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1.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026163

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of implants placed in areas grafted with different osteoconductive bone substitutes irradiated with infrared low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Fifty-six rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: DBB, bone defects filled with deproteinized bovine bone graft (DBB); HA/TCP, bone defects filled with biphasic ceramic made of hydroxyapatite and ß-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP); DBB-L, bone defects filled with DBB and treated by LLLT; HA/TCP-L, bone defects filled with HA/TCP and treated by LLLT. Bone defects were performed in the tibia of each animal and filled with the different biomaterials. The grafted areas were treated with LLLT (λ 808 nm, 100 mW, ϕ ∼ 0.60 mm) in 7 sessions with 48 h between the irradiations. After the 60-day period, the implants were placed, and the animals were euthanized after 15 and 45 days. The osseointegration and bone repair in the grafted area were evaluated by biomechanical, microtomographic and histometric analyses, and the expression of some bone biomarkers was evaluated by immunohistochemistry analysis. LLLT induced higher degree of osseointegration, which was associated with the greater expression of BMP2 and OCN. LLLT performed in areas grafted with osteoconductive bone substitutes prior to implant placement improves osseointegration.

2.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049108

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and ß-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFß1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.

3.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049112

RESUMO

Lipoproteins are important bacterial immunostimulating molecules capable of inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) and osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo . Although these molecules are present in periodontopathogenic bacteria, their role in periodontitis is not known. In this study, we used Pam2CSK4 (PAM2), a synthetic molecule that mimics bacterial lipoprotein, to investigate the effects of lipoproteins on periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: 1) Negative control group: animals received vehicle injection; 2) Positive control group: animals received injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); 3) PAM2 group: animals received PAM2 injection. All the injections were performed bilaterally every other day into the palatal mucosa between first and second molars. After twenty-four days, the animals were euthanized to assess alveolar bone volume (micro-CT), cellular and extracellular composition in the gingiva (stereometric analysis), and osteoclast numbers (TRAP staining). Treatment with either PAM2 or LPS induced gingival inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced angiogenesis, associated with a smaller number of fibroblasts and decreased extracellular matrix. Importantly, treatment not only with LPS but also with PAM2 resulted in a larger number of TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts and significant loss of alveolar bone. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PAM2 can induce gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice, broadening the avenues of investigation into the role of lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2696, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060388

RESUMO

Cutaneous secretions of amphibians have bioactive compounds, such as peptides, with potential for biotechnological applications. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the primary structure and investigate peptides obtained from the cutaneous secretions of the amphibian, Leptodactylus vastus, as a source of bioactive molecules. The peptides obtained possessed the amino acid sequences, GVVDILKGAAKDLAGH and GVVDILKGAAKDLAGHLASKV, with monoisotopic masses of [M + H]± = 1563.8 Da and [M + H]± = 2062.4 Da, respectively. The molecules were characterized as peptides of the class of ocellatins and were named as Ocellatin-K1(1-16) and Ocellatin-K1(1-21). Functional analysis revealed that Ocellatin-K1(1-16) and Ocellatin-K1(1-21) showed weak antibacterial activity. However, treatment of mice with these ocellatins reduced the nitrite and malondialdehyde content. Moreover, superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity and glutathione concentration were increased in the hippocampus of mice. In addition, Ocellatin-K1(1-16) and Ocellatin-K1(1-21) were effective in impairing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and NF-kB activation in living microglia. We incubated hippocampal neurons with microglial conditioned media treated with LPS and LPS in the presence of Ocellatin-K1(1-16) and Ocellatin-K1(1-21) and observed that both peptides reduced the oxidative stress in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, these ocellatins demonstrated low cytotoxicity towards erythrocytes. These functional properties suggest possible to neuromodulatory therapeutic applications.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 129, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965339

RESUMO

Landslide susceptibility maps can be developed with artificial neural networks (ANNs). In order to train our ANNs, a digital elevation model (DEM) and a scar map of one previous event were used. Eleven attributes are generated, possibly containing redundant information. Our base model is formed by, essentially, one input (the DEM), eleven attributes, 30 neurons, and one output (susceptibility). Principal components (PCs) group information in the first projected variables, the last ones can be expendable. In the present paper, four groups of models were trained: one with eleven attributes generated from the DEM; one with 8 out of 11 attributes, in which 3 were eliminated by their high correlation with others; other, with the data projected over its PCs; and another, using 8 out of 11 PCs. The used number of neurons in hidden layer is 30, calibrated based on a complexity analysis that is an in-house developed method. The ANN models trained with the original data generated better statistical results than their counterparts trained with the PC transformed input. Keeping the original 11 attributes calculated provided the best metrics among all models, showing that eliminating attributes also eliminates information used by the model. Using 11 PC transformed attributes hindered trained. However, for the model with eight PCs, training was much faster than its counterpart with little accuracy loss. The metrics and maps achieved were considered acceptable, conveying the power of our model based on ANNs, which uses essentially one input (the DEM) for mapping areas susceptible to mass movements.

6.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 85: 102844, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952634

RESUMO

The term juvenile osteochondral condition (JOCC) has been used to identify developmental changes in the growth plates. The condition is characterized by a set of changes with similar pathogenesis that affect the immature skeleton and joints of growing foals. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence and degree of severity of osteochondral changes in Brazilian warmblood (BW) foals in two farms in the south of Brazil. Radiological evaluation was applied to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), carpal (C), metatarsophalangeal (MTP), tarsal (T), and femorotibiopatellar (FTP) joints of 90 foals (47 females and 43 males) in the age group 16-36 months. The evaluation was made before the animals started their athlete performance. Changes were classified as a degree of severity 0 to 4. Changes were diagnosed in 56 foals (58%) that had 105 affected joints. Thirty-three (59%) out of the 56 animals had changes in more than one joint; 57% (19/33) of them had bilateral changes. MTP and MCP were the joints with the most severe changes, respectively (severity 2 and 3), followed by FTP, T, and C. Osteochondral fragments (59%), tarsal arthropathies (48%), irregularities and radiolucency in the FTP joint (7%), and subchondral cystic lesion in the FTP joint (1%), were the most observed changes. BW foals recorded the high prevalence of osteochondral alterations; although MTP and T were the most affected joints, MTP and MCP presented the most severe changes. The present study confirmed significant JOCC prevalence in BW. Further studies should be carried out in different properties.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 256: 109894, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989973

RESUMO

Despite the wide variety of variables commonly employed to measure the success of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure for the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. Furthermore, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed for a reliable estimation of rehabilitation status. Here, we propose a multivariate ordination to integrate variables related to ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity into a single estimation of rehabilitation status. As a case, we employed a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating this set of environmental variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of case-specific environmental indicators for more rapid assessments of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to facilitate the diagnosis of rehabilitating sites worldwide provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Brasil , Emprego , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração
8.
iScience ; 23(2): 100820, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981923

RESUMO

Tumor-associated p53 mutations endow cells with malignant phenotypes, including chemoresistance. Amyloid-like oligomers of mutant p53 transform this tumor suppressor into an oncogene. However, the composition and distribution of mutant p53 oligomers are unknown and the mechanism involved in the conversion is sparse. Here, we report accumulation of a p53 mutant within amyloid-like p53 oligomers in glioblastoma-derived cells presenting a chemoresistant gain-of-function phenotype. Statistical analysis from fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy, pressure-induced measurements, and thioflavin T kinetics demonstrates the distribution of oligomers larger than the active tetrameric form of p53 in the nuclei of living cells and the destabilization of native-drifted p53 species that become amyloid. Collectively, these results provide insights into the role of amyloid-like mutant p53 oligomers in the chemoresistance phenotype of malignant and invasive brain tumors and shed light on therapeutic options to avert cancer.

