Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 157
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831636

RESUMO

Mandatory working from home is one of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for a large number of workers. Transition to working from home may significantly impact lifestyle, psychosocial status, and the overall health of workers. This review summarizes available data about the effects of lockdown measures, particularly working from home, on cardiovascular risk factors including sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet pattern, psychological distress, smoking, alcohol misuse, and cardiometabolic parameters. Finally, we suggest countermeasures that can attenuate the negative health impact of working from home. Indeed, timely and tailored interventions implemented by companies in cooperation with the health care system could allow workers to benefit more from some of the advantages associated with working from home.

2.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774745

RESUMO

The Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is widely implanted as temporary mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock (CS). However, its use is declining following the results of the IABP-SHOCK II trial, which failed to show a clinical benefit of IABP in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) related CS. Acute-on-chronic heart failure has become an increasingly recognized, distinct etiology of CS (HF-CS). The pathophysiology of HF-CS differs from ACS-CS, as it typically represents the progression from a state of congestion (with relatively preserved cardiac output) to a low output state with hypoperfusion. The IABP is a "volume displacement pump" that promotes forward flow from a high-capacitance reservoir to low-capacitance vessels, improving peripheral perfusion and decreasing left ventricular afterload in the setting of high filling pressures. The IABP can improve ventricular-vascular coupling and, therefore, myocardial energetics. Additionally, many HF-CS patients are candidates for cardiac replacement therapies (left ventricular assist device or heart transplantation), and, therefore, may benefit from a "bridge" strategy that stabilizes the hemodynamics and end-organ function in preparation for more durable therapies. Notably, the new United Network for Organ Sharing donor heart allocation system has recently prioritized patients on IABP support. This review describes the role of IABP for the treatment of HF-CS. It also briefly discusses new strategies for vascular access as well as a fully implantable versions for a longer duration of support.

3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 969-980, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845397

RESUMO

COVID-19, a deadly pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide, is also associated with cardiovascular complications, such as venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The viral spike protein, in fact, may promote the release of prothrombotic and inflammatory mediators. Vaccines, coding for the spike protein, are the primary measure for preventing COVID-19. However, some unexpected thrombotic events at unusual sites, most frequently the cerebral venous and splanchnic districts, with associated thrombocytopenia, have emerged in subjects who received adenovirus-based vaccines, especially in fertile women. This clinical entity has been rapidly recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, probably caused by cross-reacting antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies activating platelets. This prompted the regulatory agencies of various countries to restrict the use of adenovirus-based vaccines to specific age groups. The prevailing opinion of most experts, however, is that the risk of developing COVID-19 disease, including thrombosis, clearly outweighs this potential extremely low risk.This paper aims at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, clinical data and pathogenetic hypotheses of thrombosis linked to both COVID-19 and its vaccines, helping cardiologists to offer an up-to-date and evidence-based counseling to their often-alarmed patients with acute or chronic coronary syndromes.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 1024-1033, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845405

RESUMO

The prescription appropriateness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs [dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban]) is carefully regulated, taking into account the criteria established in phase III trials and listed in the summary of the product characteristics of the four DOACs. In clinical practice, prescriptions are not always in compliance with established indications. In particular, the use of doses lower than those recommended in drug data sheets is relatively frequent. Literature data show that the inappropriate prescription of DOAC doses causes drug underexposure and an up to three-fold increase in the risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack, systemic thromboembolism, and hospitalizations. Possible causes of the deviation between the dose that should be prescribed and that actually employed may include erroneous prescriptions, an overstated bleeding risk perception, and the presence of frail patients, who were not included in pivotal trials. For these reasons, we summarize DOAC indications and contraindications and suggest the appropriate use of DOACs in common clinical scenarios, in accordance with what international guidelines and national and international health regulatory agencies recommend.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682873

RESUMO

Uric acid (UA) is the final product of the catabolism of endogenous and exogenous purine nucleotides. While its association with articular gout and kidney disease has been known for a long time, new data have demonstrated that UA is also related to cardiovascular (CV) diseases. UA has been identified as a significant determinant of many different outcomes, such as all-cause and CV mortality, and also of CV events (mainly Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) and even strokes). Furthermore, UA has been related to the development of Heart Failure, and to a higher mortality in decompensated patients, as well as to the onset of atrial fibrillation. After a brief introduction on the general role of UA in CV disorders, this review will be focused on UA's relationship with CV outcomes, as well as on the specific features of patients with ACS and Chronic Coronary Syndrome. Finally, two issues which remain open will be discussed: the first is about the identification of a CV UA cut-off value, while the second concerns the possibility that the pharmacological reduction of UA is able to lower the incidence of CV events.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575306

RESUMO

The use of the direct oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (DOACs) offers some major advantages over warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). One advantage is the possibility to use a fixed dose in normal-weight patients, overweight patients and patients with obesity. However, the "one size fits all" strategy raised a concern regarding the possibility to undertreat patients with a high body mass index. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have ever compared VKAs and DOACs in this population. We analyzed data from the literature on DOAC pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, results from the four pivotal phase III trials on non-valvular atrial fibrillation, retrospective observational studies and metanalyses. While we are aware of the limitation imposed by the absence of specific RCTs, we propose the position of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) on the use of DOACs in patients with obesity based on the existing evidence.

7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 861-868, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570121

RESUMO

The triple therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) certificated by the 2012 guidelines for symptomatic patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, reaffirmed in the following document of 2016 with the introduction of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), has not yet reached an adequate implementation in clinical practice (where the majority of patients is only treated with the double treatment of ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers). Among the reasons for this general failure, we should consider the enrollment of unselected cases from the real world, without exclusion criteria for age, comorbidity and stage of the disease, the therapeutic inertia of many cardiologists and not least the clinical and organizational complexity of the conventional scheme of implementation of therapy indicated by the guidelines. Not only the prescription of triple therapy is inadequate, but also the "target doses" defined by the large randomized controlled trials should be considered unrealistic in the majority of patients, who often achieve a therapeutic effect at lower doses, generally better tolerated ("target effect"). The new guidelines forthcoming will certify a further step forward with the quadruple therapy (sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, ARNI, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists), underlining how a fourfold intervention with different pharmacological mechanisms is able to determine the greatest benefits in patients with systolic heart failure. The discussion is open on the possibility of simplifying and speeding up the conventional implementation scheme of treatment, exploiting the ability of all these pharmacological principles to exert a significant and rapid favorable effect on prognosis already at a low dose in the first 4-8 weeks of treatment.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 854-860, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570120

RESUMO

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicenter studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared to enalapril, and good tolerability, safety and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favorable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodeling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remains suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroads in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Aminobutiratos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Compostos de Bifenilo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Volume Sistólico , Tetrazóis , Resultado do Tratamento , Valsartana
9.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C176-C183, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456644

RESUMO

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared with enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicentre studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared with enalapril, and good tolerability, safety, and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favourable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodelling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remain suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroad in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.

10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(9): 727-741, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463682

RESUMO

This critical review illustrates the pathophysiological aspects and available scientific evidence about cardiac contractility modulation therapy. A useful algorithm dealing with the essential decisional knots to consider for device implantation in patients with heart failure in NYHA class >II and ejection fraction ≤45% is presented. The present review paves the way for the development of an Italian registry aiming at analyzing the characteristics of implanted patients based on a multiparametric approach, including cardiac biomarkers, to identify clinical profiles and predictors of response to therapy. The "Answers and Questions" section provides useful insights into pathophysiology, technical specifications, clinically relevant scenarios and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Contração Miocárdica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 34: 100809, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141863

RESUMO

Background: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) has unique pathophysiological background requiring specific patient stratification, management and therapeutic targets. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to derive a simple stratification tool to predict survival in patients with ADHF complicated by CS. Methods and results: Using logistic regression, univariable testing was performed to identify the variables potentially associated with 28-day mortality. We propose a new logistic model (ALC-Shock score) based on three easy parameters (age, serum creatinine and serum lactate at the ICU admission) as a powerful predictor of survival or successful bridge to heart replacement therapy at 28-day follow-up in this specific population. A multivariable analysis (logistic model) was performed to evaluate the association between selected variables and outcome (overall death at 28-day follow up). The score was then validated in a different cohort of 93 ADHF-CS patients and compared to a previous developed score (the Cardshock score).Overall, 28-day mortality was 34%. The ALC-shock score showed better discrimination (Area Under the Curve-AUC- 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.91) as compared to the Cardshock score (AUC 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.79) (p = 0.009) to predict 28-days overall mortality. In the validation cohort the AUC for the ALC-shock score was 0.66. Conclusions: A simple score including age, lactates and creatinine on admission could be considered to predict short-term mortality in CS-ADHF patients in order to drive towards a treatment intensification.

14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(5): 1501-1508, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Uric Acid (UA) has been related to the development of Cardio-Vascular (CV) events in patients affected by Chronic Coronary Syndromes (CCS). Among various hypothesis, two arise: UA may negatively act on coronary artery determining a higher degree of atherosclerotic disease, and/or on heart determining a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction. Both the above hypothesized effects are object of our investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: 231 patients who were admitted to the cardiological department of the Niguarda Hospital (Milan, Italy) for CCS from January 2017 to June 2018 were enrolled. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was evaluated from coronary angiography as the number and type of involved vessels, as well as with both Gensini and Syntax scores. All subjects underwent a complete echocardiogram. At unadjusted and adjusted/multivariable analysis, UA levels were not significantly associated with variables analysed from the coronary angiography (number and type of vessels involved, neither the Gensini and Syntax scores) as well as with echocardiographic parameters regarding systolic and diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the main finding of our work is the absence of a role for UA in determining coronary arteries disease as well as LV diastolic dysfunction in CCS subjects. Taking together the results of previous studies with ours, we hypothesize that UA could act on heart (both on coronary arteries and on LV function) in an early phase of the disease, whereas while in the advanced stages other factors (previous myocardial infarction, previous myocardial revascularization and so on) may overshadow its effects.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiethnic societies, it has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups have higher rates of traditional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CAD when compared with the white population. In the last two decades, Italy is becoming a diverse society with more than five millions of inhabitants from minority ethnic groups: for this reason, we decided to investigate whether ethnic differences in our metropolitan area are similar compared with the experience of Western countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1285 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) hospitalized at Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU), Heart Center of ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy between 2014 and the end of 2019. Six percent of these patients were South-Asian, North-African, and South-American. Despite the younger age of nonwhite patients, their comorbid conditions and traditional cardiovascular risk factors showed peculiar differences. We did not observe any difference in terms of the number of coronary arteries involved at the enrollment, patients candidate to coronary artery bypass graft and either intra-hospital or at follow-up mortality. Nevertheless, the rate of re-infarction at follow-up was significantly higher in the nonwhite group. CONCLUSION: We believe that a better knowledge and understanding of epidemiological changes in Italian society could improve our clinical practice, in particular, in order to better customize treatments and therapies.

19.
Am Heart J ; 233: 39-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a systemic disorder associated with dismal short-term prognosis. Given its time-dependent nature, mechanical circulatory support may improve survival. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had gained widespread use because of the easiness to implant and the low rate of complications; however, a randomized trial failed to demonstrate benefit on mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Acute decompensated heart failure with cardiogenic shock (ADHF-CS) represents a growing resource-intensive scenario with scant data and indications on the best management. However, a few data suggest a potential benefit of IABP in this setting. We present the design of a study aimed at addressing this research gap. METHODS AND DESIGN: The Altshock-2 trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study with blinded adjudicated evaluation of outcomes. Patients with ADHF-CS will be randomized to early IABP implantation or to vasoactive treatments. The primary end point will be 60 days patients' survival or successful bridge to heart replacement therapy. The key secondary end point will be 60-day overall survival; 60-day need for renal replacement therapy; in-hospital maximum inotropic score, maximum duration of inotropic/vasopressor therapy, and maximum sequential organ failure assessment score. Safety end points will be in-hospital occurrence of bleeding events (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium >3), vascular access complications and systemic (noncerebral) embolism. The sample size for the study is 200 patients. IMPLICATIONS: The Altshock-2 trial will provide evidence on whether IABP should be implanted early in ADHF-CS patients to improve their clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Tamanho da Amostra , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(12): 969-989, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231216

RESUMO

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease that can occur acutely, as in acute myocarditis, or persistently, as in chronic myocarditis or chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Different agents can induce myocarditis, with viruses being the most common triggers. Generally, acute myocarditis affects relatively young people and men more than women. Myocarditis has a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and evolution trajectories, although most cases resolve spontaneously. Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure symptoms, advanced atrioventricular block, sustained ventricular arrhythmias or cardiogenic shock (the latter known as fulminant myocarditis) are at increased risk for death and heart transplantation. The presentation of chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy may be more subtle, with progressive symptoms of heart failure or appearance of rhythm disturbance, not rarely preceded by an infective episode. Autoimmune disorder or systemic inflammatory conditions can be another significant predisposing substrate of myocarditis, especially in women. Emerging causes of myocarditis are drug-related like the new anticancer therapies, the immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) and Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC) expert consensus document on myocarditis, we propose diagnostic strategies for identifying possible causes of the disease and factors associated with increased risk. Finally, we propose potential treatments and when referring patients to tertiary centers, especially for high-risk patients. Even if endomyocardial biopsy is the invasive diagnostic tool for making definitive diagnosis and differentiation of histological subtypes (i.e., lymphocytic vs eosinophilic vs giant cell myocarditis), it is not always readily available in all centers. Thus, we propose when this exam is mandatory or when it can be postponed or substituted by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This document reflects the Italian perspective on managing patients with myocarditis and their follow-up, considering also current US and European scientific position statements.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Miocardite , Adolescente , Biópsia , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...