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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(8): 2253-2258, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450892

RESUMO

Background: Despite decreasing global incidence trends, gastric cancer is still among the five most incident cancers in the world and the third cancer-related cause of death. In Brazil, differences in incidence and mortality exist depending on the geographic region studied. Objective: To describe the incidence, mortality, trends and age-period-cohort of gastric cancer in three cities of Brazil (Sao Paulo, Belem and Fortaleza), in the period 1990-2012. Mortality for gastric cancer in Brazil overall and by region was described. Methods: 33,462 incident cases of gastric cancer were identified from the population-based cancer registries and 23,424 deaths from mortality information system in residents of the three cities and in Brazil were included in the study. Data for incident cases were extracted from the Population Based Cancer Registries from the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Mortality data on gastric cancer were extracted from Information Technology Department of Brazilian Public Health Care System/Health Ministry (DATASUS/MS). Mortality and incidence age standardized rates were calculated. For trends analysis the Joinpoint Regression and age-period-cohort model were applied. Results: Belem presented the highest incidence rates for gastric adenocarcinoma. Decreasing incidence trends were identified in Sao Paulo (-7.8% in men; -6.3% in women) and in Fortaleza (-1.2% in men). Increasing incidence trends were observed for women in Belem (1.8%) and Fortaleza (1.1%). In Belem (Amazon area), there was an increased risk for gastric cancer in women born after the 1960s. Overall in Brazil mortality for gastric cancer is decreasing. Mortality trends showed significant reduction, for both sexes, in the three Brazilian cities. Conclusion: Incidence of gastric cancer is increasing in women born in the sixties in Belem (Amazon region) and Fortaleza (Northeast region). In Brazil there was increase in mortality in Northeast region and decrease in others regions. More update data on incidence for Amazon and Northeast region is needed.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(3): 228-232, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005601

RESUMO

Objective:to describe the incidence of cancer cases in the direct victims of the accident, Groups I and II, and compare with overall cancer incidence rates for the population of Goiânia. Method: A descriptive study is presented herein, on the cohort of patients directly exposed and contaminated (Groups I and II) during the cesium-137 accident, which occurred in Goiania (Midwest Brazil) in 1987. The incident cases of malignant neoplasms diagnosed between 1988 and 2017 are described. Analysis included calculation of the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI95%), according to gender. Results: In the 30-year period (1987-2017) following individual exposure, there were seven cancer cases in six directly exposed victims of the cesium-137 accident. Of these, five neoplasms occurred in men, in the esophagus (1), prostrate (3), bladder (1), and two in women, involving breast cancer (1) and skin melanoma (1). The accumulated incidence rates in the direct victims of the Cesium-137 accident were 327.9/100,000 for men and 148.6/100,000 for women. For the overall population of Goiânia, rates were 221.4/100,000 and 231.2/100,000 in men and women, respectively. The ratios of brute incidence rates (direct victims of Cesium-137/population of Goiânia) were 1.5 (IC95%:0.4;5.9) in men and 0.6 (IC95%:0.1;3.8) in women, with no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Cancer incidence in the direct victims of the Cesium-137 accident (Groups I and II), according to sex, was not different from the incidence in those not exposed to Cesium-137 in the municipality of Goiânia. Cancer risk was similar to that of the general population of the municipality of Goiânia


