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1.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(272): 5082-5091, jan.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1148264

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar as principais limitações para a implementação da Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermagem em instituição de longa permanência para idosos. Método: Pesquisa de natureza descritiva e exploratória de abordagem qualitativa, realizada com quatro enfermeiros de instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Foram entrevistados 4 enfermeiros. Resultados: Emergiu-se duas categorias centrais: Percepções sobre a importância da atualização para prática da sistematização da assistência de enfermagem em saúde do idoso e dificuldades e condições de trabalho enfrentados pelos enfermeiros na implantação da Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermagem em Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Conclusão: deve-se haver estimulação institucional, através de medidas que subsidiem a implantação da Sistematização da Assistência de Enfermagem, parceria e treinamentos para a equipe de enfermagem, proporcionando a melhoria da qualidade da assistência à sua clientela e a satisfação profissional.(AU)


Objective: To analyze the main limitations for the implementation of the Nursing Assistance Systematization in a long-term care institution for the elderly. Method: Research of a descriptive and exploratory nature with a qualitative approach, carried out with four nurses from Long-Term Care Institutions for the Elderly. Four nurses were interviewed. Results: Two central categories emerged: Perceptions about the importance of updating for the practice of systematizing nursing assistance in the health of the elderly and the difficulties and working conditions faced by nurses in implementing the Nursing Assistance Systematization in a Long-Term Care Facility for the Elderly. Conclusion: there must be institutional stimulation, through measures that subsidize the implementation of the Nursing Assistance Systematization, partnership and training for the nursing team, providing an improvement in the quality of care to its clientele and professional satisfaction.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar las principales limitaciones para la implementación de la Sistematización de la Asistencia de Enfermería en una institución de atención de larga duración para el adulto mayor. Método: Investigación de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, realizada con cuatro enfermeras de Instituciones de Atención de Larga Duración para el Adulto Mayor. Se entrevistó a cuatro enfermeras. Resultados: Surgieron dos categorías centrales: Percepciones sobre la importancia de la actualización para la práctica de sistematizar la asistencia de enfermería en la salud del adulto mayor y las dificultades y condiciones laborales que enfrentan los enfermeros en la implementación de la Sistematización de la Asistencia de Enfermería en una Institución de Atención de Larga Duración para el Adulto Mayor. Conclusión: debe existir un estímulo institucional, a través de medidas que apoyen la implementación de la Sistematización de la Asistencia de Enfermería, asociación y entrenamiento para el equipo de enfermería, proporcionando una mejora en la calidad de la asistencia a su clientela y satisfacción profesional.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência de Longa Duração , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado
2.
Meat Sci ; 174: 108408, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373850

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the use of the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus paracasei DTA-83 as a nitrite-reducing agent to produce potentially probiotic or postbiotic pre-converted nitrite from celery. The results obtained were compared to those achieved by direct addition of sodium nitrite for the typical reddish color formation in cooked pork sausages and the inhibitory potential against the growth of target microorganisms, including the clostridia group. Regarding the sausages color, similar findings were observed when comparing the use of pre-converted nitrite from celery produced by L. paracasei DTA-83 and the direct addition of sodium nitrite. Additionally, it presented an inhibitory effect against Salmonella spp., which was not observed with the direct addition of nitrite, revealing a potential strategy to control salmonellosis in the matrix. However, a non-equivalent preservative effect against Clostridium perfringens (INCQS 215) was determined. The results highlight a promising alternative to produce probiotic or postbiotic meat ingredients; however, further studies should be conducted to investigate doses that achieve microbial control.

3.
JCI Insight ; 5(23)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108348

RESUMO

A possible etiological link between the onset of endemic pemphigus in Tunisia and bites of Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been previously suggested. We hypothesized that the immunodominant P. papatasi salivary protein PpSP32 binds to desmogleins 1 and 3 (Dsg1 and Dsg3), triggering loss of tolerance to these pemphigus target autoantigens. Here, we show using far-Western blot that the recombinant PpSP32 protein (rPpSP32) binds to epidermal proteins with a MW of approximately 170 kDa. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed the interaction of rPpSP32 with either Dsg1 or Dsg3. A specific interaction between PpSP32 and Dsg1 and Dsg3 was further demonstrated by ELISA assays. Finally, mice immunized with rPpSP32 twice per week exhibited significantly increased levels of anti-Dsg1 and -Dsg3 antibodies from day 75 to 120. Such antibodies were specific for Dsg1 and Dsg3 and were not the result of cross-reactivity to PpSP32. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge a specific binding between PpSP32 and Dsg1 and Dsg3, which might underlie the triggering of anti-Dsg antibodies in patients exposed to sand fly bites. We also confirmed the development of specific anti-Dsg1 and -Dsg3 antibodies in vivo after PpSP32 immunization in mice. Collectively, our results provide evidence that environmental factors, such as the exposure to P. papatasi bites, can trigger the development of autoimmune antibodies.

4.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108317, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113362

RESUMO

Hematophagous vectors lacerate host skin and capillaries to acquire a blood meal, resulting in leakage of red blood cells (RBCs) and inflammation. Here, we show that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a pleiotropic cytoprotective isoenzyme that mitigates heme-mediated tissue damage, is induced after bites of sand flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Further, we demonstrate that erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, including a skin-residing CD163+CD91+ professional iron-recycling subpopulation, produces HO-1 after bites. Importantly, we establish that global deletion or transient inhibition of HO-1 in mice increases inflammation and pathology following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites without affecting parasite number, whereas CO, an end product of the HO-1 enzymatic reaction, suppresses skin inflammation. This indicates that HO-1 induction by blood-feeding sand flies promotes tolerance to Leishmania infection. Collectively, our data demonstrate that HO-1 induction through erythrophagocytosis is a universal mechanism that regulates skin inflammation following blood feeding by arthropods, thus promoting early-stage disease tolerance to vector-borne pathogens.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18653, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122717

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases transmitted by sand fly vectors that deposit Leishmania spp. parasites in the host skin during blood feeding. Currently, available treatment options are limited, associated with high toxicity and emerging resistance. Even though a vaccine for human leishmaniasis is considered an achievable goal, to date we still do not have one available, a consequence (amongst other factors) of a lack of pre-clinical to clinical translatability. Pre-exposure to uninfected sand fly bites or immunization with defined sand fly salivary proteins was shown to negatively impact infection. Still, cross-protection reports are rare and dependent on the phylogenetic proximity of the sand fly species, meaning that the applicability of a sand fly saliva-based vaccine will be limited to a defined geography, one parasite species and one form of leishmaniasis. As a proof of principle of a future vector saliva-based pan-Leishmania vaccine, we engineered through a reverse vaccinology approach that maximizes translation to humans, a fusion protein consisting of immunogenic portions of PdSP15 and LJL143, sand fly salivary proteins demonstrated as potential vaccine candidates against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. The in silico analysis was validated ex vivo, through T cell proliferation experiments, proving that the fusion protein (administered as a DNA vaccine) maintained the immunogenicity of both PdSP15 and LJL143. Additionally, while no significant effect was detected in the context of L. major transmission by P. duboscqi, this DNA vaccine was defined as partially protective, in the context of L. major transmission by L. longipalpis sand flies. Importantly, a high IFNγ response alone was not enough to confer protection, that mainly correlated with low T cell mediated Leishmania-specific IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and consequently with high pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios. Overall our immunogenicity data suggests that to design a potentially safe vector-based pan-Leishmania vaccine, without geographic restrictions and against all forms of leishmaniasis is an achievable goal. This is why we propose our approach as a proof-of principle, perhaps not only applicable to the anti-Leishmania vector-based vaccines' field, but also to other branches of knowledge that require the design of multi-epitope T cell vaccines with a higher potential for translation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17664, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077743

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis encompasses a spectrum of diseases caused by a protozoan belonging to the genus Leishmania. The parasite is transmitted by the bite of sand flies, which inoculate the promastigote forms into the host's skin while acquiring a blood meal. Nyssomyia neivai is one of the main vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in Brazil. Southeastern Brazil is an endemic region for TL but also overlaps with an endemic focus for pemphigus foliaceus (PF), also known as Fogo Selvagem. Salivary proteins of sand flies, specifically maxadilan and LJM11, have been related to pemphigus etiopathogenesis in the New World, being proposed as an environmental trigger for autoimmunity. We present a comprehensive description of the salivary transcriptome of the N. neivai, using deep sequencing achieved by the Illumina protocol. In addition, we highlight the abundances of several N. neivai salivary proteins and use phylogenetic analysis to compare with Old- and New-World sand fly salivary proteins. The collection of protein sequences associated with the salivary glands of N. neivai can be useful for monitoring vector control strategies as biomarkers of N. neivai, as well as driving vector-vaccine design for leishmaniasis. Additionally, this catalog will serve as reference to screen for possible antigenic peptide candidates triggering anti-Desmoglein-1 autoantibodies.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 608, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sand flies are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. To develop in the sand fly midgut, Leishmania multiplies and undergoes various stage differentiations giving rise to the infective form, the metacyclic promastigotes. To determine the changes in sand fly midgut gene expression caused by the presence of Leishmania, we performed RNA-Seq of uninfected and Leishmania infantum-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis midguts from seven different libraries corresponding to time points which cover the various Leishmania developmental stages. RESULTS: The combined transcriptomes resulted in the de novo assembly of 13,841 sand fly midgut transcripts. Importantly, only 113 sand fly transcripts, about 1%, were differentially expressed in the presence of Leishmania parasites. Further, we observed distinct differentially expressed sand fly midgut transcripts corresponding to the presence of each of the various Leishmania stages suggesting that each parasite stage influences midgut gene expression in a specific manner. Two main patterns of sand fly gene expression modulation were noted. At early time points (days 1-4), more transcripts were down-regulated by Leishmania infection at large fold changes (> 32 fold). Among the down-regulated genes, the transcription factor Forkhead/HNF-3 and hormone degradation enzymes were differentially regulated on day 2 and appear to be the upstream regulators of nutrient transport, digestive enzymes, and peritrophic matrix proteins. Conversely, at later time points (days 6 onwards), most of the differentially expressed transcripts were up-regulated by Leishmania infection with small fold changes (< 32 fold). The molecular functions of these genes have been associated with the metabolism of lipids and detoxification of xenobiotics. CONCLUSION: Overall, our data suggest that the presence of Leishmania produces a limited change in the midgut transcript expression profile in sand flies. Further, Leishmania modulates sand fly gene expression early on in the developmental cycle in order to overcome the barriers imposed by the midgut, yet it behaves like a commensal at later time points where a massive number of parasites in the anterior midgut results only in modest changes in midgut gene expression.

8.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 251-259, May-Aug. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114933

RESUMO

BACKGROUNG: Chronic kidney disease is directly related to cardiovascular disorders. Guided physical exercises significantly improve the adverse effects of dialytic treatmentOBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in biochemical parameters of subjects with chronic kidney disease undergoing moderate exercise during hemodialysisMETHODS: This is an experimental study composed of 54 subjects submitted to hemodialysis, split into a control group and a group with intervention. The experimental group underwent three weekly sessions of aerobic exercise, performed during hemodialysis sessions, with a duration of 30 minutes, for 12 weeks. The blood parameters of both groups were comparedRESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between pre (p=0.001) and post-exercise protocol for urea (p=0.006), calcium (p=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p=0.020) and sodium (p=<0.001). In the control group, we observed significant differences for the calcium variable (p<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p=0.024), hematocrit (p=0.015), calcium vs phosphorus (p=0.018), and sodium (p=0.023), before and after the periodCONCLUSION: Aerobic training during hemodialysis was able to maintain blood level stability in patients with chronic kidney disease, both during and at the end of the protocol, even considering increased blood flow. This trial is registered in the Brazilian registry of clinical Trials - number RBR-7354r6. : July 5, 2018 at 12:59 PM. : July 24, 2018 at 10:24 AM. Identification of the test - UTN Number: U1111-1216-8272


INTRODUÇÃO: A doença renal crônica está diretamente relacionada a distúrbios cardiovasculares. Exercícios físicos guiados melhoram significativamente os efeitos adversos do tratamento dialíticoOBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações nos parâmetros bioquímicos de indivíduos com doença renal crônica submetidos a exercícios moderados durante a hemodiáliseMÉTODO: Este é um estudo experimental composto por 54 indivíduos submetidos à hemodiálise, divididos em um grupo controle e um grupo com intervenção. O grupo experimental passou por três sessões semanais de exercício aeróbico, realizadas durante as sessões de hemodiálise, com duração de 30 minutos, por 12 semanas. Os parâmetros sanguíneos de ambos os grupos foram comparadosRESULTADOS: Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram observadas entre o protocolo pré (p=0,001) e pós-exercício para urea (p=0,006), cálcio (p=0,001), alanina aminotransferase (p=0,020) e sódio (p=&0.001). No grupo controle, observamos diferenças significativas para a variável cálcio (p<0.001), alanina aminotransferase (p=0,024), hematócrito (p=0,015), cálcio vs fósforo (p=0,018) e sódio (p=0,023), antes e depois do períodoCONCLUSÃO: O treinamento aeróbico durante a hemodiálise foi capaz de manter a estabilidade do nível sanguíneo em pacientes com doença renal crônica, tanto durante quanto no final do protocolo, considerando mesmo o aumento do fluxo sanguíneo. Este ensaio está registrado no registro brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos - número RBR-7354r6. Data de inscrição: 5 de julho de 2018 às 12h59. : 24 de julho de 2018 às 10h24. Identificação do teste - UTN Número: U1111-1216-8272


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Circulação Renal , Exercício Físico , Estudos Longitudinais , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3461, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651371

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa transmitted by infected sand flies. Vaccination through leishmanization with live Leishmania major has been used successfully but is no longer practiced because it resulted in occasional skin lesions. A second generation leishmanization is described here using a CRISPR genome edited L. major strain (LmCen-/-). Notably, LmCen-/- is a genetically engineered centrin gene knock-out mutant strain that is antibiotic resistant marker free and does not have detectable off-target mutations. Mice immunized with LmCen-/- have no visible lesions following challenge with L. major-infected sand flies, while non-immunized animals develop large and progressive lesions with a 2-log fold higher parasite burden. LmCen-/- immunization results in protection and an immune response comparable to leishmanization. LmCen-/- is safe since it is unable to cause disease in immunocompromised mice, induces robust host protection against vector sand fly challenge and because it is marker free, can be advanced to human vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Edição de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
10.
Lancet ; 395(10242): 1998-2007, 2020 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal models, immunity to mosquito salivary proteins protects animals against mosquito-borne disease. These findings provide a rationale to vaccinate against mosquito saliva instead of the pathogen itself. To our knowledge, no vector salivary protein-based vaccine has been tested for safety and immunogenicity in humans. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Anopheles gambiae saliva vaccine (AGS-v), a peptide-based vaccine derived from four A gambiae salivary proteins, in humans. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1 trial, participants were enrolled at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, USA. Participants were eligible if they were healthy adults, aged 18-50 years with no history of severe allergic reactions to mosquito bites. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1), using block randomisation and a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to treatment with either 200 nmol of AGS-v vaccine alone, 200 nmol of AGS-v with adjuvant (Montanide ISA 51), or sterile water as placebo. Participants and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were given a subcutaneous injection of their allocated treatment at day 0 and day 21, followed by exposure to feeding by an uninfected Aedes aegypti mosquito at day 42 to assess subsequent risk to mosquito bites in a controlled setting. The primary endpoints were safety and immunogenicity at day 42 after the first immunisation. Participants who were given at least one dose of assigned treatment were assessed for the primary endpoints and analysis was by intention to treat. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03055000, and is closed for accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 15 and Sept 10, 2017, we enrolled and randomly assigned 49 healthy adult participants to the adjuvanted vaccine (n=17), vaccine alone (n=16), or placebo group (n=16). Five participants did not complete the two-injection regimen with mosquito feeding at day 42, but were included in the safety analyses. No systemic safety concerns were identified; however, one participant in the adjuvanted vaccine group developed a grade 3 erythematous rash at the injection site. Pain, swelling, erythema, and itching were the most commonly reported local symptoms and were significantly increased in the adjuvanted vaccine group compared with both other treatment groups (nine [53%] of 17 participants in the adjuvanted vaccine group, two [13%] of 16 in the vaccine only group, and one [6%] of 16 in the placebo group; p=0·004). By day 42, participants who were given the adjuvanted vaccine had a significant increase in vaccine-specific total IgG antibodies compared with at baseline than did participants who were give vaccine only (absolute difference of log10-fold change of 0·64 [95% CI 0·39 to 0·89]; p=0·0002) and who were given placebo (0·62 [0·34 to 0·91]; p=0·0001). We saw a significant increase in IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at day 42 in the adjuvanted vaccine group compared with in the placebo group (absolute difference of log10 ratio of vaccine peptide-stimulated vs negative control 0·17 [95% CI 0·061 to 0·27]; p=0·009) but we saw no difference between the IFN-γ production in the vaccine only group compared with the placebo group (0·022 [-0·072 to 0·116]; p=0·63). INTERPRETATION: AGS-v was well tolerated, and, when adjuvanted, immunogenic. These findings suggest that vector-targeted vaccine administration in humans is safe and could be a viable option for the increasing burden of vector-borne disease. FUNDING: Office of the Director and the Division of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/imunologia , Anopheles/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/imunologia , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Segurança , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7990, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409684

RESUMO

Individuals exposed to sand fly bites develop humoral and cellular immune responses to sand fly salivary proteins. Moreover, cellular immunity to saliva or distinct salivary proteins protects against leishmaniasis in various animal models. In Tbilisi, Georgia, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), sand flies are abundant for a short period of ≤3 months. Here, we demonstrate that humans and dogs residing in Tbilisi have little immunological memory to saliva of P. kandelakii, the principal vector of VL. Only 30% of humans and 50% of dogs displayed a weak antibody response to saliva after the end of the sand fly season. Likewise, their peripheral blood mononuclear cells mounted a negligible cellular immune response after stimulation with saliva. RNA seq analysis of wild-caught P. kandelakii salivary glands established the presence of a typical salivary repertoire that included proteins commonly found in other sand fly species such as the yellow, SP15 and apyrase protein families. This indicates that the absence of immunity to P. kandelakii saliva in humans and dogs from Tbilisi is probably caused by insufficient exposure to sand fly bites. This absence of immunity to vector saliva will influence the dynamics of VL transmission in Tbilisi and other endemic areas with brief sand fly seasons.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1199-1203, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328656

RESUMO

Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies are the major natural vector of Leishmania infantum parasites, responsible for transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Several experimental studies have demonstrated the ability of Lu. longipalpis to sustain development of different Leishmania species. However, no study had explored in depth the potential vector competence of Lu. longipalpis for Leishmania species other than L. infantum. Here, we show that Lu. longipalpis is a competent vector of L. major parasites, being able to acquire parasites from active cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions, sustain mature infections, and transmit them to naive hosts, causing disease.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008014, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected disease. Inside the natural sand fly vector, the promastigote forms of Leishmania undergo a series of extracellular developmental stages to reach the infectious stage, the metacyclic promastigote. There is limited information regarding the expression profile of L. infantum developmental stages inside the sand fly vector, and molecular markers that can distinguish the different parasite stages are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed RNAseq on unaltered midguts of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis after infection with L. infantum parasites. RNAseq was carried out at various time points throughout parasite development. Principal component analysis separated the transcripts corresponding to the different Leishmania promastigote stages, the procyclic, nectomonad, leptomonad and metacyclics. Importantly, there were a significant number of differentially expressed genes when comparing the sequential development of the various Leishmania stages in the sand fly. There were 836 differentially expressed (DE) genes between procyclic and long nectomonad promastigotes; 113 DE genes between nectomonad and leptomonad promastigotes; and 302 DE genes between leptomonad and metacyclic promastigotes. Most of the DE genes do not overlap across stages, highlighting the uniqueness of each Leishmania stage. Furthermore, the different stages of Leishmania parasites exhibited specific transcriptional enrichment across chromosomes. Using the transcriptional signatures exhibited by distinct Leishmania stages during their development in the sand fly midgut, we determined the genes predominantly enriched in each stage, identifying multiple potential stage-specific markers for L. infantum. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings demonstrate the transcriptional plasticity of the Leishmania parasite inside the sand fly vector and provide a repertoire of potential stage-specific markers for further development as molecular tools for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania infantum/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(8): 1757-1767, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016569

RESUMO

This work proposes an extraction method based on the "dilute and shoot" approach and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for the simultaneous determination of 42 mycotoxins (34 quantified and 8 qualitatively studied) in dried cocoa bean samples. The purpose of the developed methodology was the reduction of co-extractives from the matrix and an efficient extraction without a cleanup step, and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In order to obtain the best extraction conditions, gravimetric tests were performed and parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency were evaluated, such as the proportion of extraction phases, amount of salt, acidification, and extraction time. The performance of the developed method was evaluated to ensure its reliability. Considering the recovery range of 70-120% as an accuracy parameter, four of the mycotoxins under study (acetyl T-2, tenuazonic acid, wortmannin, and zearalenone) showed undesirable values at one of the levels evaluated. The repeatability of the method was assessed for 34 mycotoxins by the relative standard deviation (RSD%) of the responses, and all presented satisfactory values. The quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 33.0 µg kg-1. Modification of the extraction methods made it possible to simultaneously analyze multiple mycotoxins, eliminating the need for the cleanup step, which led to analyte losses. The proposed methodology has a low cost, which makes it advantageous in routine analysis. It also has the potential for scope extension to cocoa-based foods, which are naturally exposed to a greater variety of mycotoxins. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 611104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633731

RESUMO

Amblyomma sculptum is the main tick associated with human bites in Brazil and the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of the most severe form of Brazilian spotted fever. Molecules produced in the salivary glands are directly related to feeding success and vector competence. In the present study, we identified sequences of A. sculptum salivary proteins that may be involved in hematophagy and selected three proteins that underwent functional characterization and evaluation as vaccine antigens. Among the three proteins selected, one contained a Kunitz_bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor domain (named AsKunitz) and the other two belonged to the 8.9 kDa and basic tail families of tick salivary proteins (named As8.9kDa and AsBasicTail). Expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding all three proteins was detected in the larvae, nymphs, and females at basal levels in unfed ticks and the expression levels increased after the start of feeding. Recombinant proteins rAs8.9kDa and rAsBasicTail inhibited the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, thrombin, and trypsin, whereas rAsKunitz inhibited only thrombin activity. All three recombinant proteins inhibited the hemolysis of both the classical and alternative pathways; this is the first description of tick members of the Kunitz and 8.9kDa families being inhibitors of the classical complement pathway. Mice immunization with recombinant proteins caused efficacies against A. sculptum females from 59.4% with rAsBasicTail immunization to more than 85% by immunization with rAsKunitz and rAs8.9kDa. The mortality of nymphs fed on immunized mice reached 70-100%. Therefore, all three proteins are potential antigens with the possibility of becoming a new tool in the control of A. sculptum.

17.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(265): 4141-4145, jun.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118100

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analisar a produção de pesquisas que adotaram como objeto a utilização dos diagnósticos de enfermagem e o cuidado na dimensão espiritual. Método. Revisão integrativa, tendo como pergunta delineadora: qual a relação entre os diagnósticos de enfermagem e a dimensão espiritual? A amostra deu-se por meio do acesso às bases de dados: LILACS, Medline por meio do PubMed Central, Scopus, CINAHL e Web of Science. Utilizaram-se como estratégia de busca os descritores controlados combinados com operadores booleanos, dispostos no Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH): "Espiritualidade" (spirituality), "Diagnóstico de Enfermagem" (Nursing Diagnosis)", "Cuidado" (Care), juntamente com o descritor: enfermagem (nursing). Resultados. Houve predominância de publicações no ano de 2018. Dos artigos avaliados, a maioria oriunda de pesquisas quantitativas transversais. Conclusão. Não registrar a assistência espiritual como um cuidado de enfermagem, reflete possivelmente um modelo biomédico incorporado na profissão, apego aos diagnósticos de fundamentos fisiológicos, tabus e preconceitos que envolvem esse tema.(AU)


Objective. To analyze the production of research that adopted the use of nursing diagnoses and care in the spiritual dimension as an object. Method. Integrative review, by having as an outlining question: ­ what is the relationship between nursing diagnoses and the spiritual dimension? The sample was given through the access to the databases: LILACS, Medline through PubMed Central, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science. Controlled descriptors combined with Boolean operators were used as a search strategy, available in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): "Spirituality", "Nursing Diagnosis", "Care", along with the descriptor: "Nursing". Result. There was a predominance of publications in the year of 2018. From articles evaluated, the majority arised from cross-sectional quantitative research. Conclusion. Not registering the spiritual assistance as a nursing care, possibly reflects a biomedical model incorporated within the profession, attachment to diagnoses of physiological foundations, taboos and prejudices involving this theme.(AU)


Objetivo. Analizar la producción de investigaciónes que adoptaron como objeto el uso de diagnósticos de enfermería y el cuidado en la dimensión espiritual. Método. Revisión integradora, teniendo como pregunta bosquejada: ¿Cuál es la relación entre los diagnósticos de enfermería y la dimensión espiritual? La muestra se dio a través del acceso a las bases de datos: LILACS, Medline por medio de PubMed Central, Scopus, CINAHL y Web of Science. Se utilizaron como estrategia de búsqueda los descriptores controlados combinados con operadores booleanos, disponible en el Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): "Espiritualidad" (spirituality), "Diagnóstico de Enfermería" (Nursing Diagnosis)", "Cuidado" (Care), junto con el descriptor: "Enfermería" (Nursing). Resultado. Hubo un predominio de publicaciones en el año 2018. De los artículos evaluados, la mayoría surgió de las investigaciones cuantitativas transversales. Conclusión. No registrar la asistencia espiritual como cuidado de enfermería, posiblemente refleja un modelo biomédico incorporado dentro de la profesión, apego a diagnósticos de fundamentos fisiológicos, tabúes y prejuicios relacionados con este tema.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Espiritualidade , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Diagnóstico
18.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 12: 711-718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695401

RESUMO

Introduction: Physical exercises help in the rehabilitation and recovery of various diseases. Cardiovascular and hypertension problems are the main causes of people being affected by kidney problems, which as a consequence, affects the heart rate variability (HRV) of the individual. Physical activity developed in a well-planned and thorough way can be a component in the treatment of this problem. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise intervention during hemodialysis on autonomic heart rate regulation in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: This was a longitudinal trial conducted in 19 CKD patients. The patients underwent three weekly sessions of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis for 30 mins for 12 weeks (three months). Results: HRV was analyzed before and after the protocol training. Linear indices of HRV were not different between before and after the protocol training. Nonlinear HRV analysis indicated reduced values of determinism (p=0008, Cohen's d=0.82) and entropy (p=003, Cohen's d=0.84) after the training protocol. Conclusion: In conclusion, aerobic exercise training during hemodialysis did not improve autonomic control of heart rate in CKD patients.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17656, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725608

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with visual impairment (VI) have loss of vision that causes impact on their daily living activities. Synonymous of VI are blindness, low vision, subnormal vision, visual incapacity, although there are peculiarities among them. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the body with dynamic adaptation, moment by moment, according to changes in the internal and/or external body environment. As VI is an adverse condition, it is expected to be associated with changes in systemic autonomic activity, such as heart rate (HR) variability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the blindness stress by monitoring the activity of the ANS in the heart in subjects submitted acutely to low vision and also in subjects with chronic visual deficiency. METHOD: This is a randomized trial experimental study. In this clinical trial, initially, patients will undergo an ophthalmologic medical evaluation, along with monitoring of HR and systolic blood pressure /diastolic blood pressure. Volunteers with normal vision (Group i); and people with VI (Group ii) will be evaluated, all of them inhabitants of Rio Branco City, capital of Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. The intervention will consist of simulating blindness by sealing both eyes of each participant with good eyesight, using a sleep mask and allowing maximum occlusion for 45 minutes, split into 3 periods of 15 minutes each. Still blindfolded, participants will be requested to perform different tasks as walking, serve themselves water and/or cookies, and engaging in playful-pedagogical activity. Identical procedure will be done with the group with VI. The HR will be recorded by the Polar RS800 HR monitor. All findings with a value of P < .05 will be considered statistically significant. As a risk measure the odds ratio will be calculated, adjusted, and not adjusted with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio = 1 of lowest risk for the outcome of interest will be considered as the base category for each independent variable. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be carried out in accordance with the guidelines that regulate human research in Resolution No. 466/12 of the National Health Council. We obtained the approval of the Research Ethics Committee of the ABC Medical School/Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, with CAAE: 73945017.0.0000.0082, and Opinion No. 2,275,101. All individuals who agreed to participate in the study will sign the free and informed consent form (FICF). The FICF is also available in audio and Braille versions. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. This study is registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials under the number RBR-9sm9dp.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 115: 103245, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604119

RESUMO

The amine-binding properties of sand fly salivary yellow-related proteins (YRPs) were described only in Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Here, we experimentally confirmed the kratagonist function of YRPs in the genus Phlebotomus. We utilized microscale thermophoresis technique to determine the amine-binding properties of YRPs in saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. orientalis, the Old-World vectors of visceral leishmaniases causative agents. Expressed and purified YRPs from three different sand fly species were tested for their interactions with various biogenic amines, including serotonin, histamine and catecholamines. Using the L. longipalpis YRP LJM11 as a control, we have demonstrated the comparability of the microscale thermophoresis method with conventional isothermal titration calorimetry described previously. By homology in silico modeling, we predicted the surface charge and both amino acids and hydrogen bonds of the amine-binding motifs to influence the binding affinities between closely related YRPs. All YRPs tested bound at least two biogenic amines, while the affinities differ both among and within species. Low affinity was observed for histamine. The salivary recombinant proteins rSP03B (P. perniciosus) and rPorASP4 (P. orientalis) showed high-affinity binding of serotonin, suggesting their capability to facilitate inhibition of the blood vessel contraction and platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Aminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Phlebotomus/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Conformação Proteica , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática
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