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1.
Ethol Ecol Evol ; 26(2-3): 152-171, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24899770

RESUMO

The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 58(1): 39-44, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18954880

RESUMO

The amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator is an established, easily accessible, biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities in coastal waters. We have carried out a geographically widespread collection of T. saltator from European shores, stretching from the north-west Atlantic through the Baltic to the Mediterranean. A primary aim of the work was to establish a database of accumulated trace metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in this biomonitor. Statistical analysis has shown significant geographical differences in the bioavailabilities of all the metals, the most distinct being copper, iron and manganese. It has proved possible to identify unusually high accumulated concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in this biomonitor, indicative of high metal bioavailability at a particular site. These may serve as reference points for future biomonitoring programmes seeking to identify metal contamination in coastal waters.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química
3.
Ambio ; 30(4-5): 202-9, 2001 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11697251

RESUMO

The biogeographical peculiarities of the Baltic Sea have developed since the last glacial period. The characteristic mixture of marine, brackish water, and freshwater species, and relicts from previous periods in the Baltic, is threatened by ongoing environmental changes. This review focuses on the recent impacts of nonindigenous species, eutrophication, and a temporary oxygen deficit in the deep basins, on the biogeographical integrity of the Baltic on different spatial and time scales. Today the biota of brackish waterbodies are exposed to each other because of the breakdown in geographical barriers due to shipping traffic, leading to an exchange of species and further homogenization of aquatic animal and plant life worldwide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Navios , Água/química , Animais , Países Bálticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Geografia , Hipóxia , Plantas , Dinâmica Populacional
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