Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(4): 897-905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419546

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents the most lethal form of primary immunodeficiency, with mortality rates of greater than 90% within the first year of life without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are the only curative treatments available, and the best-known prognostic factors for success are age at diagnosis, age at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the comorbidities that develop in between. There are no evidence-based guidelines for standardized clinical care for patients with SCID during the time between diagnosis and definitive treatment, and we aim to generate a consensus management strategy on the supportive care of patients with SCID. First, we gathered available information about SCID diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, then we developed a document including diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and finally we submitted the interventions for expert consensus through a modified Delphi technique. Interventions are grouped in 10 topic domains, including 123 "agreed" and 38 "nonagreed" statements. This document intends to standardize supportive clinical care of patients with SCID from diagnosis to definitive treatment, reduce disease burden, and ultimately improve prognosis, particularly in countries where newborn screening for SCID is not universally available and delayed diagnosis is the rule. Our work intends to provide a tool not only for immunologists but also for primary care physicians and other specialists involved in the care of patients with SCID.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
5.
J Clin Invest ; 128(9): 3957-3975, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969437

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of the NCF4 gene, encoding the p40phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, have been described in only 1 patient. We report on 24 p40phox-deficient patients from 12 additional families in 8 countries. These patients display 8 different in-frame or out-of-frame mutations of NCF4 that are homozygous in 11 of the families and compound heterozygous in another. When overexpressed in NB4 neutrophil-like cells and EBV-transformed B cells in vitro, the mutant alleles were found to be LOF, with the exception of the p.R58C and c.120_134del alleles, which were hypomorphic. Particle-induced NADPH oxidase activity was severely impaired in the patients' neutrophils, whereas PMA-induced dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 (DHR) oxidation, which is widely used as a diagnostic test for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), was normal or mildly impaired in the patients. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase activity of EBV-transformed B cells was also severely impaired, whereas that of mononuclear phagocytes was normal. Finally, the killing of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by neutrophils was conserved in these patients, unlike in patients with CGD. The patients suffer from hyperinflammation and peripheral infections, but they do not have any of the invasive bacterial or fungal infections seen in CGD. Inherited p40phox deficiency underlies a distinctive condition, resembling a mild, atypical form of CGD.

6.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 78(2): 123-126, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659363

RESUMO

WHIM syndrome is a primary autosomal dominant immuno deficiency due to CXCR4 mutations characterized by mucocutaneous warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and myelokathesis. Treatment consists in prophylactic antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement and granulocyte or granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factors. We present the case of a 21 year old woman who showed leukopenia at 10 months of age and one year later multiple infections with hypogammaglobulinemia requiring intravenous immunoglobulin. During follow up she developed chronic neutropenia. A bone marrow aspiration showed increased myeloid series with predominance of immature elements. On the basis of infections, low levels of IgG, IgA, IgM and lymphopenia with absent memory B cells, a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was made. She started intravenous immunoglobulin replacement and prophylactic antibiotics. At age 20, small warts in hands that progressed to forearms, knees, abdomen and face were recorded. CXCR4 gene sequencing was done detecting a heterozygous p.Arg334STOP mutation, confirming WHIM syndrome. This disease is infrequent and difficult to diagnose.

7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 123-126, abr. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954961

