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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is characterized by the somatic FOXL2 p.C134W mutation, and recurrences have been associated with TERT promoter and KMT2D-truncating mutations. Conversely, the molecular underpinnings of the rare juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) have not been well elucidated. To this end, we applied a tumor-only integrated approach to investigate the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic landscape of 31 JGCTs to identify putative oncogenic drivers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Multipronged analyses of 31 JGCTs were performed utilizing a clinically validated next-generation sequencing (NGS)-panel targeting 580 cancer-related genes for genomic interrogation, in addition to targeted RNA NGS for transcriptomic exploration. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was conducted using an Infinium Methylation EPIC array targeting 866,562 CpG methylation sites. RESULTS: We identified frequent KMT2C-truncating mutations along with other mutated genes implicated in the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, in addition to previously reported hotspot AKT1 and DICER1 mutations. Targeted transcriptome sequencing revealed recurrent TERT rearrangements (13%) involving partners CLPTM1L or DROSHA, and differential gene expression analysis showed FGFR1 upregulation in the TERT non-rearranged JGCTs under direct promoter control. Genome-wide DNA methylation rendered a clear delineation between AGCTs and JGCTs at the epigenomic level further supporting its diagnostic utility in distinguishing among these tumors. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest comprehensive molecular study of JGCTs, where we further expand our current understanding of JGCT pathogenesis and demonstrate putative oncogenic drivers and TERT rearrangements in a subset of tumors. Our findings further offer insights into possible targeted therapies in a rare entity.

2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985047

RESUMO

Cervical clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare human papillomavirus-independent adenocarcinoma. While recent studies have focused on gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (GTA), little is known about CCC. A total of 58 (CCCs) were collected from 14 international institutions and retrospectively analyzed using univariable and multivariable methods and compared with 36 gastric-type adenocarcinomas and 173 human papillomavirus-associated (HPVA) endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA) regarding overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Most cases were FIGO stage I (72.4%), with Silva C pattern of invasion (77.6%), and the majority were treated with radical surgery (84.5%) and adjuvant therapy (55.2%). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 31%, while lymph node metastasis was seen in 24.1%; 10.3% were associated with abdominopelvic metastases at the time of diagnosis; 32.8% had recurrences, and 19% died of disease. We did not find statistically significant differences in OS and RFS between CCC and GTA at 5 and 10 years (P=0.313 and 0.508, respectively), but there were significant differences in both OS and RFS between CCC and HPVA ECA (P=0.003 and 0.032, respectively). Also, OS and RFS in stage I clear cell and GTA were similar (P=0.632 and 0.692, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that OS is influenced by the presence of recurrence (P=0.009), while RFS is influenced by the FIGO stage (P=0.025). Cervical CCC has poorer outcomes than HPVA ECA and similar outcomes to human papillomavirus-independent GTA. Oncologic treatment significantly influences RFS in univariate analysis but is not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis suggesting that alternative therapies should be investigated.

3.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864774

RESUMO

HIK1083 and trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) are known to be expressed in gastric-type carcinoma (GAS), but they do not reliably mark all GASs, and focal expression can be missed in biopsy specimens. We aimed to investigate whether claudin-18 and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) could be surrogate markers to separate GAS from other types of endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA) and to compare their usefulness with that of HIK1083 and TFF2. Claudin-18 and AMACR immunohistochemistry was performed, and the results were compared with that of TFF2 and HIK1083, using whole sections of 75 ECAs (22 GASs and 53 non-GASs) and 179 ECAs with tissue microarrays (TMAs). TMAs were built to simulate the assessment of immunohistochemical stains in small biopsies. Any membranous (claudin-18) or cytoplasmic/membranous (AMACR, TFF2, HIK1083) staining of >5% of tumor cells was considered positive. Of 75 ECAs with whole sections, claudin-18 was significantly more frequently expressed in GASs (21/22) compared with non-GASs (8/53) (P<0.01). In ECAs with TMAs, claudin-18 expression was significantly frequent in GASs (15/23, 65.2%) than in non-GASs (3/152, 2.0%; all usual-type) (P<0.01). All claudin-18-positive GASs showed intense staining except 1 case. Claudin-18 shared the same degree of sensitivity and specificity with HIK1083 and TFF2. Three clear cell carcinomas were positive for claudin-18, but none showed intense staining. AMACR was expressed in a subset of ECAs and showed no impact in distinguishing between GAS and other ECAs. Our results suggest that claudin-18 is a promising surrogate marker to separate GAS from other types of ECA, including clear cell carcinoma.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907995

