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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244480, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278535

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades do alho como promotor de crescimento em larvas de acará bandeira Pterophyllum scalare e seus benefícios no transporte de juvenis da mesma espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema de recirculação composto por 20 aquários de 40 L de volume útil, dotado de entrada e saída de água independentes e teve a duração de 40 dias. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas 1.400 larvas de acará bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare) divididas entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg de extrato de alho por quilo de ração. Os resultados mostraram que não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de inclusão do extrato do alho sobre os índices zootécnicos avaliados e posteriormente no transporte dos juvenis. Também não foi observado influência na sobrevivência das larvas durante o período experimental. Novas pesquisas com dosagens maiores de extratos devem ser realizados para melhor elucidação do efeito do extrato de alho como promotor de crescimento.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232701, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249237

RESUMO

Abstract The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as relações tróficas e a possível existência de uma relação de mimetismo agressivo envolvendo Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae e Gnathocharax steindachneri, em igarapés de terra firme. As coletas ocorreram em novembro de 2002, março e agosto de 2003 e foram realizadas na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável de Amanã (RDSA). Foram capturados 943 peixes, onde C. marthae representou 79,43%, C. strigata 3,18% e G. steindachneri 17,39%. Foram analisados os conteúdos estomacais e verificados grau de repleção, volume relativo e frequência de ocorrência dos alimentos. Foram identificados 13 itens alimentares, onde insetos terrestres e aquáticos denotaram alto grau de dependência destas espécies em relação à floresta alagada. Ocorreu baixa sobreposição alimentar das espécies Carnegiella strigata e C. marthae em relação a Gnathocharax steindachneri. Entretanto, a sobreposição entre as duas espécies de Carnegiella foi relativamente alta, o que poderia explicar a baixa frequência de ocorrência sintópica entre essas espécies, sugerindo um possível caso de exclusão competitiva.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232612, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153482

RESUMO

Abstract Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 μm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 μm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Resumo Três experimentos foram realizados com diferentes tamanhos de partícula de ração para o desempenho zootécnico, taxa de aprovação e digestibilidade aparente de tambaqui juvenil (Colossoma macropomum). No primeiro, foram utilizados 200 juvenis e distribuídos em 20 tanques (220 L), 10 peixes por unidade (quatro repetições). O sistema experimental utilizado para registrar o tempo de passagem foi composto por cinco incubadoras com 200 L. No segundo, 75 juvenis foram utilizados por 55 dias (três repetições). No terceiro, 75 juvenis foram utilizados e distribuídos em cinco incubadoras de 200 L. Todos os experimentos foram realizados aleatoriamente. Diferentes tratamentos de comportamento linear foram observados para digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta; e o menor tamanho de partícula (150 μm) apresentou melhor digestibilidade dos resultados. menor tamanho de partícula do milho apresentou melhores resultados, afetou o desempenho de crescimento de tambaquis e a digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Portanto, recomenda-se o uso de um tamanho de partícula de 150 μm de milho para o tambaqui.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 962-968, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153436

RESUMO

Abstract The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish of primary importance in South American aquaculture, principally in the Amazon region and has a particularly unique diet in the wild. Oryza spp, or Wild rice as it is commonly known, is native to the floodplains of muddy rivers in the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical performance and the effects of dietary levels of Oryza spp. via the hematological parameters, total food intake, conversion efficiency, growth ratio and swimming performance of this fish. Diets containing 45% Oryza spp. induced the best performance in tambaqui. Diets containing 15% and 30% did not affect these indices, thus indicating that this amount of Oryza can be used as an alternative energy source for this important species within Brazilian aquaculture.


Resumo O tambaqui Colossoma macropomum é um peixe de importância na aquicultura brasileira, especialmente na região amazônica. O arroz silvestre é comum nas planícies inundadas dos rios de aguas barrentas da Amazônia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos combinados do treinamento físico e dos níveis dietéticos de Oryza spp. nos parâmetros hematológicos, consumo de alimentos, eficiência de conversão, taxa de crescimento e desempenho de natação deste peixe. Dietas contendo 45% de arroz apresentaram o melhor desempenho para tambaquis. As dietas contendo 15% e 30% não afetaram esses índices, indicando que alguma quantidade de arroz pode ser usada como fonte de energia alternativa para esta importante espécie dentro da aquicultura.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259780

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Alho , Animais , Aquicultura , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076161

RESUMO

The present study objectified to evaluate the trophic relationships and the possible aggressive mimicry involving Carnegiella strigata, Carnegiella marthae and Gnathocharax steindachneri, in lowland forest streams. Samplings occurred in November 2002, March and August 2003 in Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR). The total of 943 fish was caught, being 79.43% of C. marthae, 3.18% of C. strigata and 17.39% of G. steindachneri. Stomach contents, degree of stomach repletion, relative volume and frequency of occurrence of food items were evaluated. Thirteen food items were identified, and the presence of terrestrial and aquatic insects indicates the high dependence of these species and the flooded forest. Low feeding overlap was observed between Carnegiella strigata and C. marthae compared to Gnathocharax steindachneri. However, the overlap between the two Carnegiella species was relatively high, which could explain the low frequency of syntopic occurrence among these species, suggesting a possible case of competitive exclusion.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Lagos , Rios
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787711

RESUMO

Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 µm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 µm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Tamanho da Partícula
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 62-68, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153308

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the hematological variables (erythrogram, thrombogram, leukogram and plasma metabolites) of three cichlid species: Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis and Cichla vazzoleri. A total of 45 specimens were captured in Balbina lake, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aid of a rod and reel or hand line, with natural or artificial bait: 15 C. monoculus, 15 C. temensis and 15 C. vazzoleri. Their blood was removed by means of caudal puncture of the dorsal aorta, and hematological data were determined in accordance with methodology previously described in the literature. The erythrogram showed similarities between the species, while the thrombogram showed differences between C. vazzoleri and the other species studied (C. monoculus and C. temensis). The total leukocyte counts for C. temensis and C. vazzoleri were higher than those of C. monoculus. The predominant leukocyte in C. temensis and C. vazzoleri was lymphocytes, whereas it was monocytes in C. monoculus. The plasma metabolites showed differences between the three cichlid species, regarding their glucose, cholesterol, urea and potassium levels. It is concluded that these three species present hematological differentiation, thus indicating that they have differentiated blood-cell immune responses and plasma metabolite physiology.


Resumo O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e comparar as variáveis hematológicas (eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma e metabólitos plasmáticos) de três espécies de tucunarés Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis e Cichla vazzoleri. Um total de 45 animais foi capturado no lago de Balbina, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, com auxílio de vara e carretilha, linha de mão com isca natural e artificial, sendo 15 C. monoculos, 15 C. temensis e 15 C. vazzoleri. O sangue foi retirado por punção caudal da aorta dorsal e os dados hematológicos foram determinados de acordo com metodologia previamente descrita na literatura. No eritrograma foram observadas similaridades entre as espécies, o trombograma demonstrou diferenças entre o C. vazzoleri e as demais espécies estudadas (C. monoculus e C. temensis), a contagem total de leucócitos demonstrou que em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri os valores são superiores ao C. monoculus. Foi demonstrado que os linfócitos foram às células predominantes em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri, diferentemente do C. monoculos que apresentou como leucócito predominante os monócitos. Nos metabólitos plasmáticos, foi possível observar diferenças entre as três espécies de tucunarés nos níveis de glicose, colesterol, uréia e potássio. Conclui-se que as três espécies de tucunarés apresentam diferenciação hematológica, indicando que as mesmas possuem respostas diferenciadas, na resposta imunológica de suas células do sangue e na fisiologia dos metabólitos plasmáticos.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 962-968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053132

RESUMO

The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish of primary importance in South American aquaculture, principally in the Amazon region and has a particularly unique diet in the wild. Oryza spp, or Wild rice as it is commonly known, is native to the floodplains of muddy rivers in the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical performance and the effects of dietary levels of Oryza spp. via the hematological parameters, total food intake, conversion efficiency, growth ratio and swimming performance of this fish. Diets containing 45% Oryza spp. induced the best performance in tambaqui. Diets containing 15% and 30% did not affect these indices, thus indicating that this amount of Oryza can be used as an alternative energy source for this important species within Brazilian aquaculture.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Oryza , Animais , Aquicultura , Brasil , Rios
10.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 62-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074172

