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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577333

RESUMO

Importance: Oral contraceptives have been associated with an increased risk of subsequent clinical depression in adolescents. However, the association of oral contraceptive use with concurrent depressive symptoms remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between oral contraceptive use and depressive symptoms and to examine whether this association is affected by age and which specific symptoms are associated with oral contraceptive use. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data from the third to sixth wave of the prospective cohort study Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), conducted from September 1, 2005, to December 31, 2016, among females aged 16 to 25 years who had filled out at least 1 and up to 4 assessments of oral contraceptive use, were used. Data analysis was performed from March 1, 2017, to May 31, 2019. Exposure: Oral contraceptive use at 16, 19, 22, and 25 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptoms were assessed by the DSM-IV-oriented affective problems scale of the Youth (aged 16 years) and Adult Self-Report (aged 19, 22, and 25 years). Results: Data from a total of 1010 girls (743-903 girls, depending on the wave) were analyzed (mean [SD] age at the first assessment of oral contraceptive use, 16.3 [0.7]; (mean [SD] age at the final assessment of oral contraceptive use, 25.6 [0.6] years). Oral contraceptive users particularly differed from nonusers at age 16 years, with nonusers having a higher mean (SD) socioeconomic status (0.17 [0.78] vs -0.15 [0.71]) and more often being virgins (424 of 533 [79.5%] vs 74 of 303 [24.4%]). Although all users combined (mean [SD] ages, 16.3 [0.7] to 25.6 [0.6] years) did not show higher depressive symptom scores compared with nonusers, adolescent users (mean [SD] age, 16.5 [0.7] years) reported higher depressive symptom scores compared with their nonusing counterparts (mean [SD] age, 16.1 [0.6] years) (mean [SD] score, 0.40 [0.30] vs 0.33 [0.30]), which persisted after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status and ethnicity (ß coefficient for interaction with age, -0.021; 95% CI, -0.038 to -0.005; P = .0096). Adolescent contraceptive users particularly reported more crying (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.38-2.58; P < .001), hypersomnia (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.14-2.48; P = .006), and more eating problems (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-2.10; P = .009) than nonusers. Conclusions and Relevance: Although oral contraceptive use showed no association with depressive symptoms when all age groups were combined, 16-year-old girls reported higher depressive symptom scores when using oral contraceptives. Monitoring depressive symptoms in adolescents who are using oral contraceptives is important, as the use of oral contraceptives may affect their quality of life and put them at risk for nonadherence.

2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 109: 104402, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465942

RESUMO

In adolescence, sensitivity to peers is heightened, which makes peer experiences highly salient. Recent work suggests that these experiences may influence individuals' immune system functioning. Although there is a need to investigate which types of developmental salient social experiences affect inflammation, no studies have examined the role of peer status in inflammatory activity so far. This study is the first to examine the unique role of different types of peer status (i.e., peer preference and peer popularity) on systemic inflammation in adolescence, and the extent to which this association is moderated by early childhood adversity. Participants were 587 Dutch adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents´ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Data were collected when participants were 11 (SD = .56), 13 (SD = .53) and 16 (SD = .71) years old, respectively. At age 11, early childhood adversity (e.g., hospitalization, death within the family) between 0-5 years was assessed via parent interviews. At age 13, peer preference and peer popularity were assessed with peer nominations of classmates. At age 16, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, was assessed with a venipuncture blood draw. Results showed that adolescents who were rated low on peer preference at age 13 exhibited higher levels of hsCRP at age 16. Importantly, these effects remained after controlling for several covariates, including age, sex, peer victimization, smoking behavior, SES, fat percentage, physical activity and temperament. Additionally, we found a positive effect of peer popularity on hsCRP that depended on early childhood adversity exposure. This suggests that for those adolescents who experienced little early childhood adversity, high levels of peer popularity were associated with high levels of hsCRP. Overall, these findings suggest that it is important to take into account the independent roles of peer preference and peer popularity, as specific types of peer status, to better understand adolescent systemic inflammation.