RESUMO

El síndrome WHIM es una inmunodeficiencia primaria de herencia autosómica dominante, debida a mutaciones en el gen CXCR4, que se caracteriza por verrugas cutáneo-mucosas, hipogammaglobulinemia, infecciones bacterianas recurrentes y mielocatesis. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de antibióticos profilácticos, gammaglobulina en dosis sustitutiva y factores estimulantes de colonias de granulocitos o de granulocitos y macrófagos, en forma crónica. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 21 años que comenzó a los 10 meses de edad con leucopenia y al siguiente año múltiples infecciones con hipogammaglobulinemia requiriendo gammaglobulina endovenosa durante los episodios. Evolucionó con neutropenia crónica. Una punción aspiración de médula ósea mostró la serie mieloide aumentada con ligero predominio de elementos inmaduros. El cuadro fue interpretado como inmunodeficiencia común variable debido a la asociación de múltiples cuadros infecciosos, niveles disminuidos de IgG, IgM e IgA y linfopenia con disminución de linfocitos B de memoria, por lo que comenzó tratamiento sustitutivo con gammaglobulina endovenosa más antibióticos profilácticos. A los 20 años se registraron pequeñas verrugas en manos que progresaron hacia antebrazos, abdomen, cara y rodillas. Se realizaron estudios moleculares para la búsqueda de mutaciones en el gen CXCR4 donde se detectó la mutación p.Arg334STOP en estado heterocigota confirmando el diagnóstico de síndrome WHIM, que es una inmunodeficiencia infrecuente y de difícil diagnóstico.


WHIM syndrome is a primary autosomal dominant immuno deficiency due to CXCR4 mutations characterized by mucocutaneous warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and myelokathesis. Treatment consists in prophylactic antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement and granulocyte or granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factors. We present the case of a 21 year old woman who showed leukopenia at 10 months of age and one year later multiple infections with hypogammaglobulinemia requiring intravenous immunoglobulin. During follow up she developed chronic neutropenia. A bone marrow aspiration showed increased myeloid series with predominance of immature elements. On the basis of infections, low levels of IgG, IgA, IgM and lymphopenia with absent memory B cells, a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was made. She started intravenous immunoglobulin replacement and prophylactic antibiotics. At age 20, small warts in hands that progressed to forearms, knees, abdomen and face were recorded. CXCR4 gene sequencing was done detecting a heterozygous p.Arg334STOP mutation, confirming WHIM syndrome. This disease is infrequent and difficult to diagnose.

8.
Buenos Aires; Médica Panamericana; 2018. 180 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-882735

RESUMO

La patología respiratoria presenta un gran desafío para las instituciones de salud, por su frecuencia, su complejidad diagnóstica y terapéutica y la carga que representa en costos económicos y vitales. Estos conceptos se extienden a todos los grupos etarios y sus características han ido cambiando a lo largo del tiempo ante los avances producidos en las inmunizaciones, los métodos diagnósticos y los tratamientos. Aún así, las infecciones respiratorias bajas son todavía la causa más frecuente de consulta, internación, morbilidad crónica, discapacidad y mortalidad en pediatría. Este nuevo volumen aborda esta temática especial y entre sus características se destacan: El estudio de las patologías más frecuentes en los diferentes ámbitos de atención pero en particular en el primer nivel, con una exposición centrada en los aspectos que facilitan el diagnóstico rápido y el tratamiento adecuado, con el menor uso de recursos y con pautas que fijan la derivación oportuna hacia el especialista o hacia una institución de mayor complejidad. El desarrollo de importantes temas, como la patología obstructiva de la vía aérea superior, su estudio diagnóstico y sus formas recurrentes; bronquiolitis; las intercurrencias respiratorias en pacientes con condiciones clínicas especiales; y la supuración pleuropulmonar. La inclusión, en todos los capítulos, de casos clínicos con su evolución y desenlace, textos destacados con los principales conceptos y puntos claves para recordar. Una obra sólida y práctica, que transmite la experiencia de los profesionales de una institución del prestigio internacional del Hospital dePediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan, dedicada a todos los pediatras, dondequiera que trabajen al servicio de la salud de los niños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Argentina , Asma , Bronquiolite , Hemoptise , Laringe/anormalidades , Doenças Neuromusculares , Oxigenoterapia , Derrame Pleural , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Traqueostomia
10.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1192-1201, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628108