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the hematological variables (erythrogram, thrombogram, leukogram and plasma metabolites) of three cichlid species: Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis and Cichla vazzoleri. A total of 45 specimens were captured in Balbina lake, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aid of a rod and reel or hand line, with natural or artificial bait: 15 C. monoculus, 15 C. temensis and 15 C. vazzoleri. Their blood was removed by means of caudal puncture of the dorsal aorta, and hematological data were determined in accordance with methodology previously described in the literature. The erythrogram showed similarities between the species, while the thrombogram showed differences between C. vazzoleri and the other species studied (C. monoculus and C. temensis). The total leukocyte counts for C. temensis and C. vazzoleri were higher than those of C. monoculus. The predominant leukocyte in C. temensis and C. vazzoleri was lymphocytes, whereas it was monocytes in C. monoculus. The plasma metabolites showed differences between the three cichlid species, regarding their glucose, cholesterol, urea and potassium levels. It is concluded that these three species present hematological differentiation, thus indicating that they have differentiated blood-cell immune responses and plasma metabolite physiology.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Lagos , Animais , Brasil
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 544-556, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132424

RESUMO

Abstract The Negro river basin is considered the largest area of extractive of ornamental fish in Brazil. This area has fundamental importance for the populations from the Amazon. The present study aimed to describe socioeconomic profile of ornamental fishermen known as "piabeiros" in the Municipality of Barcelos, as well as the ornamental fishery, fisheries area, target species, environments, fishing techniques, equipment, capture techniques and main difficulties faced by the current activity. This study was carried out in municipality of Barcelos, through semi - structured interviews, with artisanal ornamental fishermen (N= 89). The main families of ornamental fish caught and traded were: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae and Gymnotidae. The main catchment areas were igarapés, lakes, flooded fields, beaches, river banks and igapó forest. Rapiché was the most used equipment in the fisheries both by the fishermen of the urban areas (43.81%) and rural (41.89%). Most of the fishermen are associated with the colony of fishermen of Barcelos (Z33). The data showed that the dynamics of ornamental fishing have changed in a short time and directly affected fishermen, in addition to the low age renewal with the participation of younger fishermen, threatening the transmission of ecological knowledge to future generations. As a result, the increase of the problems related to the productive chain and absence of public power to the activity, since ornamental fishing has already been treated as one of the main economic activities more important for the local communities and for the State of Amazonas.


Resumo A bacia do rio Negro é considerada a maior área de extrativismo de peixes ornamentais do Brasil. Esta área possui importância fundamental para as populações da Amazônia. O presente estudo objetivou descrever o perfil socioeconômico de pescadores conhecidos como "piabeiros" no município de Barcelos, bem como a pesca ornamental, área de pesca, espécies-alvo, ambientes, técnicas de pesca, equipamentos, técnicas de captura e dificuldades enfrentadas nesta atividade. O estudo foi realizado por meio de entrevistas semi - estruturadas, com pescadores artesanais ornamentais (N= 89). Os dados mostram que as famílias de peixes ornamentais capturados e comercializados foram: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae e Gymnotidae. As áreas de captura descritas foram igarapés, lagos, alagados, praias, margens de rios e floresta de igapó. O Rapiché foi o equipamento mais utilizado nas pescarias tanto pelos pescadores das áreas urbanas (43,81%) como rurais (41,89%). A maioria dos pescadores está associada à colônia de pescadores de Barcelos (Z33). Os dados coletados mostraram que a dinâmica da pesca ornamental mudou em pouco tempo e afetou diretamente os pescadores. Além da baixa taxa de renovação, com a participação de pescadores mais jovens, ameaçando a transmissão de conhecimento ecológico para as gerações futuras. Como resultado, notamos o aumento dos problemas relacionados à cadeia produtiva e a ausência de poder público na atividade. A pesca ornamental já foi tratada como uma das principais atividades econômicas para as comunidades locais e para o Estado do Amazonas.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 544-556, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596358