3.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364163

RESUMO

To examine the contributions of maternal and paternal age on offspring externalizing and internalizing problems, this study analyzed problem behaviors at age 10-12 years from four Dutch population-based cohorts (N = 32,892) by a multiple informant design. Bayesian evidence synthesis was used to combine results across cohorts with 50% of the data analyzed for discovery and 50% for confirmation. There was evidence of a robust negative linear relation between parental age and externalizing problems as reported by parents. In teacher-reports, this relation was largely explained by parental socio-economic status. Parental age had limited to no association with internalizing problems. Thus, in this large population-based study, either a beneficial or no effect of advanced parenthood on child problem behavior was observed.

4.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(8): 825-827, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313841

RESUMO

The importance of promoting child and adolescent mental health seems self-evident. However, child and adolescent psychologists and psychiatrists are not necessarily in agreement with each other about what promoting mental health means, the desirability of intervening to influence development, and whether improving mental health promotion justifies reducing young people's autonomy. If expressed and discussed openly, diverging views and opinions about these issues can be constructive and deepen insights. Philosophical discussions about the belief systems and their relation to theoretical models underlying specific research questions, methodological choices, and interpretations of findings raise awareness of the inherent subjectivity of mental health evidence and research, and stimulate 'clear thinking', arguably the most valuable implement in any scientist's toolbox.

5.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(3): 329-338, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether low reward responsiveness marks vulnerability for developing depression in a large cohort of never-depressed 16-year-old adolescents who completed a reward task and were subsequently followed for 9 years, during which onset of depression was assessed. METHOD: Data were collected as part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), an ongoing prospective cohort study. Reward responsiveness was assessed by the spatial orienting task at 16 years and depression was assessed at 19 years by the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview and at 25 years by the Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-Report. Participants who completed the reward task at 16 years, had no previous onset of depression, and were assessed on depression onset at 19 and/or 25 years were included in the present study (N = 531; 81 became depressed during follow-up). RESULTS: Difficulties in shifting attention from expected non-reward to expected reward and from expected punishment to expected non-punishment at 16 years predicted depression during follow-up. This was found only at an automatic level of information processing. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that decreased reward responsiveness at 16 years marks vulnerability for depression. Prevention programs may aim at increasing at-risk adolescents' responsiveness to cues for potential rewards, particularly in situations in which they are focused on negative experiences.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213750, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845194

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125383.].

7.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(8): 1065-1078, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552585

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with severe problems later in life. This study examines how eleven types of ACEs and mental health care use history are related to current psychological dysfunction among multi-problem young adults. A sample of 643 multi-problem young adult men (age 18-27) gave informed consent for us to collect retrospective regional psychiatric case register data and filled out questionnaires. ACEs were highly prevalent (mean 3.6, SD 2.0). Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants who experienced other ACEs, participants who experienced psychological problems in their family and grew up in a single-parent family were more likely to have used mental health care, and physically abused participants were less likely to have used mental health care. Linear regression analyses showed a dose-response relationship between ACEs and internalizing and externalizing problems. Linear regression analyses on the single ACE items showed that emotional abuse and emotional neglect were positively related to internalizing problems. Emotional and physical abuse and police contact of family members were positively related to externalizing problems. While multi-problem young adults experienced many ACEs, only a few ACEs were related to mental health care use in childhood and adolescence. Long-term negative effects of ACEs on psychological functioning were demonstrated; specifically, emotional abuse and emotional neglect showed detrimental consequences. Since emotional abuse and emotional neglect are not easily identified and often chronic, child health professionals should be sensitive to such problems.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483901