RESUMO

We report 4 neoplasms of the kidney (2 cases) and uterus (2 cases) harboring rearrangements or amplifications of the GLI1 gene, which because of their unusual clinical presentation, morphology, and immunoprofile mimicked other neoplasms, causing significant diagnostic challenge. The neoplasms occurred in 4 female patients ages 33 to 88 years. Histologically they all demonstrated nodular growth, solid architecture, bland epithelioid to ovoid-spindle cells with pale cytoplasm set in a variably myxoid or hyalinized stroma. One uterine tumor also demonstrated a focal round cell pattern, while another demonstrated focal pleomorphism. Unlike most previously reported neoplasms with these genetic abnormalities, the neoplasms in the current series were negative for S100 protein and minimally reactive for actin. All labeled for CD10 and cyclin D1, while 2 labeled for estrogen receptor and BCOR and 1 labeled for desmin, raising consideration of endometrial stromal sarcoma, myxoid leiomyosarcoma, metastatic breast carcinoma, and glomus tumor. One renal neoplasm demonstrated a GLI1-FOXO4 gene fusion and the other harbored a GLI1 gene rearrangement (unknown partner). The 2 uterine neoplasms exhibited GLI1 gene amplifications. GLI1-altered neoplasms (particularly those with GLI1 amplification) show variable morphology and lack a consistent immunophenotype, and thus may trigger diagnostic challenges which can be resolved by molecular testing.

5.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine if deficiency of mismatch repair (dMMR) proteins in patients with early-stage favorable endometrial cancer treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VB) is associated with increased recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 141 patients with stage I to II grade 1 and 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma treated with surgery and adjuvant VB was performed to compare recurrence risk in dMMR (n=41) versus MMR-preserved (pMMR) (n=100). Additional clinical and pathologic risk factors were also collected. Univariate analysis and multivariable analysis Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with any recurrence. Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to compare recurrence free survival and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Median follow up was 42 months. Forty-one patients (29%) were dMMR. There were 7 recurrences (17%) in dMMR versus 4 recurrences (4%) in pMMR (P=0.009). On univariate analysis of any recurrence, both dMMR (hazard ratio: 5.3, P=0.008) and stage (hazard ratio: 3.8, P=0.05) were statistically significantly associated with time to first recurrence. The 5-year recurrence free survival was 90% (95% CI: 73%-96%) in pMMR versus 61.0% (95% CI: 19%-86%) in dMMR (P=0.003). Five-year OS was 96% (95% CI: 76%-99%) in pMMR versus 86% (95% CI: 62%-95%) in dMMR (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: MMR deficiency in stage I to II grade 1 to 2 endometrial cancer patients treated with adjuvant VB alone was associated with statistically significant increased risk for any recurrence and worse OS. MMR status may be an important prognosticator in this cohort of patients warranting adjuvant treatment intensification in the clinical trial setting.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) update on cervical cancer staging eliminated horizontal tumor extent (HZTE) as a staging parameter in stage IA (microscopic) disease. We aimed to determine whether HZTE correlates with outcomes in early stage ECAs and FIGO should reinstate HZTE as a staging parameter in futures updates. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 416 FIGO 2009 stage I ECAs from 17 institutions and re-assigned stage using FIGO 2018. Correlation between HZTE, overall (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) was performed using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Re-staging 416 cases resulted in 126 (30.3%) IA and 290 (69.7%) IB cases; 85 (67.5%) IA tumors had HZTE ≤ 7 mm, while 41 (32.5%) were > 7 mm; 32 (11%) IB tumors had HZTE ≤ 7 mm, while 258 (89%) were > 7 mm (p = 0.0001). Four (3.2%) IA (1 IA1, 3 IA2) patients developed recurrence (3 ≤ 7 mm, 1 > 7 mm) compared to 41 (14.1%) IB patients (p = 0.002). Fourteen IB and no IA patients died of disease (8 IB1, 1 ≤ 7 mm). Cox univariate analysis demonstrated that only RFS is significantly influenced by HZTE (p = 0.01), while OS and RFS were not influenced by HZTE on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: HZTE has limited prognostic value in early stage ECAs and is only associated with RFS on univariate but not multivariate analysis. HZTE does not improve prognostication of patients with stage I ECAs as per 2018 FIGO staging. Consequently, the rationale to remove this variable from FIGO staging is justified for ECAs.