Objetivo: descrever a incidência de casos de câncer nas vítimas diretas do acidente Grupo I e II e comparar com as taxas de incidência de câncer na população de Goiânia. Método: Estudo descritivo da coorte de pacientes diretamente expostos e contaminados (Grupos I e II), no acidente com Césio 137, ocorrido em Goiânia (Brasil), em 1987. Descrevemos os casos incidentes de neoplasia maligna diagnosticados no período entre 1988 e 2017. Foram calculados a razão das taxas de incidência e os intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%), segundo o sexo na população de estudo. Resultados: No período de 30 anos (1987-2017), ocorreram sete casos de câncer, em seis vítimas diretas do acidente pelo césio-137. Desses, cinco ocorreram em homens (esôfago [1], próstata [3] e bexiga [1]) e dois, em mulheres (mama [1] e melanoma da pele [1]). As taxas de incidência acumulada nas vítimas diretas do Césio-137 foram de 327,9/100,000 entre homens e de 148,6/100,000 entre as mulheres. Na população de Goiânia, as taxas foram de 221,4/100,000 e 231,2/100,000 em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. As razões das taxas de incidência bruta (vítimas diretas do Césio-137/população de Goiânia) foram 1,5 (IC95%:0,4;5,9) em homens e 0,6 (IC95%:0,1;3,8) em mulheres, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Conclusão: A incidência de câncer nas vítimas diretas do acidente pelo Césio 137 (Grupos I e II), segundo o sexo, não foi diferente da população não exposta ao Césio-137 do município de Goiânia; portanto, o risco de câncer foi semelhante ao da população geral do Município de Goiânia.


Assuntos
Césio , Radiação , Neoplasias
3.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 8(3): 262-271, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759036

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze cancer mortality and trends among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) according to the population size of Brazilian municipalities. Methods: Ecological study on cancer mortality time trends between 1996 and 2012. Brazilian municipalities were stratified according to the number of inhabitants: ≤49,999; 50,000-99,999; 100,000-499,999; and ≥500,000. Death data were collected from the Mortality Information System. Time trends were estimated with the Joinpoint Regression Program. Results: Age-standardized cancer mortality rates for AYAs according to the population size of the municipality were: 4.5/100,000 (1996) and 6.1/100,000 (2012) for municipalities with under 49,999 inhabitants; 5.5/100,000 (1996) and 5.8/100,000 (2012) for municipalities with 50,000-99,999 inhabitants; 6.6/100,000 (1996) and 6.9/100,000 (2012) for municipalities with 100,000-499,999 inhabitants; and 7.3/100,000 (1996) and 7.8/100,000 (2012) for municipalities with ≥500,000 inhabitants. An increasing mortality time trend was detected in municipalities with under 49,999 inhabitants (average annual percentage change [AAPC]: 2.0%) and for the country overall (AAPC: 0.7%). Mortality increased in small municipalities of the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions. Conclusion: Cancer mortality among AYAs, according to the population size of Brazilian municipalities, was high in municipalities with under 49,999 inhabitants and unequal across Brazil for all tumors.

4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180002, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze trend estimates on the prevalence of risk and protective behaviors for chronic noncommunicable diseases in adolescents, according to data from the National School Health Survey in 2009, 2012 and 2015. METHODS: Data from the three cross-sectional studies in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District were used. In total, 173,310 adolescents enrolled in the ninth grade of elementary school were interviewed, with average age of 14 years. The prevalence of indicators of protective (consumption of beans and fruit; physical education classes at school; practice of physical activity for 60 minutes or more) and risk factors (consumption of candies and soft drinks; use of cigarettes and alcohol in the last 30 days; drug testing) were estimated through linear regression. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of fruit consumption and in the reduction of bean, soft drinks and candies consumption, as well as the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes. However, an increase in the prevalence of illicit drug experimentation was observed. Discussion: Despite the tendency to reduce risk factors, prevalences are high when compared with other sociocultural realities. CONCLUSION: The school is an important area of access to the adolescent public, and it is necessary to encourage school health promotion programs to reduce health risk behaviors, as well as to stimulate protective ones.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doces/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180003, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowing the profile of individuals who demand health services or professionals could help in the improvement and reorganization of services. However, this subject is still underexplored among adolescents. This study aimed to describe and identify characteristics related to the demand for health services or professionals by Brazilian students. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 National School Health Survey, the prevalence and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of the demand for health services or professionals among students were estimated, and Poisson regression adjusted by age and region of residence was used to identify the associated factors. RESULTS: More than half of the students demanded for health services or professionals in the last year, with a higher demand among females. The characteristics associated with the outcome were sociodemographic (female, white, private school), family (maternal schooling of 12 years or more, having meals with parents/guardians and parents' knowledge of the adolescent's activities in their free time), risk behaviors (alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse without a condom) and health-related issues (physical violence, wheezing, toothache, hygiene habits, and attitude to one's own weight). CONCLUSION: Organizing health services in a way that takes the particularities of this population into account may provide a space to deal with subjects related to the risks to which it is exposed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Perigoso , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180018, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 7.1% (95%CI 7.0 - 7.3) of the schoolchildren reported a poor self-assessed health status. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as female gender, 15 years of age or older, yellow, brown and indigenous race/skin color; risk behaviors such as regular alcohol consumption and drug experimentation, and issues related to physical and emotional health remained positively associated with the outcome studied. Protective factors identified were maternal schooling and demand for health services. CONCLUSION: The impact of risky behaviors on physical and emotional health need to be addressed among students. The school presents itself as a safe and opportune space for promoting a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoavaliação , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(6): e00140717, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184020