RESUMO

Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Patient T cells had similar defects, as well as low production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The mTORC1 and IFN-γ production defects were partially rescued by supplementation with glutamine, which requires CARD11 for import into T cells. Our findings indicate that a single hypomorphic mutation in CARD11 can cause potentially correctable cellular defects that lead to atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(3): 913-922, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by impaired immunoglobulin production and usually presents with a normal quantity of peripheral B cells. Most attempts aiming to classify these patients have mainly been focused on T- or B-cell phenotypes and their ability to produce protective antibodies, but it is still a major challenge to find a suitable classification that includes the clinical and immunologic heterogeneity of these patients. OBJECTIVE: In this study we evaluated the late stages of B-cell differentiation in a heterogeneous population of patients with pediatric-onset CVID to clinically correlate and assess their ability to perform somatic hypermutation (SHM), class-switch recombination (CSR), or both. METHODS: We performed a previously reported assay, the restriction enzyme hotspot mutation assay (IgκREHMA), to evaluate in vivo SHM status. We amplified switch regions from genomic DNA to investigate the quality of the double-strand break repairs in the class-switch recombination process in vivo. We also tested the ability to generate immunoglobulin germline and circle transcripts and to upregulate the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene through in vitro T-dependent and T-independent stimuli. RESULTS: Our results showed that patients could be classified into 2 groups according to their degree of SHM alteration. This stratification showed a significant association between patients of group A, severe alteration, and the presence of noninfectious complications. Additionally, 60% of patients presented with increased microhomology use at switched regions. In vitro activation revealed that patients with CVID behaved heterogeneously in terms of responsiveness to T-dependent stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between noninfectious complications and SHM could be an important tool for physicians to further characterize patients with CVID. This categorization would help to improve elucidation of the complex mechanisms involved in B-cell differentiation pathways.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Adolescente , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Região de Troca de Imunoglobulinas , Lactente , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Recombinação Genética , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(1): 232-241, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline heterozygous mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) can cause loss of function (LOF), as in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, or gain of function (GOF), as in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. LOF and GOF mutations are equally rare and can affect the same domains of STAT1, especially the coiled-coil domain (CCD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD). Moreover, 6% of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with a GOF STAT1 mutation have mycobacterial disease, obscuring the functional significance of the identified STAT1 mutations. Current computational approaches, such as combined annotation-dependent depletion, do not distinguish LOF and GOF variants. OBJECTIVE: We estimated variations in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. METHODS: We mutagenized 342 individual wild-type amino acids in the CCD/DBD (45.6% of full-length STAT1) to alanine and tested the mutants for STAT1 transcriptional activity. RESULTS: Of these 342 mutants, 201 were neutral, 30 were LOF, and 111 were GOF mutations in a luciferase assay. This assay system correctly estimated all previously reported LOF mutations (100%) and slightly fewer GOF mutations (78.1%) in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. We found that GOF alanine mutants occurred at the interface of the antiparallel STAT1 dimer, suggesting that they destabilize this dimer. This assay also precisely predicted the effect of 2 hypomorphic and dominant negative mutations, E157K and G250E, in the CCD of STAT1 that we found in 2 unrelated patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. CONCLUSION: The systematic alanine-scanning assay is a useful tool to estimate the GOF or LOF status and the effect of heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1 identified in patients with severe infectious diseases, including mycobacterial and fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Alanina/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Bioensaio , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutagênese , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(51): E8277-E8285, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930337