7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739418

RESUMO

We report 27 solitary fibrous tumors of the female genital tract emphasizing nonvulvar locations, variant histology, and prognostic factors. The patients ranged from 25 to 78 years (most were over 40), and tumors occurred in the vulva (7), vagina (2), cervix (2), corpus (6), fallopian tube/paratubal soft tissue (5), and ovary (5). They ranged from 1.5 to 39 cm (mean=10.5) cm and were typically solid, but 4 were predominantly cystic. All had a haphazard arrangement of spindled to ovoid cells, with most demonstrating alternating cellular and hypocellular areas and prominent vessels, but 13 lacked hypocellular areas, and 7 had focal diffuse growth with inconspicuous vasculature. Other patterns included corded (8), fascicular (5), trabecular (1), and nested (1). Microcysts (6), myxoid background (8), hyalinization (8), lipomatous differentiation (2), and multinucleated cells (6) were also present, and 10 tumors had necrosis. Vasculature included thin-walled branching "staghorn" (27), thick-walled (7), and hyalinized vessels (5) or dilated anastomosing vascular channels (3). Nuclear atypia ranged from mild (19), moderate (7), to severe (1), and mitoses from 0 to 24/10 HPF (mean=4). STAT6 was positive in all 25 tumors tested. One tumor showed dedifferentiation; the remainder were classified as benign (19) or malignant (7) based on mitotic rate (univariate stratification model) and as low risk (14), intermediate risk (8), or high risk (4) based on the Demicco multivariate risk stratification score. Follow-up (median=23 mo) was available for 16 patients. Six tumors recurred (2 intermediate risk, 3 high risk, and the dedifferentiated tumor), 5 in the abdomen; the dedifferentiated tumor metastasized to the lung. Multivariate risk stratification was superior to univariate classification, as 5 "benign" tumors were reclassified as intermediate risk using the multivariate model; of these, 2 recurred, and 1 patient died of disease. Upper female genital tract tumors occurred in older patients, were larger, and more frequently classified as high risk compared with those of the lower tract. A trend toward increased cellularity was also seen in the upper tract tumors. Only size (P=0.04), necrosis (P=0.04), and Demicco score (P=0.01) independently correlated with recurrence. Female genital tract solitary fibrous tumors demonstrate a wide range of variant morphologies and occur in diverse sites in addition to the vulva. Tumors were often misdiagnosed as other neoplasms; thus, awareness of solitary fibrous tumors occurring at these sites is crucial in prompting staining for STAT6 to establish this diagnosis. The Demicco risk stratification system effectively predicts behavior.

8.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560684

RESUMO

We describe 21 nonpure germinomatous gonadal germ cell tumors (9 with a germinoma component), all but 1 associated with gonadoblastoma, in patients with disorders of sex development who ranged from 7 to 36 years old (average, 20 y). Twenty patients were clinically described as phenotypic females with ambiguous genitalia/virilization and primary amenorrhea. The most common documented peripheral karyotype was 46,XY (10/12; 83%). Fifteen of 16 tumors with available clinicopathologic data were unilateral. They ranged from 7 to 30 cm (mean, 15.5 cm) and were solid and cystic with frequent necrosis and hemorrhage. Gonadoblastoma, in its classic (70%), dissecting (5%), or combined (25%) forms, was identified in all but 1. The malignant germ cell tumors were typically mixed except for 5 pure yolk sac tumors and 1 expansile gonadoblastoma with syncytiotrophoblast cells. When admixed, the most common component was yolk sac tumor (n=10), followed by germinoma (n=9), embryonal carcinoma (n=5), choriocarcinoma (n=4), immature teratoma (n=3), and teratoma (n=2). Typical morphologic patterns of yolk sac neoplasia, including reticular/microcystic, solid (including blastema-like), and endodermal sinus (Schiller-Duval bodies), were seen, as well as glandular (n=10) and hepatoid (n=6) differentiation, with cystically dilated glands and diffuse hepatoid morphology in 3 and 2 tumors, respectively. Two yolk sac tumors showed a sarcomatoid pattern. Somatic-type malignancies (alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and low-grade spindle cell sarcoma, not otherwise specified) were identified in 1 case each. This is the first large series of germ cell tumors other than typical pure germinoma associated with gonadoblastoma. The high frequency of yolk sac tumor with glandular (especially cystic glandular) and hepatoid morphologies is noteworthy, and their presence should prompt further evaluation for an associated gonadoblastoma and possible disorder of sex development.

9.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561551

RESUMO

Uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that occasionally shares morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS and HGESS). In this study, we sought to characterize the clinical, morphologic, genetic, and epigenetic features of five uterine sarcomas that display histologic features of LGESS, HGESS, and PEComa. All tumors demonstrated epithelioid cells often associated with a low-grade spindled component resembling LGESS, with both regions expressing CD10, ER, PR, variable HMB45, and Melan-A immunoreactivity, and strong cathepsin K and pS6 expression. Targeted massively parallel sequencing analysis revealed the presence of somatic TSC2 mutations in all five cases, of which four harbored concurrent or consecutive JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusions. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of methylation profiles of TSC2-mutant uterine sarcomas (n = 4), LGESS (n = 10), and HGESS (n = 12) demonstrated two clusters consisting of (1) all LGESS and TSC2-mutant uterine sarcomas and (2) all HGESS. KEGG pathway analysis detected methylation differences in genes involved in PI3K/AKT, calcium, and Rap1 signaling. TSC2-mutant uterine sarcomas were responsive to hormone suppression, and mTOR inhibition demonstrated clinical benefit in four patients with these neoplasms. Our results suggest that these tumors represent histologically distinctive LGESS with TSC2 mutations. TSC2 mutations and JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion may help diagnose these tumors and possibly direct effective treatment.

10.
Am J Blood Res ; 11(4): 325-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540343

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rapidly progressive hematological malignancy that is difficult to cure. The prognosis is poor and treatment options are limited in case of relapse. A comprehensive assessment of current disease burden and the clinical efficacy of non-intensive therapies in this population are lacking. We conducted two systematic literature reviews (SLRs). The first SLR (disease burden) included observational studies reporting the incidence and economic and humanistic burden of relapsed/refractory (RR) AML. The second SLR (clinical efficacy) included clinical trials (phase II or later) reporting remission rates (complete remission [CR] or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi]) and median overall survival (mOS) in patients with RR AML or patients with de novo AML who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. For both SLRs, MEDLINE®/Embase® were searched from January 1, 2008 to January 31, 2020. Clinical trial registries were also searched for the clinical efficacy SLR. After screening, two independent reviewers determined the eligibility for inclusion in the SLRs based on full-text articles. The disease burden SLR identified 130 observational studies. The median cumulative incidence of relapse was 29.4% after stem cell transplant and 46.8% after induction chemotherapy. Total per-patient-per-month costs were $28,148-$29,322; costs and health care resource use were typically higher for RR versus non-RR patients. Patients with RR AML had worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores than patients with de novo AML across multiple instruments, and lower health utility values versus other AML health states (i.e. newly diagnosed, remission, consolidation, and maintenance therapy). The clinical efficacy SLR identified 50 trials (66 total trial arms). CR/CRi rates and mOS have remained relatively stable and low over the last 2 decades. Across all arms, the median rate of CR/CRi was 18.3% and mOS was 6.2 months. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of patients with AML will develop RR AML, which is associated with significant humanistic and economic burden. Existing treatments offer limited efficacy, highlighting the need for more effective non-intensive treatment options.