RESUMO

Social withdrawal during adolescence and early adulthood is particularly problematic due to the increasing importance of social interactions during these ages. Yet little is known about the changes, trajectories, or correlates of being withdrawn during this transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the normative change and distinct trajectories of withdrawal in order to identify adolescents and early adults at greatest risk for maladjustment. Participants were from a Dutch population-based cohort study (Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), including 1917 adolescents who were assessed at four waves from the age of 16 to 25 years. Five items from the Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report were found to be measurement invariant and used to assess longitudinal changes in social withdrawal. Overall, participants followed a U-shaped trajectory of social withdrawal, where withdrawal decreased from ages 16 to 19 years, remained stable from 19 to 22 years, and increased from 22 to 25 years. Furthermore, three distinct trajectory classes of withdrawal emerged: a low-stable group (71.8%), a high-decreasing group (12.0%), and a low-curvilinear group (16.2%). The three classes differed on: shyness, social affiliation, reduced social contact, anxiety, and antisocial behaviors. The high-decreasing group endorsed the highest social maladjustment, followed by the low-curvilinear group, and the low-stable group was highly adjusted. We discuss the potential contribution of the changing social network in influencing withdrawal levels, the distinct characteristics of each trajectory group, and future directions in the study of social withdrawal in adolescence and early adulthood.

9.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(10): 1033-1035, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255498

RESUMO

We are pleased to present this special issue of JCPP, which brings together a collection of cutting-edge empirical studies that focuses on developmental trajectories and pathways associated with ADHD, conduct problems and other externalizing behaviors. JCPP has had a long-standing focus on theoretically strong prospective longitudinal studies that elucidate behavioral change and outcomes over time, including in the areas of ADHD and externalizing disorders (Kuja-Halkola, Lichtenstein, D'Onofrio & Larsson, 2015; Sonuga-Barke & Halperin, 2010). Keeping with that tradition, all of the papers in this special issue employ a prospective longitudinal design and a focus on changes that unfold over development.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204556, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia (loss of pleasure) is characterized by low responsiveness to rewards and, by virtue of being one of the two core symptoms of depression, by altered responses to stress. We investigated the effect of an acute stress experience (i.e., a tandem skydive) that was expected to elicit both intense fear and intense euphoria in a sample of anhedonic young adults. OBJECTIVE: (1) To examine individual differences in alpha-amylase reactivity to and recovery from a tandem skydive in anhedonic young adults; (2) to investigate whether trait depressive and anxiety problems, trait positive affect (PA), i.e., level of pleasure and reward responsiveness, and state anxiety, PA and self-esteem prior to the skydive were associated with alpha-amylase reactivity and recovery patterns; (3) to investigate whether alpha-amylase reactivity and recovery patterns were associated with pre- to post-jump changes in state anxiety, PA, and self-esteem. METHOD: Participants were 61 individuals with persistent anhedonia (Mage = 21.38, 78.7% female), who filled out a baseline questionnaire at the start of the study, and momentary questionnaires (3 times per day) before and after the tandem skydive. Alpha-amylase was measured at four time points by means of salivettes (2 before and 2 after the skydive). RESULTS: Alpha-amylase reactivity and recovery patterns were highly similar across individuals, although mean levels varied greatly. No associations were found between any of the trait and state measures and reactivity and recovery. Only state self-esteem was affected by the reactivity and recovery patterns, in that individuals who showed high reactivity and low recovery experienced decreases in self-esteem after the skydive. CONCLUSIONS: Alpha-amylase patterns following a tandem skydive in anhedonic individuals are highly similar to patterns previously found in healthy individuals. Although replication is warranted, our findings tentatively suggest that a strong stress response that cannot be downregulated well predicts a decrease in self-esteem.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 276, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. To reduce the societal burden and improve quality of life for individual patients, treatments for depression need to be optimized. There is a particular need for person-tailored interventions that reinforce self-management of patients. Systematic self-monitoring and personalized feedback through the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) could provide such a person-tailored, empowering intervention that enhances treatment outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of self-monitoring and personalized feedback as an add-on tool in the treatment of depressive complaints in a natural setting. METHODS: The ZELF-i study is a pragmatic multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT). We aim to recruit 150 individuals with depressive symptoms aged between 18 and 65 years, who have an intake for outpatient basic or specialized treatment at a mental health care organization in the North of the Netherlands. After the intake, participants will be randomly allocated to one of three study arms: two experimental groups engaging in 28 days of systematic self-monitoring (5 times per day) and receiving weekly personalized feedback on positive affect and activities ("Do"-module) or on negative affect and thinking patterns ("Think"-module), and a control group receiving no additional intervention. Self-report inventories of depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning and feelings of empowerment will be administered before and after the intervention period, and at follow-up measurements at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months. The patient-experienced utility of the intervention will be investigated by a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods. DISCUSSION: The present study is the first to examine the effects of add-on self-monitoring and personalized feedback on depressive complaints in clinical practice. It is also the first to evaluate two different ESM modules targeted at both of depression's core symptoms. Lastly, it is the first study that uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the patient-experienced utility of ESM with personalized feedback as an intervention for depression. Results of the present study may improve treatment for depression, if the intervention is found to be effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register, NTR5707 , registered prospectively 1 February 2016.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202888, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142170

