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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 347: 1-7, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major clinical problem in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), leading to myocardial damage despite early reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). There are no effective therapies to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is caused by multiple pathways activated by rapid tissue reoxygenation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FDY-5301 contains sodium iodide, a ubiquitous inorganic halide and elemental reducing agent that can act as a catalytic anti-peroxidant. We tested the feasibility, safety and potential utility of FDY-5301 as a treatment to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury, in patients with first-time STEMI undergoing emergency PPCI. METHODS: STEMI patients (n = 120, median 62 years) presenting within 12 h of chest pain onset were randomized at 20 PPCI centers, in a double blind Phase 2 clinical trial, to receive FDY-5301 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) or placebo prior to reperfusion, to evaluate the feasibility endpoints. Participants underwent continuous ECG monitoring for 14 days after PPCI to address pre-specified cardiac arrhythmia safety end points and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 72 h and at 3 months to assess exploratory efficacy end points. RESULTS: Intravenous FDY-5301 was delivered before re-opening of the infarct-related artery in 97% participants and increased plasma iodide levels ~1000-fold within 2 min. There was no significant increase in the primary safety end point of incidence of cardiac arrhythmias of concern. MRI at 3 months revealed median final infarct sizes in placebo vs. 2.0 mg/kg FDY-5301-treated patients of 14.9% vs. 8.5%, and LV ejection fractions of 53.9% vs. 63.2%, respectively, although the study was not powered to detect statistical significance. In patients receiving FDY-5301, there was a significant reduction in the levels of MPO, MMP2 and NTproBNP after PPCI, but no reduction with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous FDY-5301, delivered immediately prior to PPCI in acute STEMI, is feasible, safe, and shows potential efficacy. A larger trial is justified to test the effects of FDY-5301 on acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and clinical outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CT.govNCT03470441; EudraCT 2017-000047-41.