11.
Am J Blood Res ; 11(4): 417-426, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540351

RESUMO

TP53 gene mutations are common in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) with del5q and have a clinical and prognostic significance. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an accurate, but expensive, technique, and not commonly available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TP53 expression has been recently used as a surrogate to assess TP53 mutations. To compare the concordance between TP53 expression in IHC and TP53 mutations by NGS, 30 cases with MDS harbouring a del5q abnormality were evaluated. Overall, 10/30 patients (33.3%) had TP53 mutations by NGS, while 16/29 (55.1%) had TP53 overexpression in IHC. TP53 expression by IHC had a 70% sensitivity to identify patients with TP53 mutation by NGS, but its specificity was low (52.6%, kappa = 0.198; P = 0.24). In addition, ROC curve analyses showed that the overall diagnostic value (accuracy) of TP53 expression in IHC to identify patients with TP53 mutation by NGS was 68% in the whole study sample and 67% in patients with isolated del5q-. In both cases, the areas under the curves did not attain the statistical significance (P = 0.11 and P = 0.29, respectively). Based on the ROC curve, the cut-off of 2.3% TP53 expression in IHC was shown to be the best cut-off to identify TP53 mutations: using this cut-off, the agreement between TP53 expression and TP53 mutation by NGS reached statistical significance (kappa = 0.42; P = 0.023). In conclusion, the agreement between TP53 expression in IHC and TP53 mutation analysis by NGS is rather unsatisfactory in MDS patients with del5q at the standard cut-off. Thus, the IHC technique cannot be considered a valid alternative to NGS evaluation of TP53 mutational status in these patients.

12.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 60(12): 822-826, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322931

RESUMO

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the uterus is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that frequently harbors ALK rearrangements. In this report, we describe the first uterine IMT with a FN1-ROS1 fusion, which occurred in a 43-year-old woman who presented with menorrhagia. Morphologically, the well-circumscribed 3 cm tumor was comprised of compact and myxoid foci of relatively bland spindle cells admixed with scattered chronic inflammatory cells limited to the myxoid areas. ROS1 showed moderate cytoplasmic granular staining in < 30% of cells in the myxoid foci, while ALK was negative. RNA sequencing detected a FN1-ROS1 rearrangement that fused FN1 exon 37 to ROS1 exon 34. Although non-ALK-rearranged uterine IMTs are exceedingly rare, this example highlights the importance of performing ROS1 immunohistochemistry and/or molecular analysis in ALK-negative uterine neoplasms morphologically compatible with IMT.

13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(3): 613-618, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with a pre-invasive endometrial lesion who meet Mayo criteria for lymph node dissection on final pathology to determine if the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with pre-invasive lesions would be warranted. METHODS: All women who underwent hysterectomy for a pre-invasive endometrial lesion (atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intra-epithelial neoplasia) between 2009 and 2019 were included for analysis. Relevant statistical tests were utilized to test the associations between patient, operative, and pathologic characteristics. RESULTS: 141 patients met inclusion criteria. 51 patients (36%) had a final diagnosis of cancer, the majority (96%) of which were Stage IA grade 1 endometrioid carcinomas. Seven patients (5%) met Mayo criteria on final pathology (one grade 3, seven size >2 cm, one >50% myoinvasive). Three of these seven patients had lymph nodes assessed of which 0% had metastases. Six of these patients had frozen section performed, and 2 met (33%) Mayo criteria intraoperatively. Of the seven patients in the overall cohort that had lymph node sampling, six had a final diagnosis of cancer and none had positive lymph nodes. Of the 51 patients with cancer, only 10 had cancer diagnosed using frozen section, and only two met intra-operative Mayo criteria. Age > 55 was predictive of meeting Mayo criteria on final pathology (p = 0.007). No patients experienced a cancer recurrence across a median follow up of 24.3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical hyperplasia and endometrial intra-epithelial neoplasia portend low risk disease and universal nodal assessment is of limited value.