9.
Biochem J ; 477(1): 111-120, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841126

RESUMO

Aggregation is the cause of numerous protein conformation diseases. A common facet of these maladies is the transition of a protein from its functional native state into higher order forms, such as oligomers and amyloid fibrils. p53 is an essential tumor suppressor that is prone to such conformational transitions, resulting in its compromised ability to avert cancer. This work explores the biophysical properties of early-, mid-, and late-stage p53 core domain (p53C) aggregates. Atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that early- and mid-stage p53C aggregates have a polymorphic topology of antiparallel and parallel ß-sheets that localize to the core amyloidogenic sequence. Both topologies involve similar extents of interstrand mainchain hydrogen bonding, while sidechain interactions could play a role in regulating strand orientation. The free energy difference between the antiparallel and parallel states was within statistical uncertainty. Negative stain electron microscopy of mature fibrils shows a wide distribution of fiber widths, indicating that polymorphism may extend to the quaternary structure level. Circular dichroism of the fibrils was indicative of ß-sheet rich structures in atypical conformations. The Raman spectrum of aggregated p53C was consistent with a mixture of arranged ß-sheets and heterogeneous structural elements, which is compatible with the MD findings of an ordered ß-sheet nucleus flanked by disordered structure. Structural polymorphism is a common property of amyloids; however, because certain polymorphs of the same protein can be more harmful than others, going forward it will be pertinent to establish correlations between p53C aggregate structure and pathology.

10.
Front Genet ; 10: 1011, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798621

RESUMO

Although habitat loss has large, consistently negative effects on biodiversity, its genetic consequences are not yet fully understood. This is because measuring the genetic consequences of habitat loss requires accounting for major methodological limitations like the confounding effect of habitat fragmentation, historical processes underpinning genetic differentiation, time-lags between the onset of disturbances and genetic outcomes, and the need for large numbers of samples, genetic markers, and replicated landscapes to ensure sufficient statistical power. In this paper we overcame all these challenges to assess the genetic consequences of extreme habitat loss driven by mining in two herbs endemic to Amazonian savannas. Relying on genotyping-by-sequencing of hundreds of individuals collected across two mining landscapes, we identified thousands of neutral and independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each species and used these to evaluate population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow. Since open-pit mining in our study region rarely involves habitat fragmentation, we were able to assess the independent effect of habitat loss. We also accounted for the underlying population structure when assessing landscape effects on genetic diversity and gene flow, examined the sensitivity of our analyses to the resolution of spatial data, and used annual species and cross-year analyses to minimize and quantify possible time-lag effects. We found that both species are remarkably resilient, as genetic diversity and gene flow patterns were unaffected by habitat loss. Whereas historical habitat amount was found to influence inbreeding; heterozygosity and inbreeding were not affected by habitat loss in either species, and gene flow was mainly influenced by geographic distance, pre-mining land cover, and local climate. Our study demonstrates that it is not possible to generalize about the genetic consequences of habitat loss, and implies that future conservation efforts need to consider species-specific genetic information.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3026-3035, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant recipients are at high risk for mortality, with traditional risk scores performing modestly in predicting post-transplant survival, underscoring the importance of as yet unidentified factors in determining prognosis. In this analysis, the association between PM2.5 exposure levels and survival after heart transplantation were investigated. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to study the association between PM2.5 exposure and mortality following heart transplantation. METHODS: On the basis of the zip code of residence, mortality data in patients who underwent heart transplantation (2004 to 2015) in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were linked with validated estimates of fine particulate matter concentrations (particles with diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5]; 1 × 1-km grids) for each calendar year during which a UNOS cardiac transplant recipient was at risk for death. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relationship between exposure and overall mortality adjusting for recipient, donor, and neighborhood variables. RESULTS: A total of 21,800 patients with 86,713 patient-years of follow-up was included. Mean age at transplantation was 52.6 ± 12.6 years, 75% were male, 69% were white, and 39% had ischemic etiology of heart failure. Mean annual exposure to PM2.5 was 10.6 ± 2.3 µg/m3. At a median follow-up of 4.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 7.8) years, 5,208 patients (23.9%) had died. The estimated mortality hazard ratio, per 10 µg/m3 increment increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was 1.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 1.49). After adjusting for 30 recipient, donor, and neighborhood variables, the estimated mortality hazard ratio per 10 µg/m3 increment in annual exposure to PM2.5 was 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 1.43) relative increase in hazard of mortality. This association was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence linking air pollution with mortality after heart transplantation. These results suggest an important influence of a key environmental factor in outcomes following heart transplantation, and supports the need for further studies in this population.

12.
J Surg Oncol ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The primary treatment for locally advanced cases of cervical cancer is chemoradiation followed by high-dose brachytherapy. When this treatment fails, pelvic exenteration (PE) is an option in some cases. This study aimed to develop recommendations for the best management of patients with cervical cancer undergoing salvage PE. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to all members of the Brazilian Society of Surgical Oncology. Of them, 68 surgeons participated in the study and were divided into 10 working groups. A literature review of studies retrieved from the National Library of Medicine database was carried out on topics chosen by the participants. These topics were indications for curative and palliative PE, preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of tumor resectability, access routes and surgical techniques, PE classification, urinary, vaginal, intestinal, and pelvic floor reconstructions, and postoperative follow-up. To define the level of evidence and strength of each recommendation, an adapted version of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Health Service rating system was used. RESULTS: Most conducts and management strategies reviewed were strongly recommended by the participants. CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines outlining strategies for PE in the treatment of persistent or relapsed cervical cancer were developed and are based on the best evidence available in the literature.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 294(52): 20054-20069, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748410

RESUMO

Aberrant regulation of myocardial force production represents an early biomechanical defect associated with sarcomeric cardiomyopathies, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of a previously unreported sarcomeric gene variant identified in a pediatric patient with sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy, and we determined a molecular mechanism. Trio whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo missense variant in TNNC1 that encodes a p.I4M substitution in the N-terminal helix of cardiac troponin C (cTnC). Reconstitution of this human cTnC variant into permeabilized porcine cardiac muscle preparations significantly decreases the magnitude and rate of isometric force generation at physiological Ca2+-activation levels. Computational modeling suggests that this inhibitory effect can be explained by a decrease in the rates of cross-bridge attachment and detachment. For the first time, we show that cardiac troponin T (cTnT), in part through its intrinsically disordered C terminus, directly binds to WT cTnC, and we find that this cardiomyopathic variant displays tighter binding to cTnT. Steady-state fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy studies suggest that this variant propagates perturbations in cTnC structural dynamics to distal regions of the molecule. We propose that the intrinsically disordered C terminus of cTnT directly interacts with the regulatory N-domain of cTnC to allosterically modulate Ca2+ activation of force, perhaps by controlling the troponin I switching mechanism of striated muscle contraction. Alterations in cTnC-cTnT binding may compromise contractile performance and trigger pathological remodeling of the myocardium.

14.
Front Genet ; 10: 1036, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681440

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a regulatory role and influence various biological activities, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Our group has demonstrated through functional studies that Schistosoma mansoni c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SmJNK) MAPK is involved in the parasite's development, reproduction, and survival. SmJNK can, therefore, be considered a potential target for the development of new drugs. Considering the importance of SmJNK in S. mansoni maturation, we aimed at understanding of SmJNK regulated signaling pathways in the parasite, correlating expression data with S. mansoni development. To better understand the role of SmJNK in S. mansoni intravertebrate host life stages, RNA interference knockdown was performed in adult worms and in schistosomula larval stage. SmJNK knocked-down in adult worms showed a decrease in oviposition and no significant alteration in their movement. RNASeq libraries of SmJNK knockdown schistosomula were sequenced. A total of 495 differentially expressed genes were observed in the SmJNK knockdown parasites, of which 373 were down-regulated and 122 up-regulated. Among the down-regulated genes, we found transcripts related to protein folding, purine nucleotide metabolism, the structural composition of ribosomes and cytoskeleton. Genes coding for proteins that bind to nucleic acids and proteins involved in the phagosome and spliceosome pathways were enriched. Additionally, we found that SmJNK and Smp38 MAPK signaling pathways converge regulating the expression of a large set of genes. C. elegans orthologous genes were enriched for genes related to sterility and oocyte maturation, corroborating the observed phenotype alteration. This work allowed an in-depth analysis of the SmJNK signaling pathway, elucidating gene targets of regulation and functional roles of this critical kinase for parasite maturation.

15.
Top Cogn Sci ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724303

RESUMO

Debate about cognitive science explanations has been formulated in terms of identifying the proper level(s) of explanation. Views range from reductionist, favoring only neuroscience explanations, to mechanist, favoring the integration of multiple levels, to pluralist, favoring the preservation of even the most general, high-level explanations, such as those provided by embodied or dynamical approaches. In this paper, we challenge this framing. We suggest that these are not different levels of explanation at all but, rather, different styles of explanation that capture different, cross-cutting patterns in cognitive phenomena. Which pattern is explanatory depends on both the cognitive phenomenon under investigation and the research interests occasioning the explanation. This reframing changes how we should answer the basic questions of which cognitive science approaches explain and how these explanations relate to one another. On this view, we should expect different approaches to offer independent explanations in terms of their different focal patterns and the value of those explanations to partly derive from the broad patterns they feature.

16.
Commun Biol ; 2: 374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633065

RESUMO

Amyloid formation is a process involving interconverting protein species and results in toxic oligomers and fibrils. Aggregated alpha-synuclein (αS) participates in neurodegenerative maladies, but a closer understanding of the early αS polymerization stages and polymorphism of heritable αS variants is sparse still. Here, we distinguished αS oligomer and protofibril interconversions in Thioflavin T polymerization reactions. The results support a hypothesis reconciling the nucleation-polymerization and nucleation-conversion-polymerization models to explain the dissimilar behaviors of wild-type and the A53T mutant. Cryo-electron microscopy with a direct detector shows the polymorphic nature of αS fibrils formed by heritable A30P, E46K, and A53T point mutations. By showing that A53T rapidly nucleates competent species, continuously elongates fibrils in the presence of increasing amounts of seeds, and overcomes wild-type surface requirements for growth, our findings place A53T with features that may explain the early onset of familial Parkinson's disease cases bearing this mutation.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(45): 22591-22597, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636205

RESUMO

Studies on viruses infecting archaea living in the most extreme environments continue to show a remarkable diversity of structures, suggesting that the sampling continues to be very sparse. We have used electron cryo-microscopy to study at 3.7-Å resolution the structure of the Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which was originally isolated from a hot, acidic spring in Beppu, Japan. The 2 capsid proteins with variant single jelly-roll folds form pentamers and hexamers which assemble into a T = 43 icosahedral shell. In contrast to tailed icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses infecting bacteria and archaea, and herpesviruses infecting animals and humans, where naked DNA is packed under very high pressure due to the repulsion between adjacent layers of DNA, the circular dsDNA in SPV1 is fully covered with a viral protein forming a nucleoprotein filament with attractive interactions between layers. Most strikingly, we have been able to show that the DNA is in an A-form, as it is in the filamentous viruses infecting hyperthermophilic acidophiles. Previous studies have suggested that DNA is in the B-form in bacteriophages, and our study is a direct visualization of the structure of DNA in an icosahedral virus.

18.
Int J Artif Organs ; : 391398819882025, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock is associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and healthcare cost. Utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in cardiogenic shock has increased in the United States. We sought to identify the rates and predictors of hospital readmissions in patients with cardiogenic shock after weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: Using the 2016 Nationwide Readmission Database, we identified all patients (⩾18 years) with cardiogenic shock (ICD-10 CM R57.0) that have been implanted with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ICD-10-PSC of 5A15223) and were discharged alive (January-November 2016). We explored the rates, causes, and predictors of all-cause readmissions within 30 days. RESULTS: Out of 69,040 admissions with cardiogenic shock, 1641 (2.4%) underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (581 were implanted during or after cardiac surgery). A total of 734 (44.7%) patients of all extracorporeal membrane oxygenations survived to discharge, and 661 were available for analysis. Out of those, 158 (23.9%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. More than 50% of these readmissions happened within the first 11 days. Out of 158 patients who were readmitted, 12 (7.4%) died during the readmission hospitalization. Leading causes of readmission were cardiovascular (31.6%) (heart failure: 24.1%, arrhythmia: 20.6%, neurovascular: 10.3%, hypertension: 10.3%, and endocarditis: 6.8%), followed by complications of medical/device care (17.7%), infection (11.3%), and gastrointestinal/liver (10.1%) complications. Factors associated with readmissions include the following: discharge to skilled nursing facility or with home healthcare (odds ratio: 2.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.18-3.74), durable ventricular assisted device implantation, asthma, and chronic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Patients with cardiogenic shock who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had a readmission rate. Identifying patients at high risk of readmissions might help improve outcomes.

19.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e073, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576957

RESUMO

Soft tissue defects around dental implants, such as papilla or volume loss, peri-implant recession and alterations of the ridge color and/or texture, lead to esthetic and functional complaints. Treatments of these defects in implants are more demanding than in teeth because peri-implant tissue exhibits different anatomical and histological characteristics. This narrative review discusses the proposed treatments for soft tissue defects around implants in the current literature. Several clinical and pre-clinical studies addressed methods to augment the quantity of the peri-implant keratinized mucosa. Autogenous grafts performed better than soft tissue substitutes in the treatment of soft tissue defects, but there is no clinical consensus on the more appropriate donor area for connective tissue grafts. Treatment for facial volume loss, alterations on the mucosa color or texture and shallow peri-implant recessions are more predictable than deep recessions and sites that present loss of papilla. Correction of peri-implant soft tissue defects may be challenging, especially in areas that exhibit larger defects and interproximal loss. Therefore, the regeneration of soft and hard tissues during implant treatment is important to prevent the occurrence of these alterations.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/terapia , Prótese Ancorada no Osso/efeitos adversos , Interface Osso-Implante , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Retração Gengival/terapia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Interface Osso-Implante/patologia , Face/patologia , Retração Gengival/etiologia , Retração Gengival/patologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180602, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on periodontal repair in rats with induced periodontitis and arthritis. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five rats were submitted to periodontitis induction by insertion of ligatures into the upper second molars, maintained for 15 days. These animals were randomly allocated to 3 groups according to the presence of induced arthritis (ART) and the application of the ASU: Control (CTR) group-healthy animals, where saline solution was administered; ART-animals with induced arthritis, where saline solution was administered; ART/ASU-animals with induced arthritis, where ASU (0.6 mg/ kg) was administered. The drugs were administered daily by gavage and the animals were euthanized after 7, 15 and 30 days of the ligature removal. Bone resorption, inflammatory infiltrate composition and marker proteins expression of the differentiation and formation of osteoclasts (RANKL and TRAP) were assessed. RESULTS: The ART/ASU group presented higher bone volume than the ART group at 7 and 30 days after the ligature removal. Furthermore, the ART group presented higher quantity of inflammatory cells and expression of TRAP and RANKL than the other groups. CONCLUSION: ASU administration improves the repair of periodontal tissues in an experimental periodontitis model in rats with induced arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/química , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Periodontite/patologia , Ligante RANK/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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