RESUMO

The objective was to compare two techniques to estimate age in databases with incomplete records and analyze their application to the calculation of cancer incidence. The study used the database of the Population-Based Cancer Registry from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, containing cases of urinary tract cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2013. Two techniques were applied to estimate age: correction factor and multiple imputation. Using binomial distribution, six databases were simulated with different proportions of incomplete data on patient's age (from 5% to 50%). The ratio between the incidence rates was calculated, using the complete database as reference, whose standardized incidence was 11.83/100,000; the other incidence rates in the databases, with at least 5% incomplete data for age, were underestimated. By applying the correction factors, the corrected rates did not differ from the standardized rates, but this technique does not allow correcting specific rates. Multiple imputation was useful for correcting the standardized and specific rates in databases with up to 30% of incomplete data, but the specific rates for individuals under 50 years of age were underestimated. Databases with 5% incomplete data or more require correction. Although the implementation of multiple imputation is complex, it proved to be superior to the correction factor. However, it should be used sparingly, since age-specific rates may remain underestimated.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas , Sistema de Registros/normas , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Urológicas/epidemiologia
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21: e180012, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of colorectal cancer mortality adjusted for selected indicators, according to sex, by Brazilian federative units and regions, and countrywide from 1996 to 2012. METHODS: This is a temporal time series on colorectal cancer mortality rates, using linear regression analysis, in which the independent variable was the centered year. Models were adjusted for selected indicators. RESULTS: There was an increase in standardized colorectal cancer mortality rates for males in all states and for females in 21 states. In the model adjusted for mortality rate from ill-defined causes, for gross domestic product, and for Gini coefficient, the upward trend remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) countrywide only for men, with 0.17 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants per year (py). In the States of Piauí (0.09 and 0.20 py), Ceará (0.17 and 0.19 py) and Rio Grande do Sul (0.61 and 0.42 py), there was an increase for both men and women, respectively; only among men in the States of Paraíba (0.16 py), Espírito Santo (0.28 py), São Paulo (0.24 py) and Goiás (0.31 py); and among women in Roraima (0.41 py), Amapá (0.97 P/Y), Maranhão (0.10 py), Sergipe (0.46 P/Y), Mato Grosso do Sul (0.47 py), and the Federal District (0.69 py). CONCLUSION: The increase in colorectal cancer mortality remained significant when assessing Brazil as a whole only among men; in seven States among men, and in nine States among women, regardless of the studied indicators. These differences could be related to the possible increase in incidence and to late access to diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Sistemas de Informação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21: e180014, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate and describe the coverage of the Pap Smear test reported by women aged 25 to 64 years old from data collected by the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) and to compare the estimates made by the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases using a Telephone Survey (Vigitel) for the same indicator in the Brazilian capital cities and the Federal District in 2013. METHODS: Based on the data from the PNS and Vigitel, we estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of women who reported having had a Pap test screening in the past 3 years. RESULTS: According to the PNS, 79.4% (95%CI 78.5 - 80.2) of the women had had a cervical cancer screening in the past 3 years in Brazil. Women aged 55 to 64 years old (71.0%, 95%CI 68.7 - 73.3) and without an education or incomplete elementary school (72.1%, 95%CI 70.6 - 73.7) had the lowest prevalence, and 88.4% (95%CI 87.5 - 89.2) received test results within 3 months. There was no difference when comparing the estimates of the Vigitel with the PNS for the capital city and Federal District totals. In the PNS, the prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI 82.8 - 84.7) and in the Vigitel, it was 82.9% (95%CI 81.9 - 83.8). In addition, there were no differences by capital, except for Recife, Boa Vista, and João Pessoa. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer screening coverage for the target population is below the target of 85%. When comparing the data for the capital city and Federal District totals, we verified that the Vigitel System has been effective in monitoring this indicator, which is similar to PNS estimates.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Telefone , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
10.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 7(2): 164-173, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe incidence rates for the most common cancers in Latin American adolescents and young adults (AYA). METHODS: Incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series, available online (IARC). Age-standardized incidence rates and trend analysis were calculated. Trends were calculated by joinpoint regression analysis to obtain average annual percentage change values. RESULTS: There were 22,990 invasive incident cancer cases in AYA between 1998 and 2007, obtained from 24 population-based cancer registries. The most common cancer in males was gonadal germ cell tumor, with incidence rates ranging from 1.7 to 7.0/100,000; in females the most common cancer was thyroid cancer, with rates ranging from 0.9 to 10.0/100,000. Incidence trends were limited to four regional populations and increased for all malignancies, in males from 1.8% to 3.4% and in females from 0.9% to 1.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence rates in Latin American AYA are low. There are few PBCRs with long-term data, and therefore, the results herein presented are a partial view of cancer in Latin American AYA populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00140717, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039371

RESUMO

O objetivo foi comparar duas técnicas para estimar idade em bancos de dados com registros incompletos e analisar sua aplicação no cálculo da incidência de câncer. Utilizou-se a base de dados do Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, contendo casos diagnosticados por câncer do trato urinário, entre 1997 e 2013. Foram aplicadas duas técnicas para estimativa de idade: fator de correção e imputação múltipla. Foram simuladas, usando a distribuição binomial, seis bases de dados com diferentes proporções de dados incompletos para idade de 5% até 50%. A razão entre as incidências foi calculada tendo, como referência, a base completa, cuja incidência padronizada foi de 11,83/100 mil; as demais incidências nas bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos para idade apresentaram-se subestimadas. Ao aplicar o fator de correção, as taxas corrigidas não apresentaram diferenças em comparação com as padronizadas, entretanto, essa técnica não permite corrigir taxas específicas. A imputação múltipla foi útil na correção das taxas padronizadas e específicas em bancos com até 30% de dados incompletos, entretanto, as taxas específicas para indivíduos com menos de 50 anos apresentaram-se subestimadas. Bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos necessitam de aplicação de correção. A imputação múltipla, apesar de complexa em sua execução, mostrou-se superior ao fator de correção. Todavia, deve ser utilizada com parcimônia, pois taxas específicas por idade podem manter-se subestimadas.


The objective was to compare two techniques to estimate age in databases with incomplete records and analyze their application to the calculation of cancer incidence. The study used the database of the Population-Based Cancer Registry from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, containing cases of urinary tract cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2013. Two techniques were applied to estimate age: correction factor and multiple imputation. Using binomial distribution, six databases were simulated with different proportions of incomplete data on patient's age (from 5% to 50%). The ratio between the incidence rates was calculated, using the complete database as reference, whose standardized incidence was 11.83/100,000; the other incidence rates in the databases, with at least 5% incomplete data for age, were underestimated. By applying the correction factors, the corrected rates did not differ from the standardized rates, but this technique does not allow correcting specific rates. Multiple imputation was useful for correcting the standardized and specific rates in databases with up to 30% of incomplete data, but the specific rates for individuals under 50 years of age were underestimated. Databases with 5% incomplete data or more require correction. Although the implementation of multiple imputation is complex, it proved to be superior to the correction factor. However, it should be used sparingly, since age-specific rates may remain underestimated.