RESUMO

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is defined as recurrent or persistent infection of the skin, nails, and/or mucosae with commensal Candida species. The first genetic etiology of isolated CMC-autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) deficiency-was reported in 2011, in a single patient. We report here 21 patients with complete AR IL-17RA deficiency, including this first patient. Each patient is homozygous for 1 of 12 different IL-17RA alleles, 8 of which create a premature stop codon upstream from the transmembrane domain and have been predicted and/or shown to prevent expression of the receptor on the surface of circulating leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Three other mutant alleles create a premature stop codon downstream from the transmembrane domain, one of which encodes a surface-expressed receptor. Finally, the only known missense allele (p.D387N) also encodes a surface-expressed receptor. All of the alleles tested abolish cellular responses to IL-17A and -17F homodimers and heterodimers in fibroblasts and to IL-17E/IL-25 in leukocytes. The patients are currently aged from 2 to 35 y and originate from 12 unrelated kindreds. All had their first CMC episode by 6 mo of age. Fourteen patients presented various forms of staphylococcal skin disease. Eight were also prone to various bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. Human IL-17RA is, thus, essential for mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococcus, but otherwise largely redundant. A diagnosis of AR IL-17RA deficiency should be considered in children or adults with CMC, cutaneous staphylococcal disease, or both, even if IL-17RA is detected on the cell surface.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Micoses/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-17/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-17/genética , Alelos , Candida , Membrana Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Linhagem , Receptores de Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 76(2): 65-70, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135842

RESUMO

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by absent or severely reduced B cells, low or undetectable immunoglobulin levels and clinically by extracellular bacterial infections which mainly compromise the respiratory tract as well as recurrent diarrheas. The mainstay of treatment is gammaglobulin replacement therapy, which allows most patients to reach adulthood with high quality of life. We analyzed the clinical features of 14 patients over 18 years of age with XLA diagnosis that received treatment in our unit from the year 2003, the date the first patient was derived, until 2015. The average age at which patients were referred was 20.4 years old; age at the last consult was 25.5. The average follow-up time was 59.8 months. Previously to being diagnosed all patients had suffered infections, most frequently respiratory. After diagnosis all were started on intravenous gammaglobulin replacement treatment and in spite of infections being reduced in severity and frequency, there were cases of severe disease with long term sequelae. At the beginning of our follow-up 35.7% presented impaired respiratory function with only one case being severe. In no cases during this period did the respiratory function worsen, nor were there severe clinical complications. Three patients were switched to subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment with good tolerance. The number of XLA cases is increasing, as most reach the second decade of life without serious complications and remain free of severe infectious disease and further impairment of their respiratory functions with the treatment.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , gama-Globulinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Blood ; 127(25): 3154-64, 2016 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114460

RESUMO

Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274 patients from 167 kindreds originating from 40 countries from 5 continents. Demographic data, clinical features, immunological parameters, treatment, and outcome were recorded. The median age of the 274 patients was 22 years (range, 1-71 years); 98% of them had CMC, with a median age at onset of 1 year (range, 0-24 years). Patients often displayed bacterial (74%) infections, mostly because of Staphylococcus aureus (36%), including the respiratory tract and the skin in 47% and 28% of patients, respectively, and viral (38%) infections, mostly because of Herpesviridae (83%) and affecting the skin in 32% of patients. Invasive fungal infections (10%), mostly caused by Candida spp. (29%), and mycobacterial disease (6%) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, environmental mycobacteria, or Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines were less common. Many patients had autoimmune manifestations (37%), including hypothyroidism (22%), type 1 diabetes (4%), blood cytopenia (4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (2%). Invasive infections (25%), cerebral aneurysms (6%), and cancers (6%) were the strongest predictors of poor outcome. CMC persisted in 39% of the 202 patients receiving prolonged antifungal treatment. Circulating interleukin-17A-producing T-cell count was low for most (82%) but not all of the patients tested. STAT1 GOF mutations underlie AD CMC, as well as an unexpectedly wide range of other clinical features, including not only a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but also cerebral aneurysms and carcinomas that confer a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(2): 65-70, abr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-841544