RESUMO

The neural substrate of cognitive reappraisal has been well-mapped. Individuals who successfully downregulate negative affect (NA) by reshaping their thoughts about a potentially emotional situation show augmented activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with attenuated activity in the amygdala. We performed functional neuroimaging with experience sampling to determine whether individual differences in brain activation correspond to differences in real-life NA. While being scanned, 69 female students (aged 18-25 years) were asked to perform a cognitive reappraisal task. In addition, repeated assessments (5/day, 14 days) of affect and minor events in real-life were conducted. Individual t-maps were created for an instructed downregulation contrast (downregulate negative-attend negative) and an uninstructed regulation contrast (attend negative-attend neutral). Mean beta values were extracted from a priori defined regions of interest in the bilateral amygdala and PFC and were correlated with three daily life NA measures: baseline (mean) NA, NA variability, and NA reactivity to negative events. Only one out of twelve correlations for the amygdalae was nominally significant, which did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. PFC activation in the instructed and uninstructed regulation contrasts explained approximately 10% of the variance in NA reactivity; stronger recruitment during the attend-negative condition was correlated with lower reactivity levels. The degree to which individuals spontaneously engage frontal clusters may be a critical aspect of real-life emotional reactivity. The findings of this study provide a partial external validation of the cognitive reappraisal task, suggesting that frontal brain activation during implicit task conditions may have the strongest connection with real-life behaviors.

13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(4)2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of self-, parent-, and teacher-reported problem behavior for initial specialist mental health care use in adolescence and the extent to which the relative importance of each informant changes over time. METHODS: Data from the Dutch community-based cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) were linked to administrative records of specialist mental health care organizations. Self-, parent-, and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years, with self-reported problems also assessed at age 19 years. The study included 1,478 adolescents, of whom 19.8% had administrative records between January 2000 (age 9 years) and December 2011 (age 21 years). RESULTS: After effects of internalizing and externalizing problems were adjusted for each other and for sociodemographic correlates, internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, predicted initial specialist mental health care use. Teacher reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 11 and 13 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.02; P < .001), parent reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 13 and 16 years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI, = 1.13-1.91; P = .004), and self-reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 16 and 19 years (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, = 1.25-2.08; P < .001) and between the ages 19 and 21 years (HR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05; P = .011). CONCLUSIONS: Teachers, parents, and adolescents are the driving force behind initial specialist care at consecutive phases in adolescence. Future research should assess whether improving the problem recognition of teachers in secondary education and educating young adults about mental health problems are effective ways of reducing the treatment gap.