El objetivo fue comparar dos técnicas para estimar edad en bancos de datos con registros incompletos y analizar su aplicación en el cálculo de la incidencia de cáncer. Se utilizó la base de datos del Registro de Cáncer de Base Poblacional del municipio de São Paulo, Brasil, conteniendo casos diagnosticados de cáncer del tracto urinario, entre 1997 y 2013. Se aplicaron dos técnicas para la estimativa de edad: factor de corrección e imputación múltiple. Fueron simuladas, usando una distribución binomial, seis bases de datos con diferentes proporciones de datos incompletos para edad desde un 5% hasta el 50%. La razón entre las incidencias se calculó teniendo, como referencia, la base completa, cuya incidencia padronizada fue de 11,83/100.000; las demás incidencias en las bases con un 5% o más de datos incompletos en la edad se presentaron subestimadas. Al aplicar el factor de corrección, las tasas corregidas no presentaron diferencias, en comparación con las estandarizadas, sin embargo, esta técnica no permite corregir tasas específicas. La imputación múltiple fue útil en la corrección de las tasas estandarizadas y específicas en bancos con hasta un 30% de datos incompletos, no obstante, las tasas específicas para individuos con menos de 50 años se presentaron subestimadas. Bases con un 5% o más de datos incompletos necesitan una aplicación de corrección. La imputación múltiple, a pesar de ser compleja en su ejecución, se mostró superior al factor de corrección. Sin embargo, debe ser utilizada con prudencia, puesto que las tasas específicas por edad pueden seguir manteniéndose subestimadas.

12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21: e180012, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958815

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer colorretal, ajustado por indicadores selecionados, segundo sexo, para unidades federativas, regiões e Brasil, no período de 1996 a 2012. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal das taxas de mortalidade por câncer colorretal, feita análise de regressão linear, sendo o ano centralizado a variável independente. Os modelos foram ajustados por indicadores selecionados. Resultados: Houve aumento nas taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por câncer colorretal em todos os estados para o sexo masculino e em 21 estados para o sexo feminino. No modelo ajustado por taxa de mortalidade por causas mal definidas, produto interno bruto e coeficiente de Gini, a tendência de aumento foi significativa (p < 0,05) no Brasil, somente para os homens, com 0,17 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes ao ano (aa). Nos estados do Piauí (0,09 e 0,20 aa), Ceará (0,17 e 0,19 aa) e Rio Grande do Sul (0,61 e 0,42 aa) ocorreu aumento em homens e mulheres, respectivamente; somente em homens nos estados da Paraíba (0,16 aa), no Espírito Santo (0,28 aa), em São Paulo (0,24 aa) e Goiás (0,31 aa); e em mulheres nos estados de Roraima (0,41 aa), do Amapá (0,97 aa), Maranhão (0,10 aa), Sergipe (0,46 aa), Mato Grosso do Sul (0,47 aa) e Distrito Federal (0,69 aa). Conclusão: O aumento da taxa de mortalidade por câncer colorretal manteve-se significativo no Brasil somente entre os homens; em sete estados, entre homens; e em nove estados, entre mulheres, independentemente dos indicadores estudados. Essas diferenças podem estar relacionadas ao possível aumento da incidência e ao acesso tardio ao diagnóstico e tratamento.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the trend of colorectal cancer mortality adjusted for selected indicators, according to sex, by Brazilian federative units and regions, and countrywide from 1996 to 2012. Methods: This is a temporal time series on colorectal cancer mortality rates, using linear regression analysis, in which the independent variable was the centered year. Models were adjusted for selected indicators. Results: There was an increase in standardized colorectal cancer mortality rates for males in all states and for females in 21 states. In the model adjusted for mortality rate from ill-defined causes, for gross domestic product, and for Gini coefficient, the upward trend remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) countrywide only for men, with 0.17 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants per year (py). In the States of Piauí (0.09 and 0.20 py), Ceará (0.17 and 0.19 py) and Rio Grande do Sul (0.61 and 0.42 py), there was an increase for both men and women, respectively; only among men in the States of Paraíba (0.16 py), Espírito Santo (0.28 py), São Paulo (0.24 py) and Goiás (0.31 py); and among women in Roraima (0.41 py), Amapá (0.97 P/Y), Maranhão (0.10 py), Sergipe (0.46 P/Y), Mato Grosso do Sul (0.47 py), and the Federal District (0.69 py). Conclusion: The increase in colorectal cancer mortality remained significant when assessing Brazil as a whole only among men; in seven States among men, and in nine States among women, regardless of the studied indicators. These differences could be related to the possible increase in incidence and to late access to diagnosis and treatment.

13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21: e180014, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958818

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivos: Estimar e descrever a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou, relatado por mulheres brasileiras entre 25 e 64 anos, na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), e comparar as estimativas do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Sistema Vigitel) para o mesmo indicador nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal em 2013. Métodos: A partir dos dados da PNS e do Vigitel, foram estimadas as prevalências e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) de mulheres que referiram ter realizado o exame de Papanicolaou nos últimos 3 anos. Resultados: Segundo a PNS, 79,4% (IC95% 78,5 - 80,2) das mulheres realizaram exame Papanicolaou nos últimos 3 anos no Brasil. Mulheres de 55 a 64 anos (71,0%; IC95% 68,7 - 73,3) e sem instrução ou com ensino fundamental incompleto (72,1%; IC95% 70,6 - 73,7) apresentaram as menores prevalências; 88,4% (IC95% 87,5 - 89,2) receberam resultado do exame em até 3 meses. Não houve diferença ao comparar as estimativas do Sistema Vigitel com a PNS para o total das capitais e Distrito Federal. Na PNS, a prevalência foi de 83,8% (IC95% 82,8 - 84,7) e no Vigitel, de 82,9% (IC95% 81,9 - 83,8); além disso, não houve diferenças por capitais, exceto para Recife, Boa Vista e João Pessoa. Conclusão: A cobertura do exame Papanicolaou para a população-alvo encontra-se abaixo da meta de 85%. Ao comparar os dados para o total de capitais e o Distrito Federal, verificou-se que o Sistema Vigitel tem sido efetivo no monitoramento desse indicador, assemelhando-se às estimativas da PNS.


ABSTRACT: Objectives: To estimate and describe the coverage of the Pap Smear test reported by women aged 25 to 64 years old from data collected by the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) and to compare the estimates made by the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases using a Telephone Survey (Vigitel) for the same indicator in the Brazilian capital cities and the Federal District in 2013. Methods: Based on the data from the PNS and Vigitel, we estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of women who reported having had a Pap test screening in the past 3 years. Results: According to the PNS, 79.4% (95%CI 78.5 - 80.2) of the women had had a cervical cancer screening in the past 3 years in Brazil. Women aged 55 to 64 years old (71.0%, 95%CI 68.7 - 73.3) and without an education or incomplete elementary school (72.1%, 95%CI 70.6 - 73.7) had the lowest prevalence, and 88.4% (95%CI 87.5 - 89.2) received test results within 3 months. There was no difference when comparing the estimates of the Vigitel with the PNS for the capital city and Federal District totals. In the PNS, the prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI 82.8 - 84.7) and in the Vigitel, it was 82.9% (95%CI 81.9 - 83.8). In addition, there were no differences by capital, except for Recife, Boa Vista, and João Pessoa. Conclusion: Cervical cancer screening coverage for the target population is below the target of 85%. When comparing the data for the capital city and Federal District totals, we verified that the Vigitel System has been effective in monitoring this indicator, which is similar to PNS estimates.