RESUMO

La agammaglobulinemia ligada al cromosoma X (XLA) se caracteriza por la ausencia o reducción significativa de linfocitos B, niveles bajos o indetectables de inmunoglobulinas y, clínicamente, por infecciones principalmente respiratorias por bacterias capsuladas extracelulares y diarrea recurrente. El tratamiento de reemplazo con gammaglobulina ha permitido a la mayor parte de los enfermos llegar a adultos con una buena calidad de vida. Analizamos las características clínicas de 14 pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de XLA asistidos en nuestra Unidad desde 2003, fecha en que fue derivado el primer paciente, hasta 2015. La edad promedio en el momento de la derivación fue de 20.4 años, en el momento de la última consulta de 25.5. El tiempo promedio de seguimiento fue de 59.8 meses. Previo al diagnóstico todos habían presentado infecciones, las más frecuentes fueron las respiratorias. Posteriormente al diagnóstico todos iniciaron tratamiento de reemplazo con gammaglobulina endovenosa, y a pesar de que las infecciones disminuyeron en frecuencia y gravedad, en este período se presentaron enfermedades con secuelas graves. Al comenzar el seguimiento en nuestra Unidad, 35.7% presentaban deterioro de la función respiratoria, solo grave en un paciente. Durante el seguimiento ninguno presentó deterioro de la función respiratoria ni complicaciones clínicas importantes. Tres pasaron a gammaglobulina subcutánea con buena tolerancia. El número de adultos con XLA es cada vez mayor, la mayoría llegan a la segunda década de la vida sin complicaciones graves y bajo tratamiento se mantienen libres de enfermedades infecciosas graves y de progresión de sus secuelas pulmonares.


X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by absent or severely reduced B cells, low or undetectable immunoglobulin levels and clinically by extracellular bacterial infections which mainly compromise the respiratory tract as well as recurrent diarrheas. The mainstay of treatment is gammaglobulin replacement therapy, which allows most patients to reach adulthood with high quality of life. We analyzed the clinical features of 14 patients over 18 years of age with XLA diagnosis that received treatment in our unit from the year 2003, the date the first patient was derived, until 2015. The average age at which patients were referred was 20.4 years old; age at the last consult was 25.5. The average follow-up time was 59.8 months. Previously to being diagnosed all patients had suffered infections, most frequently respiratory. After diagnosis all were started on intravenous gammaglobulin replacement treatment and in spite of infections being reduced in severity and frequency, there were cases of severe disease with long term sequelae. At the beginning of our follow-up 35.7% presented impaired respiratory function with only one case being severe. In no cases during this period did the respiratory function worsen, nor were there severe clinical complications. Three patients were switched to subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment with good tolerance. The number of XLA cases is increasing, as most reach the second decade of life without serious complications and remain free of severe infectious disease and further impairment of their respiratory functions with the treatment.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(1): 241-248.e3, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by inborn errors of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex. From the first year of life onward, most affected patients display multiple, severe, and recurrent infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial infections have also been reported in some patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of mycobacterial disease in patients with CGD. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical features of mycobacterial disease in 71 patients with CGD. Tuberculosis and BCG disease were diagnosed on the basis of microbiological, pathological, and/or clinical criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-one (44%) patients had tuberculosis, and 53 (75%) presented with adverse effects of BCG vaccination; 13 (18%) had both tuberculosis and BCG infections. None of these patients displayed clinical disease caused by environmental mycobacteria, Mycobacterium leprae, or Mycobacterium ulcerans. Most patients (76%) also had other pyogenic and fungal infections, but 24% presented solely with mycobacterial disease. Most patients presented a single localized episode of mycobacterial disease (37%), but recurrence (18%), disseminated disease (27%), and even death (18%) were also observed. One common feature in these patients was an early age at presentation for BCG disease. Mycobacterial disease was the first clinical manifestation of CGD in 60% of these patients. CONCLUSION: Mycobacterial disease is relatively common in patients with CGD living in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic, BCG vaccine is mandatory, or both. Adverse reactions to BCG and severe forms of tuberculosis should lead to a suspicion of CGD. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with CGD.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/mortalidade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/etiologia
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 62(12): 2101-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185101

