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Front Immunol ; 10: 2449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824476


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by mucosa damage associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This immunological impairment leads to altered inflammatory mediators such as IL-33, which is shown to increase in the mucosa of active UC (aUC) patients. MicroRNAs present a distorted feature in inflamed colonic mucosa and are potential IL-33 regulating candidates in UC. Therefore, we studied the microRNA and mRNA profiles in inflamed colonic samples of UC patients, evaluating the effect of a microRNA (selected by in silico analysis and its expression in UC patients), on IL-33 under inflammatory conditions. We found that inflamed mucosa (n = 8) showed increased expression of 40 microRNAs and 2,120 mRNAs, while 49 microRNAs and 1,734 mRNAs were decreased, as determined by microarrays. In particular, IL-33 mRNA showed a 3.8-fold increase and eight members of a microRNA family (miR-378), which targets IL-33 mRNA in the 3'UTR, were decreased (-3.9 to -3.0 times). We selected three members of the miR-378 family (miR-378a-3p, miR-422a, and miR-378c) according to background information and interaction energy analysis, for further correlation analyses with IL-33 expression through qPCR and ELISA, respectively. We determined that aUC (n = 24) showed high IL-33 levels, and decreased expression of miR-378a-3p and miR-422a compared to inactive UC (n = 10) and controls (n = 6). Moreover, both microRNAs were inversely correlated with IL-33 expression, while miR-378c does not show a significant difference. To evaluate the effect of TNFα on the studied microRNAs, aUC patients with anti-TNF therapy were compared to aUC receiving other treatments. The levels of miR-378a-3p and miR-378c were higher in aUC patients with anti-TNF. Based on these findings, we selected miR-378a-3p to exploring the molecular mechanism involved by in vitro assays, showing that over-expression of miR-378a-3p decreased the levels of an IL-33 target sequence ß-gal-reporter gene in HEK293 cells. Stable miR-378a-3p over-expression/inhibition inversely modulated IL-33 content and altered viability of HT-29 cells. Additionally, in an inflammatory context, TNFα decreased miR-378a-3p levels in HT-29 cells enhancing IL-33 expression. Together, our results propose a regulatory mechanism of IL-33 expression exerted by miR-378a-3p in an inflammatory environment, contributing to the understanding of UC pathogenesis.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131263


Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infections are one of the most frequent causes of persistent diarrhea in children, immunocompromised patients and travelers worldwide. The most prominent colonization factors of EAEC are aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF). EAEC prototypical strain 042 harbors the AAF/II fimbriae variant, which mediates adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and participates in the induction of an inflammatory response against this pathogen. However, the mechanism and the cell receptors implicated in eliciting this response have not been fully characterized. Since previous reports have shown that TLR4 recognize fimbriae from different pathogens, we evaluated the role of this receptor in the response elicited against EAEC by intestinal cells. Using a mutual antagonist against TLR2 and TLR4 (OxPAPC), we observed that blocking of these receptors significantly reduces the secretion of the inflammatory marker IL-8 in response to EAEC and AAF/II fimbrial extract in HT-29 cells. Using a TLR4-specific antagonist (TAK-242), we observed that the secretion of this cytokine was significantly reduced in HT-29 cells infected with EAEC or incubated with AAF/II fimbrial extract. We evaluated the participation of AAF/II fimbriae in the TLR4-mediated secretion of 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors involved in inflammation. A reduction in the secretion of IL-8, GRO, and IL-4 was observed. Our results suggest that TLR4 participates in the secretion of several inflammation biomarkers in response to AAF/II fimbriae.

Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-8 , Intestinos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
Front Immunol ; 9: 1026, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867993


Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by deregulated inflammation triggered by environmental factors. Notably, adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a bacterium with the ability to survive within macrophages is believed to be one of such factors. Glucocorticoids are the first line treatment for CD and to date, it is unknown how they affect bactericidal and inflammatory properties of macrophages against AIEC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of glucocorticoid treatment on AIEC infected macrophages. First, THP-1 cell-derived macrophages were infected with a CD2-a AIEC strain, in the presence or absence of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and mRNA microarray analysis was performed. Differentially expressed mRNAs were confirmed by TaqMan-qPCR. In addition, an amikacin protection assay was used to evaluate the phagocytic and bactericidal activity of Dex-treated macrophages infected with E. coli strains (CD2-a, HM605, NRG857c, and HB101). Finally, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages were evaluated by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. The microarray analysis showed that CD2-a, Dex, and CD2-a + Dex-treated macrophages have differential inflammatory gene profiles. Also, canonical pathway analysis revealed decreased phagocytosis signaling by Dex and anti-inflammatory polarization on CD2-a + Dex macrophages. Moreover, amikacin protection assay showed reduced phagocytosis upon Dex treatment and TaqMan-qPCR confirmed Dex inhibition of three phagocytosis-associated genes. All bacteria strains induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23, CD40, and CD80, which was inhibited by Dex. Thus, our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids impair phagocytosis and induce anti-inflammatory polarization after AIEC infection, possibly contributing to the survival of AIEC in infected CD patients.

Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise em Microsséries , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
World J Gastroenterol ; 23(36): 6628-6638, 2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085208


Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic pathologies associated with a deregulated immune response in the intestinal mucosa, and they are triggered by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Exogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory therapy in IBDs. In the past, patients with moderate or severe states of inflammation received GCs as a first line therapy with an important effectiveness in terms of reduction of the disease activity and the induction of remission. However, this treatment often results in detrimental side effects. This downside drove the development of second generation GCs and more precise (non-systemic) drug-delivery methods. Recent clinical trials show that most of these new treatments have similar effectiveness to first generation GCs with fewer adverse effects. The remaining challenge in successful treatment of IBDs concerns the refractoriness and dependency that some patients encounter during GCs treatment. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GC response is key to personalizing drug choice for IBDs patients to optimize their response to treatment. In this review, we examine the clinical characteristics of treatment with GCs, followed by an in depth analysis of the proposed molecular mechanisms involved in its resistance and dependence associated with IBDs. This thorough analysis of current clinical and biomedical literature may help guide physicians in determining a course of treatment for IBDs patients and identifies important areas needing further study.

Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento