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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various childhood social experiences have been reported to predict adult outcomes. However, it is unclear how different social contexts may influence each other's effects in the long run. This study examined the joint contribution of adolescent family and peer experiences to young adult wellbeing and functioning. METHODS: Participants came from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study (n = 2230). We measured family and peer relations at ages 11 and 16 (i.e. family functioning, perceived parenting, peer status, peer relationship quality), and functioning as the combination of subjective wellbeing, physical and mental health, and socio-academic functioning at age 22. Using structural equation modelling, overall functioning was indicated by two latent variables for positive and negative functioning. Positive, negative and overall functioning at young adulthood were regressed on adolescent family experiences, peer experiences and interactions between the two. RESULTS: Family experiences during early and mid-adolescence were most predictive for later functioning; peer experiences did not independently predict functioning. Interactions between family and peer experiences showed that both protective and risk factors can have context-dependent effects, being exacerbated or overshadowed by negative experiences or buffered by positive experiences in other contexts. Overall the effect sizes were modest at best. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent family relations as well as the interplay with peer experiences predict young adult functioning. This emphasizes the importance of considering the relative effects of one context in relation to the other.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

4.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(8): 829-830, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992597

RESUMO

It is well-known that selective outcome reporting and publication distort the information that is made publicly available, and so undermine the reliability of what we consider evidence-based knowledge. Perhaps less known is that the risk of bias extends beyond the process of reporting and publishing results. Two further sources of bias are spin and selective citing. Spin relates to selective interpretation, meant to transform a basically negative conclusion into a more positively toned one; citation bias is the phenomenon that positive findings tend to be cited more than negative ones. The effects of these sources of imbalance accumulate, and the consequences can be huge. This issue of JCPP contains several articles with wholly or partly negative findings, which hopefully will be cited frequently. Publications regarding negative findings comprise an underrepresented and often undervalued minority, and therefore deserve all the support they can get.

5.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(7): 826-827, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806217

RESUMO

The JCPP works at the cutting edge of clinical science to publish ground-breaking research across the full range of topics in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. As JCPP editors, who are also active researchers in our own right, we are conscious of the threat posed to our field by what has come to be known as the reproducibility crisis - the fact that many published findings, initially trumpeted as important developments in the field, cannot be replicated and are therefore likely to be spurious (Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 2017, 21). The JCPP is conscious of its responsibility to play its part in addressing this issue as best it can. The roots of the problem are complex and its causes multifaceted. As one part of its response, the JCPP embraces the principles of open science and encourage preregistration of study protocols. Furthermore, we are working towards implementing new systems to promote preregistration with the hope of increasing scientific transparency and accountability and reducing the risks of selective reporting and posthoc rationalisation of findings (Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 59, 2018, 1).

6.
Psychol Med ; 48(11): 1787-1794, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We modeled both psychopathology and executive function (EF) as bi-factor models to study if EF impairments are transdiagnostic or relate to individual syndromes, and concurrently, if such associations are with general EF or specific EF impairments. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230). Psychopathology was assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 11, 14, 16, and 19, and EF with tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program at ages 11 and 19. Bi-factor models were fitted to the data using confirmatory factor analysis. Correlations were estimated to study the associations between general or specific components of both psychopathology and EF. RESULTS: A bi-factor model with a general psychopathology factor, alongside internalizing (INT), externalizing, attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and autism spectrum (ASD) problem domains, and a bi-factor model with a general EF factor, alongside specific EFs were adequately fitting measurement models. The best-fitting model between EF and psychopathology showed substantial associations of specific EFs with the general psychopathology factor, in addition to distinct patterns of association with ASD, ADHD, and INT problems. CONCLUSIONS: By studying very diverse psychopathology domains simultaneously, we show how EF impairments cross diagnostic boundaries. In addition to this generic relation, ADHD, ASD, and INT symptomatology show separable profiles of EF impairments. Thus, inconsistent findings in the literature may be explained by substantial transdiagnostic EF impairments. Whether general EF or specific EFs are related to psychopathology needs to be further studied, as differences in fit between these models were small.