2.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the TWILIGHT trial, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was shown to be a safe bleeding avoidance strategy in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). AIMS: To evaluate the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI, according to DES type. METHODS: In the current subanalysis from TWILIGHT, patients were stratified into 3 groups based on DES type: durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES), durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (DP-ZES), and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES). Bleeding and ischemic outcomes were assessed at 1 year after randomization. RESULTS: Out of 5,769 patients, 3,014 (52.2%) had DP-EES, 1,350 (23.4%) had DP-ZES and 1,405 (24.4%) had BP-DES. Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy had significantly lower BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding compared with DAPT; DP-EES (3.8% vs. 6.7%; HR:0.56, 95% CI:0.41-0.78), DP-ZES (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR:0.66, 95% CI:0.42-1.04) and BP-DES (4.2% vs. 7.9%; HR:0.52, 95% CI:0.33-0.81; pinteraction=0.76). Ticagrelor monotherapy resulted in similar rates of death, MI, or stroke: DP-EES (4.2% vs. 4.3%; HR:0.97; 95% CI:0.68-1.37); DP-ZES (4.1% vs. 3.1%; HR:1.32; 95% CI:0.75-2.33); BP-DES (3.9% vs. 4.2%; HR:0.92; 95% CI:0.54-1.55; pinteraction=0.60). In both unadjusted and covariate-adjusted analyses, DES type was not associated with any differences in ischemic or bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short DAPT duration lowered bleeding complications without increasing the ischemic risk, irrespective of DES type. We observed no significant differences among DES-types.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) is a novel alternative to rotational atherectomy (RA) for the modification of heavily calcified coronary stenoses prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compare the real-world resource utilisation and associated costs of PCI with adjunctive RA and IVL. METHODS: We compared the resource utilisation, in-lab consumable costs and procedural data of 120 patients who underwent PCI with IVL from the Disrupt-CAD II study (NCT03328949) to 60 patients who underwent PCI with RA at the Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow. The RA patients were consecutive and selected on the basis of being deemed suitable for IVL by an independent interventional cardiologist experienced in the use of both techniques. RESULTS: PCI with IVL was associated with significantly lower costs than PCI with RA (mean difference £398 [95% CI, £181-£615]; p<0.001). Considering between-group differences, the IVL group used 4.02 fewer balloons (p<0.001), 3.03 fewer guidewires (p<0.001), 0.52 fewer guide catheters (p=0.001), 0.22 fewer guide extensions (p=0.004) and 1.03 fewer drug eluting stents (DES) (p<0.001) per case than the RA group. The IVL group had shorter procedural duration (mean difference 13.3 min [95% CI, 3.6-23.0]; p=0.008) but longer fluoroscopy times (mean difference 4.4 min [95% CI, 1.7-7.1]; p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this indirect comparison, we found that the higher initial device costs of IVL may be offset by a lower overall resource utilisation. Further research is required to confirm this, and future randomised trials should include a formal health economic analysis.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease have been found to have better outcomes with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) than with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but studies in which PCI is guided by measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) have been lacking. METHODS: In this multicenter, international, noninferiority trial, patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo CABG or FFR-guided PCI with current-generation zotarolimus-eluting stents. The primary end point was the occurrence within 1 year of a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event, defined as death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization. Noninferiority of FFR-guided PCI to CABG was prespecified as an upper boundary of less than 1.65 for the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. Secondary end points included a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; safety was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 1500 patients underwent randomization at 48 centers. Patients assigned to undergo PCI received a mean (±SD) of 3.7±1.9 stents, and those assigned to undergo CABG received 3.4±1.0 distal anastomoses. The 1-year incidence of the composite primary end point was 10.6% among patients randomly assigned to undergo FFR-guided PCI and 6.9% among those assigned to undergo CABG (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.2), findings that were not consistent with noninferiority of FFR-guided PCI (P = 0.35 for noninferiority). The incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was 7.3% in the FFR-guided PCI group and 5.2% in the CABG group (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.1). The incidences of major bleeding, arrhythmia, and acute kidney injury were higher in the CABG group than in the FFR-guided PCI group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, FFR-guided PCI was not found to be noninferior to CABG with respect to the incidence of a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization at 1 year. (Funded by Medtronic and Abbott Vascular; FAME 3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02100722.).

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021150, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622680

RESUMO

Background Little is known about the impact of center volume on outcomes in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between center volume, treatment strategies, and subsequent outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Methods and Results In this subanalysis of the randomized CULPRIT-SHOCK (Culprit Lesion Only PCI Versus Multivessel PCI in Cardiogenic Shock) trial, study sites were categorized based on the annual volume of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock into low-/intermediate-/high-volume centers (<50; 50-100; and >100 cases/y). Subjects from the study/compulsory registry with available volume data were included. Baseline/procedural characteristics, overall treatment, and 1-year all-cause mortality were compared across categories. n=1032 patients were included in this study (537 treated at low-volume, 240 at intermediate-volume, and 255 at high-volume centers). Baseline risk profile of patients across the volume categories was similar, although high-volume centers included a larger number of older patients. Low-/intermediate-volume centers had more resuscitated patients (57.5%/58.8% versus 42.2%; P<0.01), and more patients on mechanical ventilation in comparison to high-volume centers. There were no differences in reperfusion success despite considerable differences in adjunctive pharmacological/device therapies. There was no difference in 1-year all-cause mortality across volume categories (51.1% versus 56.5% versus 54.4%; P=0.34). Conclusions In this study of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, considerable differences in adjunctive medical and mechanical support therapies were observed. However, we could not detect an impact of center volume on reperfusion success or mortality.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4624-4634, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662382

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) represent a prevalent subgroup among those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early aspirin discontinuation after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has emerged as a bleeding avoidance strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in a contemporary HBR population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial evaluated the treatment effects of early aspirin withdrawal followed by ticagrelor monotherapy in HBR patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomized to 12 months of aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor. A total of 1064 (17.2%) met the Academic Research Consortium definition for HBR. Ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in HBR (6.3% vs. 11.4%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.82) and non-HBR patients (3.5% vs. 5.9%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.77) with similar relative (Pinteraction = 0.67) but a trend towards greater absolute risk reduction in the former [-5.1% vs. -2.3%; difference in absolute risk differences (ARDs) -2.8%, 95% CI -6.4% to 0.8%, P = 0.130]. A similar pattern was observed for more severe BARC 3 or 5 bleeding with a larger absolute risk reduction in HBR patients (-3.5% vs. -0.5%; difference in ARDs -3.0%, 95% CI -5.2% to -0.8%, P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between treatment arms, irrespective of HBR status. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who completed 3-month DAPT without experiencing major adverse events, aspirin discontinuation followed by ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced bleeding without increasing ischaemic events, compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The absolute risk reduction in major bleeding was larger in HBR than non-HBR patients.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 2047-2055, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the safety of selective intracoronary hypothermia during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Selective intracoronary hypothermia is a novel treatment designed to reduce myocardial reperfusion injury and is currently being investigated in the ongoing randomized controlled EURO-ICE (European Intracoronary Cooling Evaluation in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) trial (NCT03447834). Data on the safety of such a procedure during PPCI are still limited. METHODS: The first 50 patients with anterior STEMI treated with selective intracoronary hypothermia during PPCI were included in this analysis and compared for safety with the first 50 patients randomized to the control group undergoing standard PPCI. In-hospital mortality, occurrence of rhythm or conduction disturbances, stent thrombosis, onset of heart failure during the procedure, and subsequent hospital admission were assessed. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 0%. One patient in both groups developed cardiogenic shock. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 0 and 3 patients (P = 0.24), and ventricular fibrillation occurred in 5 and 3 patients (P = 0.72) in the intracoronary hypothermia group and control group, respectively. Stent thrombosis occurred in 2 patients in the intracoronary hypothermia group; 1 instance was intraprocedural, and the other occurred following interruption of dual-antiplatelet therapy consequent to an intracranial hemorrhage 6 days after enrollment. No stent thrombosis was observed in the control group (P = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: Selective intracoronary hypothermia during PPCI in patients with anterior STEMI can be implemented within the routine of PPCI and seems to be safe. The final safety results will be reported at the end of the trial.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Circulation ; 144(18): 1476-1484, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational and small, randomized studies suggest that influenza vaccine may reduce future cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind trial to compare inactivated influenza vaccine with saline placebo administered shortly after myocardial infarction (MI; 99.7% of patients) or high-risk stable coronary heart disease (0.3%). The primary end point was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis at 12 months. A hierarchical testing strategy was used for the key secondary end points: all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, and stent thrombosis. RESULTS: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the data safety and monitoring board recommended to halt the trial before attaining the prespecified sample size. Between October 1, 2016, and March 1, 2020, 2571 participants were randomized at 30 centers across 8 countries. Participants assigned to influenza vaccine totaled 1290 and individuals assigned to placebo equaled 1281; of these, 2532 received the study treatment (1272 influenza vaccine and 1260 placebo) and were included in the modified intention to treat analysis. Over the 12-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 67 participants (5.3%) assigned influenza vaccine and 91 participants (7.2%) assigned placebo (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.52-0.99]; P=0.040). Rates of all-cause death were 2.9% and 4.9% (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89]; P=0.010), rates of cardiovascular death were 2.7% and 4.5%, (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.90]; P=0.014), and rates of MI were 2.0% and 2.4% (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.50-1.46]; P=0.57) in the influenza vaccine and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination early after an MI or in high-risk coronary heart disease resulted in a lower risk of a composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis, and a lower risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death, as well, at 12 months compared with placebo. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02831608.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4683-4693, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423374