14.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

15.
Emotion ; 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672074

RESUMO

Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68). Participants (aged between 18 and 24 years) filled out momentary assessments of affect 3 times per day for 30 consecutive days. Our results showed that (a) anhedonic individuals and controls had similar moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions; (b) in the anhedonic network feeling cheerful was the node with the highest outstrength, both within this group and compared with the control group; (c) feeling relaxed had the highest outstrength in the control network, and (d) anhedonic individuals had stronger pathways from positive emotions to motivation than controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that low levels of positive emotions lead to decreased motivation in the anhedonic group, which could instigate a negative spiral of low pleasure and low motivation. On a more positive note, we showed that cheerfulness had the highest outstrength in the network of anhedonic participants. Hence, interventions may focus on increasing cheerfulness in anhedonic individuals, as this will likely have the greatest impact on other positive emotions and motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record

16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(8): 852-862, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. METHOD: This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). RESULTS: In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. DISCUSSION: Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem.

17.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(1): 41-56, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593601

RESUMO

A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early adult tasks in domains including romantic relationships, education, work, financial competence, and conduct. These links were tested using data from two Dutch cohorts (RADAR-young, n = 497, 43% girls; TRAILS, n = 2230, 51% girls) who reported on victimization and perpetration at age 11 (TRAILS) and 13 (RADAR-young) and mastery of developmental tasks in early adulthood. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested for both cohorts that perpetrators were less likely to abide the law and more likely to smoke. Victims in TRAILS were less competent in the domains of education, work, and finances, and more likely to smoke in RADAR-young. Adjusting for childhood demographics and child intelligence and including psychopathology in the prediction models substantially reduced the strength of associations between bullying involvement and later outcomes in both cohorts; although association were retained between victimization and welfare dependence and perpetration and crime involvement in TRAILS. Parental support did not buffer associations in either sample and neither were gender differences detected. Overall, findings underline that negative outcomes of bullying are not only a concern for victims but also for their perpetrators although involvement in bullying is not a stable predictor of mastery of developmental tasks when childhood demographics, child intelligence, and psychopathology are taken into account.

18.
Behav Sleep Med ; 16(2): 154-168, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27254292

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown an association between physical activity and sleep, but it is unclear what the temporal order of this association is and whether it differs for depressed patients and healthy controls. Using a multiple repeated observations design, 27 depressed and 27 pair-matched nondepressed participants completed daily measurements of subjective sleep quality and duration during 30 consecutive days while an accelerometer continuously registered their physical activity. Changes in sleep duration, not quality, predicted next-day changes in physical activity (B = -0.21, p < .001), but not the other way around. Significant heterogeneity between individuals was observed, but the effect was not different for depressed and nondepressed participants. The findings underline the strength of a multiple repeated observations design in observational sleep research.


Assuntos
Exercício , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2(8): 533-534, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209314
20.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0180753, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976985

RESUMO

Day-to-day experiences are accompanied by feelings of Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA). Implicitly, without conscious processing, individuals learn about the reward and punishment value of each context and activity. These associative learning processes, in turn, affect the probability that individuals will re-engage in such activities or seek out that context. So far, implicit learning processes are almost exclusively investigated in controlled laboratory settings and not in daily life. Here we aimed to replicate the first study that investigated implicit learning processes in real life, by means of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). That is, using an experience-sampling study with 90 time points (three measurements over 30 days), we prospectively measured time spent in social company and amount of physical activity as well as PA and NA in the daily lives of 18-24-year-old young adults (n = 69 with anhedonia, n = 69 without anhedonia). Multilevel analyses showed a punishment learning effect with regard to time spent in company of friends, but not a reward learning effect. Neither reward nor punishment learning effects were found with regard to physical activity. Our study shows promising results for future research on implicit learning processes in daily life, with the proviso of careful consideration of the timescale used. Short-term retrospective ESM design with beeps approximately six hours apart may suffer from mismatch noise that hampers accurate detection of associative learning effects over time.


Assuntos
Punição , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
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