7.
J Youth Adolesc ; 47(5): 932-946, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785953

RESUMO

Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Affect Disord ; 218: 437-445, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the decreased interest and pleasure, is often described as 'flat' or 'blunted' positive affect (PA). Yet, little is known about PA functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily lives. The current study investigates PA reactivity to pleasurable experiences in anhedonia together with its relevant temporal dynamics (i.e., variability, instability, and inertia), and expands current knowledge by exploring the role of arousal therein. METHODS: Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), we collected 90 assessments of real-life PA experiences across 30 days in 18-24 year old individuals with anhedonia (N=69) and without anhedonia (N=69). RESULTS: Multilevel analyses showed that anhedonia was associated with less intense pleasure experience, and lower levels of PA. Contrary to predictions from laboratory research and depression theory, individuals with anhedonia showed more variability and less stability in PA, and no signs of blunted PA reactivity. In fact, when exploring high and low arousal PA, individuals with anhedonia showed a slightly stronger reactivity to pleasurable experiences in high-arousal PA but not low-arousal PA. LIMITATIONS: We did not control for previous pleasure experiences and, instead of the last positive event, accumulation of positive events may have determined the change in high-arousal PA. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with anhedonia are likely less 'flat' or 'blunted' than generally thought. Although replication is warranted, impairments in high-arousal positive emotions may be of particular interest in the clinical treatment of anhedonia.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta , Atividades Humanas/psicologia , Prazer , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Psychol Med ; 47(7): 1271-1282, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28065168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. METHOD: We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%). Of those, 1584 youths were successfully interviewed, at age 19, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) to assess current and past CIDI-DSM-IV mental disorders. Four outcome domains were assessed at the same time: economic (e.g. academic achievement, social benefits, financial difficulties), social (early motherhood, interpersonal conflicts, antisocial behavior), psychological (e.g. suicidality, subjective well-being, loneliness), and health behavior (e.g. smoking, problematic alcohol, cannabis use). RESULTS: Out of the 19 outcomes, 14 were predicted by both current and past disorders, three only by past disorders (receiving social benefits, psychiatric hospitalization, adolescent motherhood), and two only by current disorder (absenteeism, obesity). Which type of disorders was most important depended on the outcome. Adjusted for current disorder, past internalizing disorders predicted in particular psychological outcomes while externalizing disorders predicted in particular health behavior outcomes. Economic and social outcomes were predicted by a history of co-morbidity of internalizing and externalizing disorder. The risk of problematic cannabis use and alcohol consumption dropped with a history of internalizing disorder. CONCLUSION: To understand current functioning, it is necessary to examine both current and past psychiatric status.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 26(2): 177-188, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075651

RESUMO

AIMS: Timely recognition and treatment of mental disorders with an onset in childhood and adolescence is paramount, as these are characterized by greater severity and longer persistence than disorders with an onset in adulthood. Studies examining time-to-treatment, also referred to as treatment delay, duration of untreated illness or latency to treatment, and defined as the time between disorder onset and initial treatment contact, are sparse and all based on adult samples. The aim of this study was to describe time-to-treatment and its correlates for any health care professional (any care) and secondary mental health care (secondary care), for a broad range of mental disorders, in adolescents. METHODS: Data from the Dutch community-based cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230) were used. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to assess DSM-IV disorders, the age of onset, and the age of initial treatment contact with any health care professional in 1584 adolescents of 18-20 years old. In total 43% of the adolescents (n = 675) were diagnosed with a lifetime DSM-IV disorder. The age of initial treatment contact with secondary care was based on administrative records from 321 adolescents without a disorder onset before the age of 10. Descriptive statistics, cumulative lifetime probability plots, and Cox regression analyses were used analyze time-to-treatment. RESULTS: The proportion of adolescents who reported lifetime treatment contact with any care varied from 15% for alcohol dependence to 82% for dysthymia. Regarding secondary care, proportions of lifetime treatment contact were lower for mood disorders and higher for substance dependence. Time-to-treatment for any care varied considerably between and within diagnostic classes. The probability of lifetime treatment contact for mood disorders was above 90%, whereas for other mental disorders this was substantially lower. An earlier age of onset predicted a longer, and the presence of a co-morbid mood disorder predicted a shorter time-to-treatment in general. Disorder severity predicted a shorter time-to-treatment for any care, but not for secondary care. Time-to-treatment for secondary care was shorter for adolescents from low and middle socioeconomic background than for adolescents from a high socioeconomic background. CONCLUSION: Although the time-to-treatment was shorter for adolescents than for adults, it was still substantial, and the overall patterns were remarkably similar to those found in adults. Efforts to reduce time-to-treatment should therefore be aimed at children and adolescents. Future research should address mechanisms underlying time-to-treatment and its consequences for early-onset disorders in particular.