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prespecified subanalysis of the TWILIGHT trial, we evaluated the treatment effects of ticagrelor with or without aspirin according to renal function. The trial enrolled patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation who fulfilled at least one clinical and one angiographic high-risk criterion. Chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, was a clinical study entry criterion. Following a 3-month period of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo on top of ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. Of the 6835 patients randomized and with available eGFR at baseline, 1111 (16.3%) had CKD. Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in both patients with [4.6% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.80] and without (4.0% vs. 6.7%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75; Pinteraction = 0.508) CKD, but the absolute risk reduction was greater in the former group. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were not significantly different between the two randomized groups irrespective of the presence (7.9% vs. 5.7%; HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.88-2.22) or absence of (3.2% vs. 3.6%; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20; Pinteraction = 0.111) CKD. CONCLUSION: Among CKD patients undergoing PCI, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischaemic events as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4656-4668, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279606

RESUMO

AIMS: A fractional flow reserve (FFR) value ≥0.90 after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. TARGET-FFR is an investigator-initiated, single-centre, randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a post-PCI FFR-guided optimization strategy vs. standard coronary angiography in achieving final post-PCI FFR values ≥0.90. METHODS AND RESULTS: After angiographically guided PCI, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a physiology-guided incremental optimization strategy (PIOS) or a blinded coronary physiology assessment (control group). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a final post-PCI FFR ≥0.90. Final FFR ≤0.80 was a prioritized secondary outcome. A total of 260 patients were randomized (131 to PIOS, 129 to control) and 68.1% of patients had an initial post-PCI FFR <0.90. In the PIOS group, 30.5% underwent further intervention (stent post-dilation and/or additional stenting). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of the proportion of patients with final post-PCI FFR ≥0.90 between groups (PIOS minus control 10%, 95% confidence interval -1.84 to 21.91, P = 0.099). The proportion of patients with a final FFR ≤0.80 was significantly reduced when compared with the angiography-guided control group (-11.2%, 95% confidence interval -21.87 to -0.35], P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Over two-thirds of patients had a physiologically suboptimal result after angiography-guided PCI. An FFR-guided optimization strategy did not significantly increase the proportion of patients with a final FFR ≥0.90, but did reduce the proportion of patients with a final FFR ≤0.80.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132807

RESUMO

AIMS: Identifying novel mediators of lethal myocardial reperfusion injury that can be targeted during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is key to limiting the progression of patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) to heart failure. Here we show through parallel clinical and integrative preclinical studies the significance of the protease cathepsin-L on cardiac function during reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that direct cardiac release of cathepsin-L in STEMI patients (n = 76) immediately post-PPCI leads to elevated serum cathepsin-L levels and that serum levels of cathepsin-L in the first 24 hour post-reperfusion are associated with reduced cardiac contractile function and increased infarct size. Preclinical studies, demonstrate that inhibition of cathepsin-L release following reperfusion injury with CAA0225 reduces infarct size and improves cardiac contractile function by limiting abnormal cardiomyocyte calcium handling and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cathepsin-L is a novel therapeutic target that could be exploited clinically to counteract the deleterious effects of acute reperfusion injury after an acute STEMI. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: New therapeutic targets are urgently required to limit myocardial damage after reperfusion injury. We identified cardiac release of the protease cathepsin-L among patients following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Elevated serum levels of cathepsin-L were associated with reduced contractile function and increased infarct size at 24 hour and 6 months post-PPCI. Work conducted using animal models indicated that cardiac release of cathepsin-L mediated cardiac dysfunction following reperfusion injury. Specific inhibition of cathepsin-L prevented abnormal calcium handling, reduced infarct size and improved contractile function. These novel findings offer the prospect of targeting cathepsin-L-mediated cardiac dysfunction after PPCI.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(10): 1130-1143, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160566

