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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104943, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an imperative need to determine the durability of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting S1 and M proteins and measured RBD-specific serum IgG over a period of 2-6 months after symptoms onset in a cohort of subjects who had recovered from severe clinical forms of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 58 patients (38 males and 20 females; median age, 62.5 years), who had been hospitalized with bilateral pneumonia, 60% with one or more comorbidities. IgG antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD were measured by ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+-expressing-IFNγ-producing-CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were enumerated in heparinized whole blood by flow cytometry for ICS. RESULTS: Detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M-reactive CD69+-IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were displayed in 17 (29.3%) and 6 (10.3%) subjects respectively, at a median of 84 days after onset of symptoms (range, 58-191 days). Concurrent comorbidities increased the risk (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.03-9.61; P = 0.04) of undetectable T-cell responses in models adjusted for age, sex and hospitalization ward. Twenty-one out of the 35 patients (60%) had detectable RBD-specific serum IgGs at a median of 118 days (range, 60-145 days) after symptoms onset. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG serum levels were found to drop significantly over time. CONCLUSION: A relatively limited number of subjects who developed severe forms of COVID-19 had detectable SARS-CoV-2-S1/M IFNγ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at midterm after clinical diagnosis. Our data also indicated that serum levels of RBD-specific IgGs decline over time, becoming undetectable in some patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2785-2794, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092033

RESUMO

Whether immunosuppression impairs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific T cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) after liver transplantation (LT) remains unknown. We included 31 LT recipients in whom SARS-CoV-2-CMI was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and interferon (IFN)-γ FluoroSpot assay after a median of 103 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. A control group of nontransplant immunocompetent patients were matched (1:1 ratio) by age and time from diagnosis. Post-transplant SARS-CoV-2-CMI was detected by ICS in 90.3% (28/31) of recipients, with higher proportions for IFN-γ-producing CD4+ than CD8+ responses (93.5% versus 83.9%). Positive spike-specific and nucleoprotein-specific responses were found by FluoroSpot in 86.7% (26/30) of recipients each, whereas membrane protein-specific response was present in 83.3% (25/30). An inverse correlation was observed between the number of spike-specific IFN-γ-producing SFUs and time from diagnosis (Spearman's rho: -0.418; p value = .024). Two recipients (6.5%) failed to mount either T cell-mediated or IgG responses. There were no significant differences between LT recipients and nontransplant patients in the magnitude of responses by FluoroSpot to any of the antigens. Most LT recipients mount detectable-but declining over time-SARS-CoV-2-CMI after a median of 3 months from COVID-19, with no meaningful differences with immunocompetent patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Fígado , Anticorpos Antivirais , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Transplantados
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1672-1677, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The immunogenicity of the Comirnaty® vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been adequately studied in elderly people with comorbidities. We assessed antibody and T-cell responses targeted to the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) following full vaccination in nursing-home residents. METHODS: Sixty nursing-home residents (44 female, age 53-100 years), of whom ten had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 18 healthy controls (15 female, age 27-54 years) were recruited. Pre- and post-vaccination blood specimens were available for quantification of total antibodies binding the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and for enumeration of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The seroconversion rate in (presumably) SARS-CoV-2-naïve nursing-home residents (41/43, 95.3%) was similar to that in controls (17/18, 94.4%). A booster effect was documented in post-vaccination samples of nursing-home residents with prior COVID-19. Plasma antibody levels were higher (p < 0.01) in recovered nursing-home residents (all 2500 IU/mL) than in individuals across the other two groups (median 1120 IU/mL in naïve nursing-home residents and 2211 IU/ml in controls). A large percentage of nursing-home residents had SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ (naïve 31/49, 63.2%; recovered 8/10, 80%) or CD4+ T cells (naïve 35/49, 71.4%; recovered 7/10, 70%) at baseline, in contrast to healthy controls (3/17, 17.6% and 5/17, 29%, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were documented in 88% (15/17) and all control subjects after vaccination, respectively, but only in 65.5% (38/58) and 22.4% (13/58) of nursing-home residents. Overall, the median frequency of SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in nursing-home residents decreased in post-vaccination specimens, whereas it increased in controls. CONCLUSION: The Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine elicits robust SARS-CoV-2 S antibody responses in nursing-home residents. Nevertheless, the rate and frequency of detectable SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ T-cell responses after vaccination was lower in nursing-home residents than in controls.