15.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(8): 1038-1046, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115671

RESUMO

Corded and hyalinized and spindled carcinomas are rare variants of endometrioid carcinoma (EC) characterized by cords of low-grade epithelial cells (±spindle cells) within a hyalinized stroma or spindled epithelial cells, respectively, that merge with conventional low-grade EC. Due to their "biphasic" morphology, these tumors are often misdiagnosed as carcinosarcoma. The clinicopathologic features including mismatch repair protein (PMS2 and MSH6) and p53 immunohistochemical expression and POLE mutational status of 9 corded and hyalinized and spindled endometrial ECs were evaluated and classified into The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) based molecular subgroups. Beta-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed as a surrogate for CTNNB1 mutational status. The mean age at diagnosis was 49 years (range: 34 to 68 y) with staging information available for 6 patients: stage IA (n=1), stage IB (n=1), stage II (n=2), stage IIIA (n=1), stage IIIC1 (n=1). A prominent corded and hyalinized component was present in 7 ECs comprising 15% to 80% of the tumor with a minor (5% to 15%) spindled morphology in 5. Two additional tumors were composed of a low-grade spindled component comprising 25% to 30% of the neoplasm. Tumors were grade 1 (n=3), grade 2 (n=5), and grade 2 to 3 (n=1) and squamous differentiation was identified in 8/9. All tumors had preserved expression of mismatch repair proteins with 8 showing a p53 wild-type phenotype including the grade 2 to 3 EC; 1 grade 2, stage IB tumor exhibited a mutant pattern of expression. All (n=7) but 1 tumor demonstrated nuclear beta-catenin expression in the glandular, squamous, and corded or spindled components. POLE exonuclease domain mutations were absent in all tumors. Based on our findings, corded and hyalinized EC and EC with spindle cells are usually low grade, low stage, and present at a younger age and exhibit squamous differentiation at an increased frequency compared to typical EC. Unlike carcinosarcomas, which frequently harbor TP53 mutations, these tumors usually exhibit wild-type p53 and nuclear beta-catenin expression, indicative of underlying CTNNB1 mutations. According to the TCGA subgroups of endometrial carcinoma, the majority of corded and hyalinized and spindled EC appear to fall into the copy number low ("no specific molecular profile") subgroup.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131293

RESUMO

Uterine PEComas often present a diagnostic challenge as they share morphological and immunohistochemical features with smooth muscle tumors. Herein we evaluated a series of 19 uterine PEComas to compare the degree of melanocytic marker expression with their molecular profile. Patients ranged from 32-77 (median 48) years, with six tumors classified as malignant based on the modified gynecologic-specific prognostic algorithm. All patients with malignant PEComas were alive with disease or dead  of disease at last follow-up, while all those of uncertain malignant potential were alive and well (median follow-up, 47 months).Seventeen of 19 (89%) PEComas harbored either a TSC1 or TSC2 alteration. One of the two remaining tumors showed a TFE3 rearrangement, but the other lacked alterations in all genes evaluated. All showed at least focal (usually strong) positivity for HMB-45, with 15/19 (79%) having >50% expression, while the tumor lacking TSC or TFE3 alterations was strongly positive in 10% of cells. Melan-A and MiTF were each positive in 15/19 (79%) tumors, but staining extent and intensity were much more variable than HMB-45. Five of six (83%) malignant PEComas also harbored alterations in TP53, ATRX, or RB1, findings not identified in any tumors of uncertain malignant potential. One malignant PEComa was microsatellite-unstable/mismatch repair protein-deficient.In summary, TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions and diffuse (>50%) HMB-45 expression are characteristic of uterine PEComas. In morphologically ambiguous mesenchymal neoplasms with myomelanocytic differentiation, especially those with metastatic or recurrent disease, next-generation sequencing is recommended to evaluate for TSC alterations; as such, patients can be eligible for targeted therapy.

17.
Blood Rev ; 50: 100851, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088518

RESUMO

Using a range of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, most - but not all - studies of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have reported that lower hemoglobin levels and red blood cell transfusion dependency are associated with worse HRQoL. In addition, some MDS treatments may significantly improve HRQoL, particularly among those patients who respond to therapy; however, the majority of these studies were underpowered for this secondary endpoint. Furthermore, decreased HRQoL has been associated with worse survival outcomes, and HRQoL scores can be used to refine classical prognostic systems. Despite the subjective nature of HRQoL, the importance and validity of measuring it in trials and clinical practice are increasingly being recognized, but properly validated MDS-specific instruments are required. We describe what is currently known about HRQoL in patients with MDS, and the limitations of measuring HRQoL, and we provide some recommendations to improve the measurement of this outcome in future trials.

18.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074959

RESUMO

The molecular knowledge on endometrial stromal neoplasms has been rapidly increasing and is considered complementary to morphologic and immunohistochemical findings for better categorization of these tumors. The most common molecular alteration observed in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas is the JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion, whereas, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex cord-like differentiation have been shown more commonly to have fusions involving PHF1. Herein, we present a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex cord-like differentiation with a fluorescence in situ hybridization showing the apparent loss of one copy of JAZF1 5' and 3' signals, rather than the expected "break-apart" pattern seen in the setting of a JAZF1 fusion. The case was then further evaluated by chromosome microarray and RNA fusion analysis. Overall, the molecular findings supported a PHF1-JAZF1 fusion with deletions right before and after the JAZF1 locus, impairing probe binding and resulting in the unusual "deletion" pattern observed in the JAZF1 fluorescence in situ hybridization, which would not intuitively suggest a fusion involving JAZF1. This case illustrates the importance of integration of morphological and molecular findings as well as the limitations of fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting fusions, particularly in the setting of more complex chromosomal alterations even though the fusion partners are well-known.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980714

RESUMO

Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS/AMH), produced by granulosa cells of growing follicles, is an important regulator of folliculogenesis and follicle development. Treatment with exogenous MIS in mice suppresses follicle development and prevents ovulation. To investigate the mechanisms by which MIS inhibits follicle development, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of whole neonatal ovaries treated with MIS at birth and analyzed at postnatal day 6, coinciding with the first wave of follicle growth. We identified distinct transcriptional signatures associated with MIS responses in the ovarian cell types. MIS treatment inhibited proliferation in granulosa, surface epithelial, and stromal cell types of the ovary and elicited a unique signature of quiescence in granulosa cells. In addition to decreasing the number of growing preantral follicles, we found that MIS treatment uncoupled the maturation of germ cells and granulosa cells. In conclusion, MIS suppressed neonatal follicle development by inhibiting proliferation, imposing a quiescent cell state, and preventing granulosa cell differentiation.

20.
Mod Pathol ; 34(9): 1750-1762, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017064

RESUMO

Herein we evaluated a series of 21 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas of the uterine corpus (ucERMS), a rare neoplasm, to characterize their morphology, genomics, and behavior. Patients ranged from 27 to 73 (median 52) years and tumors from 4 to 15 (median 9) cm, with extrauterine disease noted in two. Follow-up (median 16 months) was available for 14/21 patients; nine were alive and well, four died of disease, and one died from other causes. Most tumors (16/21) showed predominantly classic morphology, comprised of alternating hyper- and hypocellular areas of primitive small cells and differentiating rhabdomyoblasts in a loose myxoid/edematous stroma. A cambium layer was noted in all; seven had heterologous elements (six with fetal-type cartilage) and eight displayed focal anaplasia. The remaining five neoplasms showed only a minor component (≤20%) of classic morphology, with anaplasia noted in four and tumor cell necrosis in three. The most frequent mutations detected were in DICER1 (14/21), TP53 (7/20), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (7/20), and KRAS/NRAS (5/20). Copy-number alterations were present in 10/19 tumors. Overall, 8/14 DICER1-associated ucERMS showed concurrent loss of function and hotspot mutations in DICER1, which is a feature more likely to be seen in tumors associated with DICER1 syndrome. Germline data were available for two patients, both DICER1 wild type (one with concurrent loss of function and hotspot alterations). DICER1-associated ucERMS were more likely to show a classic histological appearance including heterologous elements than DICER1-independent tumors. No differences in survival were noted between the two groups, but both patients with extrauterine disease at diagnosis and two with recurrences died from disease. As no patients had a known personal or family history of DICER1 syndrome, we favor most DICER1-associated ucERMS to be sporadic.

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