of features pertaining to T cell and CTLA-4 biology and observed that at the cellular level there was complete penetrance of CTLA-4 mutations. Accordingly, unaffected individuals were indistinguishable from those with disease in terms of level of CTLA-4 expression, percentage of Treg, upregulation of CTLA-4 upon stimulation and proliferation of CD4 T cells. We conclude that the wide variation in disease phenotype is influenced by immune variation outside of CTLA-4 biology.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(12): 1992-1999, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020166

RESUMO

Background: The global crisis of bacterial resistance urges the scientific community to implement intervention programs in healthcare facilities to promote an appropriate use of antibiotics. However, the clinical benefits or the impact on resistance of these interventions has not been definitively proved. Methods: We designed a quasi-experimental intervention study with an interrupted time-series analysis. A multidisciplinary team conducted a multifaceted educational intervention in our tertiary-care hospital over a 5-year period. The main activity of the program consisted of peer-to-peer educational interviews between counselors and prescribers from all departments to reinforce the principles of the proper use of antibiotics. We assessed antibiotic consumption, incidence density of Candida and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria bloodstream infections (BSIs) and their crude death rate per 1000 occupied bed days (OBDs). Results: A quick and intense reduction in antibiotic consumption occurred 6 months after the implementation of the intervention (change in level, -216.8 defined daily doses per 1000 OBDs; 95% confidence interval, -347.5 to -86.1), and was sustained during subsequent years (average reduction, -19,9%). In addition, the increasing trend observed in the preintervention period for the incidence density of candidemia and MDR BSI (+0.018 cases per 1000 OBDs per quarter; 95% confidence interval, -.003 to .039) reverted toward a decreasing trend of -0.130 per quarter (change in slope, -0.029; -.051 to -.008), and so did the mortality rate (change in slope, -0.015; -.021 to -.008). Conclusions: This education-based antimicrobial stewardship program was effective in decreasing the incidence and mortality rate of hospital-acquired candidemia and MDR BSI through sustained reduction in antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Candidemia/sangue , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Mortalidade/tendências , Papel do Médico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Blood ; 129(11): 1458-1468, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159733

RESUMO

Heterozygous CTLA-4 deficiency has been reported as a monogenic cause of common variable immune deficiency with features of immune dysregulation. Direct mutation in CTLA-4 leads to defective regulatory T-cell (Treg) function associated with impaired ability to control levels of the CTLA-4 ligands, CD80 and CD86. However, additional mutations affecting the CTLA-4 pathway, such as those recently reported for LRBA, indirectly affect CTLA-4 expression, resulting in clinically similar disorders. Robust phenotyping approaches sensitive to defects in the CTLA-4 pathway are therefore required to inform understanding of such immune dysregulation syndromes. Here, we describe assays capable of distinguishing a variety of defects in the CTLA-4 pathway. Assessing total CTLA-4 expression levels was found to be optimal when restricting analysis to the CD45RA-Foxp3+ fraction. CTLA-4 induction following stimulation, and the use of lysosomal-blocking compounds, distinguished CTLA-4 from LRBA mutations. Short-term T-cell stimulation improved the capacity for discriminating the Foxp3+ Treg compartment, clearly revealing Treg expansions in these disorders. Finally, we developed a functionally orientated assay to measure ligand uptake by CTLA-4, which is sensitive to ligand-binding or -trafficking mutations, that would otherwise be difficult to detect and that is appropriate for testing novel mutations in CTLA-4 pathway genes. These approaches are likely to be of value in interpreting the functional significance of mutations in the CTLA-4 pathway identified by gene-sequencing approaches.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Mutação , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/genética , Ligantes , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(24): e3842, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310962

RESUMO

To assess the safety and efficacy of rilpivirine in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF) as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents we performed a multicenter case series study of HIV-1-infected patients. Inclusion criteria were initiation of therapy with RPV/FTC/TDF before the age of 18. Patients were divided into undetectable viral load (uVL) group, HIV-1 RNA < 20 copies/mL on stable combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and detectable viral load (dVL) group, HIV-1 RNA ≥ 20 copies/mL at RPV/FTC/TDF initiation. Patients were monitored from the date of RPV/FTC/TDF initiation until June 30, 2015, RPV/FTC/TDF discontinuation or failure to follow-up. Seventeen patients (8 in uVL and 9 in dVL group) with age between 11.6 and 17.6 were included. Reasons for switching were toxicity (n = 4) and simplification (n = 4) in uVL; viral failure (n = 8) and cART initiation (n = 1) in the dVL group. After a median follow-up of 90 (uVL) and 40 weeks (dVL), 7/8 (86%) patients maintained and 8/9 (89%) achieved and maintained HIV-1 suppression. Median CD4 count increased from 542 to 780/µL (uVL, P = 0.069) and 480 to 830/µL (dVL, P = 0.051). Five patients (2 in uVL and 3 in dVL) improved their immunological status from moderate to no immunosuppression. Serum lipid profiles improved in both groups; cholesterol dropped significantly in the dVL group (P = 0.008). Grade 1 laboratory adverse events (AEs) were observed in 3 patients. No clinical AEs occurred. Adherence was complete in 9 patients (5 in uVL and 4 in dVL); 1 adolescent interrupted treatment. Once-daily STR with RPV/FTC/TDF may be a safe and effective choice in selected HIV-1-infected adolescents and children.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 27(6): 640-4, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27116393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in PIK3R1 encoding for the regulatory subunit (p85α, p55α, and p50α) of Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) result in the activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) type 2 characterized by childhood-onset combined immunodeficiency, lymphoproliferation, and immune dysregulation. To improve clinical awareness and understanding of these rare diseases, we reviewed all hitherto published cases with APDS type 1 and type 2 for their clinical and immunologic symptoms and added novel clinical, immunologic, and genetic findings of two patients with APDS type 2. METHODS: Clinical, immunologic, and genetic evaluation of two new patients with APDS2 was performed followed by the systematic collection of all available previously published data of patients with APDS1 and APDS2. RESULTS: Patients with APDS type 1 (n = 49) and type 2 (n = 15) showed an indistinguishable immunologic phenotype. Overlapping clinical features shared by APDS type 1 and type 2 were observed, but our review also revealed previously unnoticed clinical differences such as remarkably high incidence of microcephaly, poor growth/short stature in patients with APDS2. Clinical management and outcome were variable and included prophylactic antibiotics, immunosuppression, immunoglobulin substitution, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A disease-specific registry collecting prospective and long-term follow-up data of patients with APDS, as currently set up by the European Society for Immunodeficiencies, are needed to better understand the natural history and to optimize treatment concepts and thereby improving the outcome of this heterogenous patient group.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Microcefalia , Mutação/genética , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 27(1): 70-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26498110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) improves outcome of affected children. T-cell-receptor-excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting-recombination-excision circles (KRECs) determination from dried blood spots (DBS) identify neonates with severe T- and/or B-lymphopenia. No prospective data exist of the impact of gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) on TRECs and KRECs values. METHODS: TRECs and KRECs determination using triplex RT-PCR (TRECS-KRECS-ß-actin-Assay) from prospectively collected DBS between 02/2014 and 02/2015 in three hospitals in Seville, Spain. Cut-off levels were TRECs < 6/punch, KRECs < 4/punch and -ß-actin>700/punch. Internal (SCID, XLA, ataxia telangiectasia) and external controls (NBS quality assurance program, CDC) were included. RESULTS: A total of 5160 DBS were tested. Re-punch was needed in 77 samples (1.5%) due to insufficient ß-actin (<700 copies/punch). Pre-term neonates (GA<37 weeks) and neonates with a BW<2500 g showed significantly lower TRECs and KRECs levels (p < 0.001). Due to repeat positive results five neonates were re-called (<0.1%): Fatal chromosomopathy (n = 1; TRECs 1/KRECs 4); extreme pre-maturity (n = 2; TRECs 0/KRECs 0 and TRECs 1/KRECs 20 copies/punch); neonates born to mothers receiving azathioprine during pregnancy (n = 2; TRECs 92/KRECs 1 and TRECs 154/KRECs 3 copies/punch). All internal and external controls were correctly identified. CONCLUSIONS: TRECS-KRECS-ß-actin-Assay correctly identifies T- and B-cell lymphopenias. Pre-maturity and low BW is associated with lower TREC and KREC levels. Extreme pre-maturity and maternal immune suppressive therapy may be a cause for false positive results of TRECs and KRECs values, respectively. To reduce the rate of insufficient samples, DBS extraction and storage need to be improved.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Artefatos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/sangue , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/imunologia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 62(11): 2036-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173802

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive (AR) complete Interferon-γ Receptor1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency is a rare variant of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment, outcomes are heterogeneous; delayed engraftment and/or graft rejection being commonly observed. This case report and literature review expands the knowledge about this rare but potentially fatal pathology, providing details regarding diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, transplant performance, and outcome that may help to guide physicians caring for patients with AR complete IFN-γR1 or IFN-γR2 deficiency.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Aloenxertos , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 33(4): 416-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24632664

RESUMO

We present the case of a previously healthy 15-month-old girl with acute adenovirus infection who had features of severe bacterial sepsis and meningitis. Real-time qPCR done on cerebrospinal fluid identified adenovirus as the causative agent allowing stopping antibiotic treatment. The patient subsequently recovered without sequelae. An overview of published and unpublished data on adenovirus central nervous system infection in immunocompetent children is presented.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Meningoencefalite/diagnóstico , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Meningoencefalite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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