9.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(9): 1925-1932, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876385

RESUMO

We optimized and prospectively evaluated a simple MALDI-TOF MS-based method for direct detection of third-generation oxymino-cephalosporin resistance (3rd CephR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from blood cultures (BC). In addition, we assessed the performance of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIC) for detecting extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) (NG-Test CTX-M MULTI assay) using bacterial pellets from BC. A total of 168 BCs from unique patients were included. A pre-established volume of BC flagged as positive was transferred in brain heart infusion with or without ceftriaxone (2 mg/ml). After 2-h incubation, intact bacterial pellets were used for MALDI-TOF MS testing. Identification of bacterial species (index score > 2) in the presence of CRO was considered marker of 3rd CephR. The LFIC assay was evaluated in 141 BC. Bacteremia episodes were caused by E. coli (n = 115) or Klebsiella spp. (n = 53). A total of 49 strains were 3rd CephR by broth microdilution, of which 41 were ESBL producers, seven expressed ESBL and OXA-48 type D carbapenemase, and one harbored a plasmid-mediated AmpC. The MALDI-TOF MS method yielded four very major errors (false susceptibility) and two major errors (false resistance). The overall sensitivity of the assay was 91.8% and the specificity 98.3%. Concordance between the LFIC assay and the MALDI-TOF MS method for detection of ESBL-mediated 3rd CephR was 100%. Both evaluated methods may prove useful for early adjustment of empirical therapy in patients with E. coli and Klebsiella spp. bloodstream infections. Whether their use has a beneficial impact on patient outcomes is currently under investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Infecções por Klebsiella/sangue , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
10.
Transplantation ; 105(6): 1372-1380, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude and kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-specific interferon-γ-producing CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at months 4 and 6 from the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 21 KT recipients by intracellular cytokine staining. Overlapping peptides encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein N-terminal 1- to 643-amino acid sequence and the membrane protein were used as stimulus. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies targeting the S1 protein were assessed by ELISA at month 6. RESULTS: Detectable (≥0.1%) SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell response was found in 57.1% and 47.4% of patients at months 4 and 6. Corresponding rates for CD8+ T cells were 19.0% and 42.1%, respectively. Absolute SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell counts increased from month 4 to month 6 in CD8+ (P = 0.086) but not CD4+ subsets (P = 0.349). Four of 10 patients with any detectable response at month 4 had lost SARS-CoV-2-CMI by month 6, whereas 5 of 9 patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-CMI within this period. All but 2 patients (89.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Patients lacking detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response by month 6 were more likely to be under tacrolimus (100.0% versus 66.7%; P = 0.087) and to have received tocilizumab for the previous COVID-19 episode (40.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: Although still exploratory and limited by small sample size, the present study suggests that a substantial proportion of KT recipients exhibited detectable SARS-CoV-2-CMI after 6 months from COVID-19 diagnosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplantados
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508654

RESUMO

Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a public health issue, due to their great impact on morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Objective: We aimed to study the percentage of patients admitted urgently as a result of an ADR, considered serious adverse event, or medication error. Also, we intended to identify possible risk factors which would lead to improvements in the prescription and use of medications. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study conducted during February 2019, including patients admitted through the emergency department in our hospital. We evaluated the medical records of those with suspected ADR diagnoses to perform a descriptive analysis of the demographic characteristics. Moreover, after applying the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System causality algorithm, we performed a descriptive analysis of the identified ADR and the drugs involved. We also investigated those cases suspected of being a medication error. Results: During the study period, 847 patients were urgently hospitalized. From those, 71 (29 women and 42 men) were admitted due to an ADR (8.4%, 95% CI 6.5%-10.3%). The mean age was 73 ± 15.9 years old and the mean number of prescribed medications was 7.3 ± 3.6 drugs/patient on admission. The most frequent ADR were opportunistic infections due to antineoplastic and immunomodulator drugs, and bleeding due to antiaggregants and anticoagulants. Five suspected medication errors occurred, being the incidence 0.6% (95% CI 0.08%-1.12%) of total admissions. Conclusions: 8.4% of urgent admissions were attributed to an ADR. Age (75% of patients were ≥ 65 years old), comorbidities and polymedication were the main risk factors. Although medication errors had a very low incidence (0.6% of urgent admissions), they were preventable and should be considered as a focus for action.

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