12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 45(10): 2049-63, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27230118

RESUMO

Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Atitude , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Países Baixos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 21(10): 1391-9, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26754954

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders (ADs), namely generalized AD, panic disorder and phobias, are common, etiologically complex conditions with a partially genetic basis. Despite differing on diagnostic definitions based on clinical presentation, ADs likely represent various expressions of an underlying common diathesis of abnormal regulation of basic threat-response systems. We conducted genome-wide association analyses in nine samples of European ancestry from seven large, independent studies. To identify genetic variants contributing to genetic susceptibility shared across interview-generated DSM-based ADs, we applied two phenotypic approaches: (1) comparisons between categorical AD cases and supernormal controls, and (2) quantitative phenotypic factor scores (FS) derived from a multivariate analysis combining information across the clinical phenotypes. We used logistic and linear regression, respectively, to analyze the association between these phenotypes and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. Meta-analysis for each phenotype combined results across the nine samples for over 18 000 unrelated individuals. Each meta-analysis identified a different genome-wide significant region, with the following markers showing the strongest association: for case-control contrasts, rs1709393 located in an uncharacterized non-coding RNA locus on chromosomal band 3q12.3 (P=1.65 × 10(-8)); for FS, rs1067327 within CAMKMT encoding the calmodulin-lysine N-methyltransferase on chromosomal band 2p21 (P=2.86 × 10(-9)). Independent replication and further exploration of these findings are needed to more fully understand the role of these variants in risk and expression of ADs.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
15.
Psychol Med ; 46(6): 1189-96, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26671456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the incidence of eating disorders in Western, industrialized countries has changed over time has been the subject of much debate. The purpose of this primary-care study was to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in The Netherlands during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. METHOD: A nationwide network of general practitioners (GPs), serving a representative sample (~1%) of the total Dutch population, recorded newly diagnosed patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in their practice during 1985-1989, 1995-1999, and 2005-2009. GPs are key players in the Dutch healthcare system, as their written referral is mandatory in order to get access to specialized (mental) healthcare, covered by health insurance. Health insurance is virtually universal in The Netherlands (99% of the population). A substantial number of GPs participated in all three study periods, during which the same case identification criteria were used and the same psychiatrist was responsible for making the final diagnoses. Incidence rates were calculated and for comparison between periods, incidence rate ratios. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of BN decreased significantly in the past three decades (from 8.6 per 100,000 person-years in 1985-1989 to 6.1 in 1995-1999, and 3.2 in 2005-2009). The overall incidence of AN remained fairly stable during three decades, i.e. 7.4 per 100,000 person-years in 1985-1989, 7.8 in 1995-1999, and 6.0 in 2005-2009. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of BN decreased significantly over the past three decades, while the overall incidence rate of AN remained stable.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Med ; 45(11): 2403-12, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, with cortisol as its major output hormone, has been presumed to play a key role in the development of psychopathology. Predicting affective disorders from diurnal cortisol levels has been inconclusive, whereas the predictive value of stress-induced cortisol concentrations has not been studied before. The aim of this study was to predict mental disorders over a 3-year follow-up from awakening and stress-induced cortisol concentrations. METHOD: Data were used from 561 TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) participants, a prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. Saliva samples were collected at awakening and half an hour later and during a social stress test at age 16. Mental disorders were assessed 3 years later with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS: A lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) marginally significantly predicted new disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.77, p = 0.06]. A flat recovery slope predicted disorders with a first onset after the experimental session (OR 1.27, p = 0.04). Recovery revealed smaller, non-significant ORs when predicting new onset affective or anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, or dependence disorders in three separate models, corrected for all other new onsets. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that delayed recovery and possibly reduced CAR are indicators of a more general risk status and may be part of a common pathway to psychopathology. Delayed recovery suggests that individuals at risk for mental disorders perceived the social stress test as less controllable and less predictable.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Saliva/química , População Urbana