RESUMO

Importance: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) may contribute to the pathophysiologic characteristics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the prevalence of CAD and CMD have not been systematically studied. Objective: To examine the prevalence of CAD and CMD in hospitalized patients with HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 106 consecutive patients hospitalized with HFpEF were evaluated in this prospective, multicenter, cohort study conducted between January 2, 2017, and August 1, 2018; data analysis was performed from March 4 to September 6, 2019. Participants underwent coronary angiography with guidewire-based assessment of coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance, and fractional flow reserve, followed by coronary vasoreactivity testing. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed with late gadolinium enhancement and assessment of extracellular volume. Myocardial perfusion was assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively using the myocardial-perfusion reserve index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of obstructive epicardial CAD, CMD, and myocardial ischemia, infarction, and fibrosis. Results: Of 106 participants enrolled (53 [50%] women; mean [SD] age, 72 [9] years), 75 had coronary angiography, 62 had assessment of coronary microvascular function, 41 underwent coronary vasoreactivity testing, and 52 received cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Obstructive epicardial CAD was present in 38 of 75 participants (51%, 95% CI, 39%-62%); 19 of 38 (50%; 95% CI, 34%-66%) had no history of CAD. Endothelium-independent CMD (ie, coronary flow reserve <2.0 and/or index of microvascular resistance ≥25) was identified in 41 of 62 participants (66%; 95% CI, 53%-77%). Endothelium-dependent CMD (ie, abnormal coronary vasoreactivity) was identified in 10 of 41 participants (24%; 95% CI, 13%-40%). Overall, 45 of 53 participants (85%; 95% CI, 72%-92%) had evidence of CMD and 29 of 36 (81%; 95% CI, 64%-91%) of those without obstructive epicardial CAD had CMD. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings included myocardial-perfusion reserve index less than or equal to 1.84 (ie, impaired global myocardial perfusion) in 29 of 41 patients (71%; 95% CI, 54%-83%), visual perfusion defect in 14 of 46 patients (30%; 95% CI, 19%-46%), ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (ie, myocardial infarction) in 14 of 52 patients (27%; 95% CI, 16%-41%), and extracellular volume greater than 30% (ie, diffuse myocardial fibrosis) in 20 of 48 patients (42%; 95% CI, 28%-56%). Patients with obstructive CAD had more adverse events during follow-up (28 [74%]) than those without obstructive CAD (17 [46%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, 91% of patients with HFpEF had evidence of epicardial CAD, CMD, or both. Of those without obstructive CAD, 81% had CMD. Obstructive epicardial CAD and CMD appear to be common and often unrecognized in hospitalized patients with HFpEF and may be therapeutic targets.

13.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(4): 210-216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061817

RESUMO

Distal transradial access, through puncture of the radial artery at its course in the anatomical snuffbox, has emerged recently as an alternative approach for coronary catheterization. Several advantages of this approach seem promising and several studies are trying to elucidate its features. This review provides an overview of the snuffbox approach for coronary catheterization and summarizes the key results of the research conducted so far.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Artéria Radial , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Punções
14.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 6654515, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880087