RESUMO

AIM: We analyzed data from 71 patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) with a confirmed genetic diagnosis, registered in the online Latin American Society of Primary Immunodeficiencies (LASID) database. RESULTS: Latin American CGD patients presented with recurrent and severe infections caused by several organisms. The mean age at disease onset was 23.9 months, and the mean age at CGD diagnosis was 52.7 months. Recurrent pneumonia was the most frequent clinical condition (76.8%), followed by lymphadenopathy (59.4%), granulomata (49.3%), skin infections (42%), chronic diarrhea (41.9%), otitis (29%), sepsis (23.2%), abscesses (21.7%), recurrent urinary tract infection (20.3%), and osteomyelitis (15.9%). Adverse reactions to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination were identified in 30% of the studied Latin American CGD cases. The genetic diagnoses of the 71 patients revealed 53 patients from 47 families with heterogeneous mutations in the CYBB gene (five novel mutations: p.W361G, p.C282X, p.W483R, p.R226X, and p.Q93X), 16 patients with the common deletion c.75_76 del.GT in exon 2 of NCF1 gene, and two patients with mutations in the CYBA gene. CONCLUSION: The majority of Latin American CGD patients carry a hemizygous mutation in the CYBB gene. They also presented a wide range of clinical manifestations most frequently bacterial and fungal infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and lymph nodes. Thirty percent of the Latin American CGD patients presented adverse reactions to BCG, indicating that this vaccine should be avoided in these patients.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Sistema de Registros , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Abscesso/etiologia , Abscesso/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/genética , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Linfáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Linfáticas/etiologia , Doenças Linfáticas/genética , Masculino , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/genética , Otite/epidemiologia , Otite/etiologia , Otite/genética , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/genética , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/genética , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/genética
19.
N Engl J Med ; 371(15): 1407-17, 2014 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous clinical trials involving children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based γ-retrovirus vector expressing interleukin-2 receptor γ-chain (γc) complementary DNA successfully restored immunity in most patients but resulted in vector-induced leukemia through enhancer-mediated mutagenesis in 25% of patients. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a self-inactivating retrovirus for the treatment of SCID-X1. METHODS: We enrolled nine boys with SCID-X1 in parallel trials in Europe and the United States to evaluate treatment with a self-inactivating (SIN) γ-retrovirus vector containing deletions in viral enhancer sequences expressing γc (SIN-γc). RESULTS: All patients received bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells transduced with the SIN-γc vector, without preparative conditioning. After 12.1 to 38.7 months of follow-up, eight of the nine children were still alive. One patient died from an overwhelming adenoviral infection before reconstitution with genetically modified T cells. Of the remaining eight patients, seven had recovery of peripheral-blood T cells that were functional and led to resolution of infections. The patients remained healthy thereafter. The kinetics of CD3+ T-cell recovery was not significantly different from that observed in previous trials. Assessment of insertion sites in peripheral blood from patients in the current trial as compared with those in previous trials revealed significantly less clustering of insertion sites within LMO2, MECOM, and other lymphoid proto-oncogenes in our patients. CONCLUSIONS: This modified γ-retrovirus vector was found to retain efficacy in the treatment of SCID-X1. The long-term effect of this therapy on leukemogenesis remains unknown. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.).


Assuntos
Gammaretrovirus/genética , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Animais , Antígenos CD34 , DNA Complementar/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes/fisiologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia
20.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 112(4): e147-51, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24955914

RESUMO

Different primary immunodeficiencies present increased levels of IgE and cutaneous infections of viral etiology. We report a case of a 2 y, 8 m old boy with combined immunodeficiency, dermatitis and disseminated molluscum contagiosum. The patient presented high titers of IgE, eosinophilia and pronounced TCD8 lymphopenia. Impaired proliferation assays and abnormal antibody response to vaccination were found. Normal results of ZAP-70 protein, NK function, and HLA I levels, to test quantitatives and functional defects of cytotoxic cells, lead us to suspect a mutation in DOCK8 gene. Positive result in molecular study together with clinical and immunology features in the patient confirmed the diagnosis of this new immunodeficiency, being to the authors' knowledge the first case recorded in a paediatric hospital in our country.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA