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Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928735


In this study, we demonstrated the potential associative effect of combining conventional amphotericin B (Amph B) with gallic acid (GA) and with ellagic acid (EA) in topical formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Preliminary stability tests of the formulations and in vitro drug release studies with Amph B, GA, Amph B plus GA, EA, and Amph B plus EA were carried out, as well as assessment of the in vivo treatment of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major After 40 days of infection, the animals were divided into 6 groups and treated twice a day for 21 days with a gel containing Amph B, GA, Amph B plus GA, EA, or Amph B plus EA, and the negative-control group was treated with the vehicle. In the animals that received treatment, there was reduction of the lesion size and reduction of the parasitic load. Histopathological analysis of the treatments with GA, EA, and combinations with Amph B showed circumscribed lesions with the presence of fibroblasts, granulation tissue, and collagen deposition, as well as the presence of activated macrophages. The formulations containing GA and EA activated macrophages in all evaluated parameters, resulting in the activation of cells of the innate immune response, which can generate healing and protection. GA and EA produced an associative effect with Amph B, which makes them promising for use with conventional Amph B in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 390(9): 893-903, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643086


Leishmaniasis is a complex of parasitic protozoan diseases caused by more than 20 different species of parasites from Leishmania genus. Conventional treatments are high costly, and promote a sort of side effects. Besides, protozoan resistance to treatments has been reported. Natural products have been investigated as a source of new therapeutic alternatives, not only acting directly against the parasite but also being able to synergistically act on the host immune system in order to control parasitemia. Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) are plant-derived phenolic compounds which are able to induce antiinflammatory, gastroprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities. Therefore, the antileishmania, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory activities of GA and EA were evaluated in this study. Both GA and EA were able to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes (effective concentration (EC50) values 16.4 and 9.8 µg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxicity against BALB/c murine macrophages for GA and EA was also assessed (CC50 values 126.6 and 23.8 µg/mL, respectively). Interestingly, GA and EA also significantly reduced the infection and infectivity of macrophages infected by L. major (EC50 values 5.0 and 0.9 µg/mL, respectively), with selectivity index higher than 20. Furthermore, both GA and EA induced high immunomodulatory activity evidenced by the increase of phagocytic capability, lysosomal volume, nitrite release, and intracellular calcium [Ca2+i] in macrophages. Further investigations are reinforced in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of GA and EA in in vivo experimental infection model of leishmaniasis.

Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Elágico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ácido Gálico/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C