RESUMO

Background: While thinner struts are associated with improved clinical outcomes in bare-metal stents (BMS), reducing strut thickness may affect drug delivery from drug-eluting stents (DES) and there are limited data comparing otherwise similar thin and thick strut DES. We assessed 2-year outcomes of patients treated with a thin strut (84-88um) cobalt-chromium, biodegradable polymer, Biolimus A9-eluting stent (CoCr-BP-BES) and compared these to patients treated with a stainless steel, biodegradable polymer, Biolimus A9-eluting stent (SS-BP-BES). Methods: In total, 1257 patients were studied: 400 patients from 12 centres receiving ≥1 CoCr-BP-BES in the prospective Biomatrix Alpha registry underwent prespecified comparison with 857 patients who received ≥1 Biomatrix Flex SS-BP-BES in the LEADERS study (historical control). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE)-cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically driven target vessel revascularization (cd-TVR). Propensity analysis was used to adjust for differences in baseline variables and a landmark analysis at day-3 to account for differences in periprocedural MI definitions. Results: MACE at 2 years occurred in 6.65% CoCr-BP-BES versus 13.23% SS-BP-BES groups (unadjusted HR 0.48 [0.31-0.73]; P=0.0005). Following propensity analysis, 2-year adjusted MACE rates were 7.4% versus 13.3% (HR 0.53 [0.35-0.79]; P=0.004). Definite or probable stent thrombosis, adjudicated using identical criteria in both studies, occurred less frequently with CoCr-BP-BES (1.12% vs. 3.22%; adjusted HR 0.32 [0.11-0.9]; P=0.034). In day-3 landmark analysis, the difference in 2-year MACE was no longer significant but there was a lower patient-orientated composite endpoint (11.7% vs. 18.4%; HR 0.6 [0.43-0.83]; P=0.006) and a trend to lower target vessel failure (5.8% vs. 9.1%; HR 0.63 [0.4-1.00]; P=0.078). Conclusion: At 2-year follow-up, propensity-adjusted analysis showed the thin strut (84-88um) Biomatrix Alpha CoCr-BP-BES was associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with the thicker strut (114-120um) Biomatrix Flex SS-BP-BES.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Implantes Absorvíveis , Idoso , Ligas de Cromo , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Polímeros , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Aço Inoxidável , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(6): 1426-1427, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713120
16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(4): 444-456, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare ticagrelor monotherapy with dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. BACKGROUND: The role of abbreviated DAPT followed by an oral P2Y12 inhibitor after PCI remains uncertain. METHODS: Two randomized trials, including 14,628 patients undergoing PCI, comparing ticagrelor monotherapy with standard DAPT on centrally adjudicated endpoints were identified, and individual patient data were analyzed using 1-step fixed-effect models. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019143120). The primary outcomes were the composite of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding tested for superiority and, if met, the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year, tested for noninferiority against a margin of 1.25 on a hazard ratio (HR) scale. RESULTS: Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding occurred in fewer patients with ticagrelor than DAPT (0.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; HR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41 to 0.75; p < 0.001). The composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 231 patients (3.2%) with ticagrelor and in 254 patients (3.5%) with DAPT (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; p < 0.001 for noninferiority). Ticagrelor was associated with lower risk for all-cause (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.96; p = 0.027) and cardiovascular (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.99; p = 0.044) mortality. Rates of myocardial infarction (2.01% vs. 2.05%; p = 0.88), stent thrombosis (0.29% vs. 0.38%; p = 0.32), and stroke (0.47% vs. 0.36%; p = 0.30) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk for major bleeding compared with standard DAPT, without a concomitant increase in ischemic events.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Quimioterapia Combinada , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(2): e009529, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of the infarct-related artery and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) are acute, prognostic biomarkers in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The clinical significance of IMR and LVEDP in combination is unknown. METHODS: IMR and LVEDP were prospectively measured in a prespecified substudy of the T-TIME clinical trial (Trial of Low Dose Adjunctive Alteplase During Primary PCI). IMR was measured using a pressure- and temperature-sensing guidewire following percutaneous coronary intervention. Prognostically established thresholds for IMR (>32) and LVEDP (>18 mm Hg) were predefined. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 Tesla) was acquired 2 to 7 days and 3 months postmyocardial infarction. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events, defined as cardiac death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/heart failure hospitalization at 1 year. RESULTS: IMR and LVEDP were both measured in 131 patients (mean age 59±10.7 years, 103 [78.6%] male, 48 [36.6%] with anterior myocardial infarction). The median IMR was 29 (interquartile range, 17-55), the median LVEDP was 17 mm Hg (interquartile range, 12-21), and the correlation between them was not statistically significant (r=0.15; P=0.087). Fifty-three patients (40%) had low IMR (≤32) and low LVEDP (≤18), 18 (14%) had low IMR and high LVEDP, 31 (24%) had high IMR and low LVEDP, while 29 (22%) had high IMR and high LVEDP. Infarct size (% LV mass), LV ejection fraction, final myocardial perfusion grade ≤1, TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade ≤2, and coronary flow reserve were associated with LVEDP/IMR group, as was hospitalization for heart failure (n=18 events; P=0.045) and major adverse cardiac events (n=21 events; P=0.051). LVEDP>18 and IMR>32 combined was associated with major adverse cardiac events, independent of age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and infarct-related artery (odds ratio, 5.80 [95% CI, 1.60-21.22] P=0.008). The net reclassification improvement for detecting major adverse cardiac events was 50.6% (95% CI, 2.7-98.2; P=0.033) when LVEDP>18 was added to IMR>32. CONCLUSIONS: IMR and LVEDP in combination have incremental value for risk stratification following primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02257294.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
19.
Chest ; 159(4): 1415-1425, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of ECG presentations of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in cardiogenic shock is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: In myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, is there a difference in the outcomes and effect of revascularization strategies between non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and left bundle branch block myocardial infarction (LBBBMI) vs ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cardiogenic shock patients from the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial with NSTEMI or LBBBMI were compared with STEMI patients for 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality. The interaction between ECG presentation and the effect of revascularization strategies on outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 665 cardiogenic shock patients analyzed, 55.9% demonstrated STEMI, 29.3% demonstrated NSTEMI, and 14.7% demonstrated LBBBMI. Patients differed in mean age (68.0 years in STEMI patients, 71.0 years in NSTEMI patients, and 73.5 years in LBBBMI patients; P = .015), cardiovascular risk factors, and angiographic severity. No difference was found in the 30-day risk of death between NSTEMI and STEMI patients (48.7% vs 43.0%; adjusted OR [aOR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.66-1.67; P = .85), nor between LBBBMI and STEMI patients (59.2% vs 43.0%; aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.73-2.34; P = .36). Although the univariate risk of death by 1 year was higher in NSTEMI and LBBBMI patients compared with STEMI patients, ECG presentation was not an independent risk factor of mortality after adjustment (NSTEMI vs STEMI: 56.4% vs 46.8%; aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.76-1.92; P = .42; LBBBMI vs STEMI: 69.4% vs 46.8%; aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.89-2.84; P = .12). ECG presentation did not modify the effect of the revascularization strategy on 30-day and 1-year mortality (P = .91 and P = .97 for interaction). INTERPRETATION: In patients with cardiogenic shock, NSTEMI and LBBBMI presentations reflect higher-risk profiles than STEMI presentations, but are not independent risk factors of mortality. ECG presentations did not modify the treatment effect, supporting culprit-lesion-only percutaneous coronary intervention as the preferred strategy across the AMI spectrum.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia , Idoso , Bloqueio de Ramo/complicações , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea
20.
EuroIntervention ; 17(3): 220-228, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel parameters that detect failed microvascular reperfusion might identify better the patients likely to benefit from adjunctive treatments during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). AIMS: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a novel invasive parameter, the thermodilution-derived temperature recovery time (TRT), would be associated with microvascular obstruction (MVO) and prognosis. METHODS: TRT was derived and validated in two independent ST-elevation myocardial infarction populations and was measured immediately post PCI. TRT was defined as the duration (seconds) from the nadir of the hyperaemic thermodilution curve to 20% from baseline body temperature. MVO extent (% left ventricular mass) was assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 2-7 days. RESULTS: In the retrospective derivation cohort (n=271, mean age 60±12 years, 72% male), higher TRT was associated with more MVO (coefficient: 4.09 [95% CI: 2.70-5.48], p<0.001), independently of IMR >32, CFR ≤2, hyperaemic Tmn >median, thermodilution waveform, age and ischaemic time. At five years, higher TRT was multivariably associated with all-cause death/heart failure hospitalisation (OR 4.14 [95% CI: 2.08-8.25], p<0.001) and major adverse cardiac events (OR 4.05 [95% CI: 2.00-8.21], p<0.001). In the validation population (n=144, mean age 59±11 years, 80% male), the findings were confirmed prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: TRT represents a novel diagnostic advance for predicting MVO and prognosis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02072850 & NCT02257294 Visual summary. Thermodilution-derived temperature recovery time (TRT): a novel predictor of microvascular reperfusion & prognosis after STEMI. CMR: cardiovascular magnetic resonance; MACE: major adverse cardiac events; MVO: microvascular obstruction; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Reperfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Temperatura , Termodiluição
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