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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

RESUMO

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.

4.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259612

RESUMO

The water produced (PW) by the petroleum industry is a potential contaminant to aquatic biota, due to its complex mixture that may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), metals and other components that are known to be toxic. The aim of this investigation was to examine the acute toxicity produced by a PW sample in aquatic organisms Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia similis prior to and after 4 treatments using advanced oxidative processes such as photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, ozonation and photoelectrocatalytic ozonation. Data demonstrated that exposure to PW was toxic to both organisms, as evidenced by reduced luminescence in bacterium Vibrio fischeri and induced immobility in Daphnia similis. After treatment of PW with 4 different techniques, the PW remained toxic for both tested organisms. However, photoelectrocatalysis was more efficient in decreasing toxicity attributed to PW sample. Therefore, data demonstrate the importance of treating PW for later disposal in the environment in order to mitigate ecotoxicological impacts. Further photoelectrocatalysis appeared to be a promising tool for treating PW samples prior to disposal and exposure of aquatic ecosystems.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302592

RESUMO

Mannosylerythritol lipids have drawn attention to cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to their non-toxicity and excellent biological interactions with human skin, particularly with the deepest epidermal layer. Lamellar liquid crystal structure, formed by MEL-B, is an interesting feature due to its similarity to the stratum corneum molecular arrangement and cell signaling events involved in the deregulation of the cancerous cell membrane. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of commercial mannosylerythritol lipids-B in murine melanoma, fibroblast, and human erythrocytes cells. Cytotoxic effect was more pronounced on the tumor cells from 20 µg/mL, reducing cell viability by 65%, whereas fibroblast and human erythrocytes cells were more resistant to glycolipid treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometer proved that mannosylerythritol lipids-B is an apoptosis inducer in tumor cells related to reactive oxygen species generation.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190758

RESUMO

The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 µg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 µg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 µg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 µg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Assuntos
Aedes , Cymbopogon , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Esterificação , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade
9.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114131

RESUMO

Caesarean section is one of the most common surgeries worldwide, even though there is no evidence supporting maternal and perinatal long-term benefits. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of a caesarean scar during a vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is not well understood since there are several questions regarding the uterine wound healing process. The aim of this study is to investigate the biomechanical Maylard fiber reorientation and stiffness influence during a VBAC through computational methods. A biomechanical model comprising a fetus and a uterus was developed, and a chemical-mechanical constitutive model that triggers uterine contractions was used, where some of the parameters were adjusted to account for the matrix and fiber stiffness increase in the caesarean scar. Several mechanical simulations were performed to analyze different scar fibers arrangements, considering different values for the respective matrix and fibers stiffness. The results revealed that a random fiber arrangement in the Maylard scar has a much higher impact on its mechanical behavior during a VBAC than the common fibers arrangement present in the uninjured uterine tissue. An increase of the matrix scar stiffness exhibits a lower impact, while an increase of the fiber's stiffness has no significant influence.

10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 324: 110827, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030003

RESUMO

Sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera) rank among the most common insects associated with human-transformed environments all over the world. Synanthropic species of the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Phoridae, in particular, have tremendous forensic importance due to their ability to colonize human cadavers and thus provide information on minimum post-mortem interval. Recently, cases of flies colonizing cadavers inside buildings of different heights drew attention to the vertical dispersal abilities of these flies, a subject that has received little attention. We investigated the vertical distribution of sarcosaprophagous flies in an urban environment, using uninhabited buildings as experimental models in Northeastern Brazil. To assess the vertical stratification of flies, one in every three floors of nine buildings was sampled using traps baited with bovine spleen, from the ground to the 27th floor. Calliphoridae was the most abundant family (52.9%), followed by Muscidae (41.2%), Sarcophagidae (3.2%) and Phoridae (2.7%). Most of the insects were collected at ground level (78.8%), with a decreasing abundance registered on the higher floors. Nevertheless, adults of the four families tested here were able to reach substrates as high as the 15th floor, which corresponds to approximately 48 m in height. Regarding calliphorids, seven species were identified, of which Chrysomya albiceps (30.4%) and C. megacephala (68.3%) were the most abundant. This is, to our knowledge, the first detailed, replicated study on vertical resource localization of sarcosaprophagous flies.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Dípteros/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Entomologia Forense , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDEs) comprise qualitative and/or quantitative changes to the enamel during amelogenesis. The aetiology of DDE remains inconclusive. AIM: To determine the association of pre, peri, and postnatal factors with the presence of DDE. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with 353 children (8 to 11 years-old) in a Brazilian town. METHODS: One calibrated dentist assessed DDE using the Developmental Defects of Enamel Index and a questionnaire collected medical and sociodemographic data. MAIN OUTCOMES: Children with at least one type of DDE were categorized into the DDE group. Subtypes of DDE were also recorded. RESULTS: 63.1% of children had at least one type of DDE. Diffuse opacity was present in 36.7%, demarcated opacity in 14.8%, and hypoplasia in 5.83% of the children. In multivariate analysis, demarcated opacities and hypoplasia were associated with birth weight ⟨ 2500g (OR = 4.82; 95% CI 1.23-1.95). CONCLUSION: Low birth weight predicted DDE.

12.
Animal ; 15(2): 100120, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579648

RESUMO

The excessive accumulation of abdominal fat in broilers is an economic waste. Supplemental dietary L-arginine has been shown to reduce lipogenesis in broilers, but studies on this subject are still scarce. Two experiments were conducted in a 5×2 factorial design, with five L-arginine concentrations in diets (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg) provided to male and female broilers, from 29 to 42 days of age, reared in boxes or cages, with six replicates of 23 broilers per box and six replicates of three broilers per cage, totalling 1560 broilers. Data on performance, carcass and cuts yield, abdominal fat deposition, chemical composition of the breast, lipid profile and liver enzyme activity were evaluated in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the balance and retention of nitrogen, metabolizability coefficients and metabolizable energy of feed were determined and the treatments were evaluated in six replicates of three broilers per cage, totalling 180 broilers. In both experiments, there was no interaction (P > 0.05) between L-arginine concentration in the diet and sex of the broilers for all parameters evaluated. Male broilers showed higher (P < 0.05) weight gain, noble cuts yield, levels of CP and mineral matter in the breast, better feed conversion (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) malic enzyme activity in the liver and abdominal fat deposition. On the other hand, regardless of sex, the increase in L-arginine concentration in the diet improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion in addition to reducing (P < 0.05) serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the malic enzyme activity in the liver and abdominal fat deposition. In conclusion, male broilers had better productive results than females. However, supplementing the diet of male or female broilers from 29 to 42 days of age with L-arginine at a concentration of 6.87 g/kg represents a nutritional strategy to improve feed conversion and reduce circulating triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels, NADPH synthesis by liver malic enzyme and abdominal fat deposition, without negatively affecting the carcass and noble cuts yield, the amount of nitrogen excreted by the broilers and the energy value of the feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Arginina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino
13.
Int Endod J ; 54(1): 38-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876967

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the association between the promoter region of defensin beta 1 (DEFB1) genetic polymorphisms and persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) in Brazilian patients. METHODOLOGY: Seventy-three patients with post-treatment PAP (PAP group) and 89 patients with root filled teeth with healed and healthy periradicular tissues (healed group) were included (all teeth had apical periodontitis lesions at the beginning of the treatment). Patients who had undergone at least 1 year of follow-up after root canal treatment were recalled, and their genomic DNA was extracted from saliva. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DEFB1 at the g. -52G>A (rs1799946) and g. -20G>A (rs11362) positions were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The chi-squared test was performed, and the odds ratios were calculated using Epi Info 3.5.2. Logistic regression analysis in the codominant model, using the time of follow-up as a variable, was used to evaluate the SNP-SNP interaction. All tests were performed with an established alpha of 0.05 (P = 0.05). RESULTS: For the rs11362 polymorphism in the codominant and recessive models, patients who carried two copies of the T allele had a significantly lower risk of developing PAP (P = 0.040 and P = 0.031, respectively). For the rs1799946 polymorphism in DEFB1 in the codominant and recessive models, carrying one copy of the T allele significantly increased the risk of developing PAP (P = 0.007 and P = 0.031, respectively). In the logistic regression, both polymorphisms were associated with PAP as well as the SNP-SNP interaction (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in DEFB1 genes were associated with the development of post-treatment persistent apical periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , beta-Defensinas , Brasil , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Periodontite Periapical/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , beta-Defensinas/genética
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 61-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654270

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of Chamaecostus cuspidatus against Candida and Trichophyton species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Crude ethanol extracts of leaves, stems and rhizomes were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Only the rhizomes extract (RE) showed antifungal activity but had no inhibitory effect against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). The RE was then submitted to liquid-liquid partition with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. The Hex fraction (Hex Fr) from the RE was found to have the best antifungal effect. Three known saponins were isolated from the Hex Fr, of which two (dioscin and aferoside A) showed good antifungal activity. In addition, Hex Fr and the two bioactive compounds had no antibacterial effect, but exhibited fungicidal activity, caused significant changes in the morphology of the fungal cells and showed anti-Candida albicans biofilm activity. Finally, the bioactive plant products presented greater selectivity for fungal cells over normal human cells. CONCLUSIONS: The rhizomes of C. cuspidatus have bioactive saponins that function as effective antifungals against Candida and Trichophyton species, and have antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Chamaecostus cuspidatus REs may have potential clinical application towards the management of superficial mycoses caused by Candida and Trichophyton species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Zingiberales/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(1): 460-469, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289232

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii with or without metronidazole in experimental giardiasis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of treatment with S. boulardii with or without metronidazole on the intestinal mucosa, the antioxidant defence system and the parasitic load was determined in experimental giardiasis. Eight groups of animals with infection and/or treatment with the probiotic and/or drugs for 1 week after infection with Giardia lamblia were used. A reduction of approximately 90% in the parasitic load was observed in all the treated groups. Saccharomyces boulardii attenuated the damage caused by infection in the intestinal mucosa preserving its architecture and inhibiting the oxidative stress induced by parasite and metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: Saccharomyces boulardii was effective alone or in combination with metronidazole in resolving already established G. lamblia infection. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results suggest the use of S. boulardii as an alternative treatment for giardiasis mainly in cases of resistance or intolerance to conventional treatment.

16.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 71: 105069, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309870

RESUMO

Three-dimensional skin models, also named 3D skin models, human skin equivalents (HSEs), or Human Epidermal Equivalents (HEEs), have been increasingly used for chemical assessments in terms of efficacy and safety. Considering this, we developed an HEE model using immortalized HaCaT cells, aiming to overcome the limitation of primary tissue source. Our 3D model (HaCaT-HEE) exhibited important markers of cell differentiation (CK10, CK14, involucrin, and filaggrin), although the stratum corneum was shown to be modest. Besides, the model showed a good prediction potential considering membrane permeability, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in distinguishing irritant and corrosive effects after exposure to selected chemicals recommended by the OECD protocols. We also validated the formazan determination for the MTT method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). For that, we considered carry over, linearity, reproducibility/robustness, accuracy, precision, selectivity, and matrix effect, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline. Based on our results, we can conclude that our model has an acceptable predictive value for the safety evaluation of compounds after skin exposure, with the great advantage of being constructed using immortalized cells.

17.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(9): 938-947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the impact of social isolation during COVID-19 pandemic on mental and physical health of older people and the recommendations for patients, caregivers and health professionals. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: Non-institutionalized community-living people. PARTICIPANTS: 20.069 individuals from ten descriptive cross-sectional papers. MEASUREMENTS: Articles since 2019 to 2020 published on Pubmed, Scielo and Google Scholar databases with the following MeSh terms ('COVID-19', 'coronavirus', 'aging', 'older people', 'elderly', 'social isolation' and 'quarantine') in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. The studies not including people over 60 were excluded. Guidelines, recommendations, and update documents from different international organizations related to mental and physical activity were also analysed. RESULTS: 41 documents have been included in this narrative review, involving a total of 20.069 individuals (58% women), from Asia, Europe and America. 31 articles included recommendations and 10 addressed the impact of social distancing on mental or physical health. The main outcomes reported were anxiety, depression, poor sleep quality and physical inactivity during the isolation period. Cognitive strategies and increasing physical activity levels using apps, online videos, telehealth, are the main international recommendations. CONCLUSION: Mental and physical health in older people are negatively affected during the social distancing for COVID-19. Therefore, a multicomponent program with exercise and psychological strategies are highly recommended for this population during the confinement. Future investigations are necessary in this field.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Isolamento Social , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , América , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ásia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
18.
Int J Pharm ; 591: 120001, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141086

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a double layer biomembrane for dual drug delivery to be used for the treatment of wounds. The membrane was composed of chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and lidocaine chloride (anesthetic drug) in the first layer, and of sodium alginate-polymyxin B sulphate (antibiotic) nanoparticles as the second layer. A product with excellent thickness (0.01-0.02 mm), adequate mechanical properties with respect to elasticity, stiffness, tension, and compatible pH for lesion application has been successfully obtained. The incorporation of the drugs was confirmed analysing the membrane cross-sections by scanning electron microscopy. A strong interaction between the drugs and the functional groups of respective polymers was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Microbiological assays showed a high antimicrobial activity when polymyxin B was present to act against the Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Low cytotoxicity observed in a cell viability colorimetric assay and SEM analysis suggest biocompatibility between the developed biomembrane and the cell culture. The in vivo assay allowed visualizing the healing potential by calculating the wound retraction index and by histological analysis. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the developed innovative biomaterial for tissue repair and regeneration in an animal model.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Alginatos , Animais , Bandagens , Lidocaína , Polimixinas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Cicatrização
19.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 10(4): 738-742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101892

RESUMO

Purpose: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is the most frequent orthopedic procedure in cleft subjects. However, little is known about its effects on the mandible. The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous response of the mandibular teeth following RME. Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out with a sample of thirty participants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 8-15 years old, who had transverse maxillary deficiency. Two participants were excluded. They were allocated into three groups: G1 (n = 10), G2 (n = 10), and G3 (n = 8). G1 was treated with a Fan-type expander; G2 with an iMini expander; and G3 with a Hyrax expander. Measurements were performed in Cone Beam CT scans obtained before treatment (T1) and 3 months post-expansion (T2). The primary outcomes were buccolingual inclination of mandibular first molars and canines, and intercanine and intermolar width at different levels. Results: Dental changes were significant (P < 0.05) for intercanine width, increasing in G1 and G2, and for intermolar width, increasing in G2 and G3. There were no significant differences among groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: RME in UCLP subjects performed with these expanders may lead to significant spontaneous changes in both anterior and posterior region of the mandible.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897533

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate parents' perceptions of the oral health status of children enrolled in public preschools and associated factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected via self-administered questionnaire. A total of 474 questionnaires were distributed in public preschools in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Poisson regression models were used in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The study included 171 (36%) valid questionnaires. The prevalence of parents who perceived the oral health status of their children as negative was 29.8% (n = 51). Mother being unemployed (vs employed) increased by 16% the likelihood of parents perceiving the oral health status of their children as negative (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.31. Parents having (vs having not) observed difficulties in the child's ability to eat increased by 27% the likelihood of perceiving the child's oral health status as negative (PR 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.48), while child's tooth brushing 1-2 (vs 3 or more) times a day and family income up to 2 (vs 3 or more) minimum wages increased it by 14% (PR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.27 for both). Current or past use (vs no use) of pacifiers increased by 12% the likelihood of parents' negative perceptions (PR 1.12; 95% CI 1.00-1.25). CONCLUSION: We can conclude that unemployed mothers, low-income families, parents having observed child's feeding difficulties, child's tooth brushing 1-2 times a day, and current or past use of pacifiers contributed significantly to parents' negative perception of the child's oral health status. These factors are essential for the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of actions aimed at controlling the oral health of children enrolled in public preschools.

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