RESUMO

The Negro river basin is considered the largest area of extractive of ornamental fish in Brazil. This area has fundamental importance for the populations from the Amazon. The present study aimed to describe socioeconomic profile of ornamental fishermen known as "piabeiros" in the Municipality of Barcelos, as well as the ornamental fishery, fisheries area, target species, environments, fishing techniques, equipment, capture techniques and main difficulties faced by the current activity. This study was carried out in municipality of Barcelos, through semi - structured interviews, with artisanal ornamental fishermen (N= 89). The main families of ornamental fish caught and traded were: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae and Gymnotidae. The main catchment areas were igarapés, lakes, flooded fields, beaches, river banks and igapó forest. Rapiché was the most used equipment in the fisheries both by the fishermen of the urban areas (43.81%) and rural (41.89%). Most of the fishermen are associated with the colony of fishermen of Barcelos (Z33). The data showed that the dynamics of ornamental fishing have changed in a short time and directly affected fishermen, in addition to the low age renewal with the participation of younger fishermen, threatening the transmission of ecological knowledge to future generations. As a result, the increase of the problems related to the productive chain and absence of public power to the activity, since ornamental fishing has already been treated as one of the main economic activities more important for the local communities and for the State of Amazonas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Rios , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 132: 308-319, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248517

RESUMO

Considering that the mechanisms for phosphite-afforded disease control remain elusive, this study investigated whether zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) phosphites could possible potentiate common bean resistance to white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, through the stimulation of biochemical defence responses. Lesion area and disease severity were decreased by phosphites spray, but Zn phosphite outcompeted Cu phosphite. Histopathological observations revealed fewer fungal hyphae and less collapse of the mesophyll cells in the Zn and Cu phosphite-sprayed plants compared to water-sprayed ones. The S. sclerotiorum-triggered accumulation of reactive oxygen species, oxalic acid (a fungal secreted toxin) and malondialdehyde (an indicator of cellular damage) were constrained as a result of Zn and Cu phosphites spray. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase at 12 h after inoculation (hai) and catalase at 60 and 84 hai) were higher for Zn and Cu phosphites-sprayed plants than for water-sprayed ones. Activities of defence-related enzymes chitinase (CHI) at 12 hai, ß-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were higher at 12-84 hai for Zn, and Cu phosphites sprayed plants, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase at 36-84 hai for the Zn phosphite sprayed ones, CHI at 12-36 hai, GLU at 12-60 hai, PPO at 36 hai and PAL and lipoxygenase at 12 hai for the Cu phosphite sprayed ones upon inoculation with S. sclerotiorum relative to their water-sprayed counterparts. Concentrations of total soluble phenols and lignin-thioglycolic acid derivatives were not affected by Cu phosphite spray on infected plants but were higher and lower, respectively, for Zn phosphite sprayed plants at 60 hai compared to water-sprayed ones. Taken together, the findings from the present study shed light on the biochemical defence mechanisms involved in the Zn and Cu phosphites-mediated suppression of white mold in common bean.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Fosfitos/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Phaseolus/citologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Solubilidade , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Tioglicolatos/metabolismo
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 360-367, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-888861

RESUMO

Abstract The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45%) and a control treatment (100% commercial diet), with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht) after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p < 0.05). The significant increases in metabolic variables, such as cortisol, glucose, proteins and triglycerides, and in hematologic variables after the Ucrit test reflect, respectively, biochemical adaptations for maintenance of the energy mobilization process and a regulatory necessity in tissue oxygen demand during intense exercise. Fish fed 15% and 30% camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.


Resumo As respostas fisiológicas de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) alimentados com ração comercial suplementada com diferentes concentrações de camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) foram avaliados. As amostras analisadas foram inteiramente casualizadas, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial com três proporções de camu camu (15%, 30% e 45%) e um tratamento controle (ração comercial 100%), com quatro repetições por tratamento. Um total de 96 amostras de tambaqui foram utilizadas, com um peso médio inicial de 11,69 ± 2,68 g e um comprimento médio de 7,06 ± 0,44 cm. Após 30 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos, variáveis ​​metabólicas, crescimento e desempenho natatório de peixes. As diferentes proporções de camu camu na dieta não causou alterações significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos dos tambaquis durante o período de alimentação, com exceção de hemoglobina (Hb) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), após o 30º dia, e hematócrito (Ht), após o teste de natação de estresse, que aumentou de forma significativa (p <0,05). Os aumentos significativos nas variáveis ​​metabólicas, como o cortisol, glicose, proteínas e triglicerídeos, e nas variáveis ​​hematológicas após o teste Ucrit reflete, respectivamente, adaptações bioquímicas para a manutenção do processo de mobilização de energia e uma necessidade de regulamentação na demanda de oxigênio nos tecidos durante o exercício intenso. Os peixes alimentados com 15% e 30% de camu camu obtiveram mais peso e melhor desempenho natatório, respectivamente. Os resultados para as concentrações camu camu superiores a 30% indicam uma saturação das suas propriedades intrínsecas na dieta, a este nível e uma perda de nutrientes a partir da ração comercial substituído pelo fruto, reduzindo o desempenho produtivo e assimilação nutricional.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 360-367, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954015

RESUMO

The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45%) and a control treatment (100% commercial diet), with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht) after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p < 0.05). The significant increases in metabolic variables, such as cortisol, glucose, proteins and triglycerides, and in hematologic variables after the Ucrit test reflect, respectively, biochemical adaptations for maintenance of the energy mobilization process and a regulatory necessity in tissue oxygen demand during intense exercise. Fish fed 15% and 30% camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/fisiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Frutas , Myrtaceae , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobinas/análise
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 616-621, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888771

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the ecology of neonates and young individuals of Potamotrygon wallacei, Potamotrygon motoro and Paratrygon aiereba with regard to their hematological profile and the physicochemical parameters of the water that they inhabit. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the complete blood count revealed total variation of 72.92%, thus demonstrating a differentiation system for oxygen demand. On the other hand, P. motoro was considered to be an intermediate species, given that its complete blood count characteristics interacted with both P. wallacei and with P. aiereba. The interaction among the biochemical variables was shown to total 64.67% of the factors. This allowed differentiation of P. wallacei from P. aiereba, while P. motoro maintained an intermediate position. These characteristics of differentiation within the preferred environment corroborate the PCA of the present study and confirm that these species can be differentiated through considering the complete blood count and biochemical parameters. The PCA on water properties showed 68.57% differentiation, mainly comprising the x axis (49.44%). It can be affirmed that P. motoro has the capacity to inhabit the preferential areas of P. wallacei and P. aiereba, as well as occupying localities in which other stingrays are not found. In conclusion, P. wallacei presents patterns differentiating it from P. aiereba, while P. motoro is a species that presents intermediate characteristics. The latter can be considered to be a more broadly distributed species regarding its ecophysiological characteristics.


Resumo Este trabalho tem por objetivo investigar o perfil hematológico e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água, comparando e correlacionando ecologicamente entre neonatos e jovens de Potamotrygon wallacei (arraia cururu), Potamotrygon motoro e Paratrygon aiereba. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) do hemograma revelou um total 72,92% de variação, constituindo-se em um sistema de diferenciação na demanda por oxigênio. P. wallacei apresenta diferenciação no eixo X quando comparada a P. aiereba, por outro lado P. motoro constitui-se como uma espécie intermediária que apresenta as características do hemograma interagindo tanto com P. wallacei quanto com P. aiereba. A interação entre as variáveis bioquímica demonstram um total de 64,67% dos fatores, no qual foi possível diferenciar, a arraia P. wallacei de P. aiereba, tendo P. motoro uma aspecto de espécie intermediária entre as demais. Esses aspectos de diferenciação de ambiente de preferência corroboraram a PCA obtida no presente estudo e confirmam que essas espécies podem ser diferenciadas quando se considerar as variáveis referentes ao hemograma e a bioquímica. Nos íons, no trombograma e no leucograma, não foi possível diferenciar as espécies. O PCA das propriedades da água foi constituído por 68,57% de diferenciação que se constituiu principalmente no eixo x (49,44%). É possível confirmar que P. motoro tem a capacidade de habitar as áreas preferências de P. wallacei e P. aiereba, além do mais esta possui uma localidade que as demais arraias não são encontradas. Conclui-se que P. wallacei, apresenta padrões diferenciados de P. aiereba, além do mais P. motoro é uma espécie que apresenta características intermediárias entre as descritas, o qual pode ser considerado uma espécie com distribuição mais ampla em seus aspectos ecofisiológicos.


Assuntos
Animais , Rajidae/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Água Doce/química , Rajidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rajidae/sangue , Testes Hematológicos
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 413-416, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888744

RESUMO

Abstract Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu) is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós) a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.


Resumo Parasitas intraeritrocitários são frequentemente encontrados em peixes, incluindo elasmobrânquios. Os rios Amazônicos possuem ciclos hidrológicos anuais que resultam em modificações drásticas nas condições ambientais, com implicação profunda no ciclo de vida associada a biota dos sistemas fluviais. A arraia de água doce Potamotrygon wallacei (arraia cururu) é uma nova espécie restrita a bacia do médio Rio Negro e sujeita a fortes alterações em seus habitats naturais (igapós) resultantes das constantes variações do nível de água do Rio Negro. Este trabalho demonstra a ocorrência de parasita intraeritrocitário Cyrilia sp. em espécimes de arraias de água doce. Além disso, a prevalência e quantificação de hemoparasitas em diferentes fases do Rio Negro foi estabelecida. Coletas de campo foram realizadas no Arquipélago de Mariuá, médio Rio Negro, envolvendo diferentes fases do ciclo hidrológico. Os parasitas intraeritrocitários foram quantificados por contagem direta em esfregaços de sangue usando a contagem total de 2000 eritrócitos em cada esfregaço sanguíneo. A presença de parasitas intraeritrocitários gera alterações na morfologia da célula sanguínea. A maior quantidade dos hemoparasitas foi registrado no período de seca. Observou-se a tendência de diminuição no número de parasitas no sangue entre o período de seca e de cheia. Concluiu-se que o nível de Rio Negro influencia a incidência de parasitas intraeritrocitários na arraia cururu, e a seca representa o período de maior susceptibilidade à infestação.


Assuntos
Animais , Rajidae , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Rios , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
19.
Dis Esophagus ; 30(4): 1-9, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375484

RESUMO

Chaga's disease is an important communicable neglected disease that is gaining wider attention due to its increasing incidence worldwide. Achalasia due to chagasic megaesophagus (CM), a complication of this disease, is a known-yet, poorly understood-etiological factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development. In this study, we aimed to perform the analysis of TP53 mutations in a series of Brazilian patients with ESCC that developed in the context CM (ESCC/CM), and to compare with the TP53 mutation profile of patients with benign CM and patients with nonchagasic ESCC. Additionally, we intended to correlate the TP53 mutation results with patient's clinical pathological features. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing of the hotspot regions of TP53 (exon 5 to 8), we found that TP53 mutations were present in 40.6% (13/32) of the ESCC/CM group, 45% (18/40) of the nonchagasic ESCC group, and in only 3% (1/33) of the benign CM group. Missense mutations were the most common in the three groups, yet, the type and mutated exon mutation varied significantly among the groups. Clinically, the groups exhibited distinct features, with both cancer groups (ESCC and ESCC/CM) been significantly associated higher consumption of alcohol and tobacco, older age, worse Karnofsky performance status, poor outcome than the patients with benign CM. No significant association was found between TP53 mutation profile and clinical-pathological features in any of the three groups. We describe first the time the analysis of TP53 mutations in ESCC that developed in the context of CM, and the observed high frequency of mutations, suggest that TP53 also plays an important role in the tumorigenic process of this unexplored etiological condition.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Doença de Chagas/genética , Acalasia Esofágica/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Genes p53 , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Acalasia Esofágica/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Éxons , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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