17.
Eur Psychiatry ; 30(2): 347-53, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24909359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased intra-subject reaction time variability (RT-ISV) as coarsely measured by the standard deviation (RT-SD) has been associated with many forms of psychopathology. Low-frequency RT fluctuations, which have been associated with intrinsic brain rhythms occurring approximately every 15-40s, have been shown to add unique information for ADHD. In this study, we investigated whether these fluctuations also relate to attentional problems in the general population, and contribute to the two major domains of psychopathology: externalizing and internalizing problems. METHODS: RT was monitored throughout a self-paced sustained attention task (duration: 9.1 ± 1.2 min) in a Dutch population cohort of young adults (n=1455, mean age: 19.0 ± 0.6 years, 55.1% girls). To characterize temporal fluctuations in RT, we performed direct Fourier Transform on externally validated frequency bands based on frequency ranges of neuronal oscillations: Slow-5 (0.010-0.027 Hz), Slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), and three additional higher frequency bands. Relative magnitude of Slow-4 fluctuations was the primary predictor in regression models for attentional, internalizing and externalizing problems (measured by the Adult Self-Report questionnaire). Additionally, stepwise regression models were created to investigate (a) whether Slow-4 significantly improved the prediction of problem behaviors beyond the RT-SD and (b) whether the other frequency bands provided important additional information. RESULTS: The magnitude of Slow-4 fluctuations significantly predicted attentional and externalizing problems and even improved model fit after modeling RT-SD first (R(2) change=0.6%, P<.01). Subsequently, adding Slow-5 explained additional variance for externalizing problems (R(2) change=0.4%, P<.05). For internalizing problems, only RT-SD made a significant contribution to the regression model (R(2)=0.5%, P<.01), that is, none of the frequency bands provided additional information. CONCLUSIONS: Low-frequency RT fluctuations have added predictive value for attentional and externalizing, but not internalizing problems beyond global differences in variability. This study extends previous findings in clinical samples of children with ADHD to adolescents from the general population and demonstrates that deconstructing RT-ISV into temporal components can provide more distinctive information for different domains of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Atenção , Saúde Mental , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Amostragem , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychol Med ; 45(2): 345-60, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. METHOD: We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. RESULTS: Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. CONCLUSIONS: At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicopatologia , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 4: e381, 2014 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713862

RESUMO

Stress early in life is a known risk factor for the development of affective disorders later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may have an important role in mediating that risk. Recent epigenetic research reported on the long-term relationship between traumatic stress in childhood and DNA methylation in adulthood. In this study, we examined the impact of various types of stress (perinatal stress, stressful life events (SLEs) and traumatic youth experiences) on methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in the blood of a population sample of 468 adolescents (50.4% female, mean age 16.1 years). Second, we determined whether stress at different ages was associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. NR3C1 methylation rates were higher after exposure to SLEs and after exposure to traumatic youth experiences. NR3C1 methylation in adolescence was not higher after exposure to perinatal stress. Experience of SLEs in adolescence was associated with a higher NR3C1 methylation, independently of childhood SLEs. We demonstrate that not only traumatic youth experiences but also (more common) SLEs are associated with higher NR3C1 methylation. In addition, our findings underline the relevance of adolescent stress for epigenetic changes in the NR3C1 gene.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Metilação de DNA , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 23(6): 499-513, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24043499

RESUMO

Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.


Assuntos
Agressão , Depressão/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicopatologia , Rejeição (Psicologia) , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
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