14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 120 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-906591

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer colorretal é um dos cânceres mais incidentes no mundo. As maiores incidências são descritas em homens e aumentam com a idade. Porém, estudos recentes reportaram aumento da incidência entre os mais jovens. Apesar das maiores incidências serem descritas em países desenvolvidos, estes apresentam tendência de estabilidade ou declínio. Em países com tendência de aumento, a mudança no padrão alimentar é a principal hipótese para este aumento. A mortalidade apresenta tendência de queda, principalmente em países que investiram em diagnóstico precoce e tratamento oportunos. OBJETIVO: Estudar as desigualdades na incidência e mortalidade do câncer colorretal no Município de São Paulo e Brasil. MÉTODOS: Esta tese está dividida em três manuscritos. MANUSCRITO 1: Simulação e comparação de técnicas de correção de dados incompletos de idade para o cálculo de taxas de incidência. A partir de seis bases com diferentes proporções de dados incompletos para idade (5 até 50%), foram comparados dois métodos de correção. Verificou-se que bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos para idade apresentaram taxas de incidência subestimadas. O fator de correção retificou as subestimativas das taxas padronizadas, entretanto, esta técnica não permitiu corrigir taxas específicas por idade. A imputação múltipla foi útil na correção das taxas padronizadas e específicas em bancos com até 30% de dados incompletos. Bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos necessitam de aplicação de correção. A imputação múltipla mostrou-se superior ao fator de correção, pois permitiu corrigir as taxas de incidência específicas. MANUSCRITO 2: Descrição e análise das taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colorretal no Brasil, segundo sexo e Unidades da Federação e indicadores socioeconômicos. As tendências das taxas de mortalidade foram estimadas por modelo de regressão linear. No Brasil,ocorreu aumento da tendência da taxa de mortalidade em todos os estados para o sexo masculino e em 21 estados para o sexo feminino. Ao ajustar por taxa de mortalidade por causas mal definidas, Produto Interno Bruto e Coeficiente de Gini, a tendência de aumento manteve-se significativa (p<0,05) no Brasil e em sete estados em homens e em nove estados em mulheres. O aumento da taxa de mortalidade por câncer colorretal em algumas Unidades Federativas e no Brasil pode estar relacionada ao aumento da incidência, ao atraso no diagnóstico e no tratamento. MANUSCRITO 3: descrição e análise das taxas de incidência e mortalidade por câncer colorretal no município de São Paulo, segundo sexo e faixa etária. Foram calculadas as razões das taxas padronizadas de incidência e mortalidade, estimada a mudança percentual anual média (AAPC) e o efeito idade-período-coorte. As razões das taxas de incidência e mortalidade foram superiores a 1 em homens a partir dos 50 anos e para o total da população. Ao comparar com indivíduos de 30 a 39 anos, em ambos os sexos, as razões das taxas foram maiores que 1 após 40 anos. Verificou-se tendência de aumento da incidência em mulheres (AAPC 0,9%) e da mortalidade em homens (AAPC 1,0%) e em mulheres (AAPC 0,2%). O modelo idade-período-coorte apresentou melhor ajuste para a incidência, em ambos os sexos (p<0,001). A mortalidade em homens foi explicada pelo modelo idade-drift (p<0,001). No Munícipio de São Paulo, a tendência crescente da incidência pode estar relacionada à alimentação inadequada e ao aumento do diagnóstico e a da mortalidade por diagnóstico e tratamento inoportunos


INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The highest incidence rates are described in men and with increasing age. However, recent studies have reported an increase in incidence among younger people. Although the highest incidence are described in developed countries, they show a tendency of stability or decline. In countries with increasing trends, the change in dietary pattern is the main hypothesis for this increase. Mortality is declining, especially in countries that have invested in diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the inequalities in the incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer in the city of São Paulo and Brazil. METHODS: This thesis is divided into three manuscripts. MANUSCRIPT 1: Simulation and comparison of incomplete data correction techniques for the calculation of incidence rates. From six databases with different proportions of incomplete data for age (5 to 50%), two correction methods were compared. Databases with 5% or more of incomplete data for age were found to have underestimated rates. The correction factor mitigated the underestimation of the standardized rates; however, this technique did not allow the correction of age-specific rates. Multiple imputation was useful in correcting standardized and age-specific rates in datasets with up to 30% incomplete data. Databases with 5% or more of incomplete data need to be corrected. Multiple imputation technique was a superior method in comparison to the correction factor. MANUSCRIPT 2: description and analysis of mortality rates from colorectal cancer in Brazil, according to sex and States, according to socioeconomic indicators. For the trend analysis, the linear regression models were chosen through linear regression In Brazil, there was an increase in the mortality rate in all states for males and in 21 states for females. When the mortality rate was controlled for ill-defined causes, Gross Domestic Product and Gini Index, the increasing trend of mortality remained significant (p-value <0.05) in Brazil and in seven states in men and in nine states in women. The increase in the colorectal cancer mortality rate in some States and in Brazil may be related to the possible increase in incidence delayed diagnosis and treatment. MANUSCRIPT 3: description and analysis of incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer in the city of São Paulo, according to sex and age group. The incidence and mortality rate ratios were estimated. Joinpoint regression was performed to obtain average annual percent change (AAPC) and age-period-cohort analysis was used to examine the incidence trends. The incidence and mortality rates ratio were higher than 1 in men aged 50 and over. When comparing individuals aged 30 to 39 in both sexes, the rates ratios were higher than 1 after 40 years. There was an upward trend in incidence in women only (AAPC 0.9%) and mortality in men (AAPC 1.0%) and women (AAPC 0.2%). The age-period-cohort model provided the best fit to incidence in both sexes (p <0.001). Mortality in men was explained by the age-drift model (p <0.001). In the city of São Paulo, the increasing trend in incidence may be related to inadequate diet and increased diagnosis and mortality due to untimely diagnosis and treatment


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Incidência
15.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180003, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977700

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: O conhecimento sobre o perfil dos indivíduos que procuram serviços ou profissionais de saúde auxilia na melhoria e na reorganização desses atendimentos, entretanto entre adolescentes este tema ainda é pouco explorado. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e identificar características relacionadas à procura por serviços ou profissionais de saúde entre escolares brasileiros. Métodos: Por meio dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015, foram estimadas as prevalências, bem como seus respectivos valores do intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%), da procura por serviços ou profissionais de saúde pelos escolares; também foi realizada regressão de Poisson ajustada por idade e Região de residência para identificar os fatores associados. Resultados: Mais da metade dos estudantes procurou serviços ou profissionais de saúde no último ano, sendo maior a procura entre o sexo feminino. Associaram-se ao desfecho as características sociodemográficas (sexo feminino, cor branca, escola privada), os aspectos familiares (mãe com 12 anos ou mais de escolaridade, realizar refeições com os pais e conhecimento destes sobre o que os jovens fazem no tempo livre), os comportamentos de risco (consumo de álcool e relação sexual sem preservativo) e as questões relacionadas à saúde (sofrer violência física, chiado no peito, dor de dente, hábitos de higiene e atitude em relação ao próprio peso). Conclusão: Organizar os serviços de saúde de modo a considerar as particularidades dessa população pode possibilitar um espaço para tratar de assuntos relacionados aos riscos a que os jovens se expõem.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Knowing the profile of individuals who demand health services or professionals could help in the improvement and reorganization of services. However, this subject is still underexplored among adolescents. This study aimed to describe and identify characteristics related to the demand for health services or professionals by Brazilian students. Methods: Using data from the 2015 National School Health Survey, the prevalence and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of the demand for health services or professionals among students were estimated, and Poisson regression adjusted by age and region of residence was used to identify the associated factors. Results: More than half of the students demanded for health services or professionals in the last year, with a higher demand among females. The characteristics associated with the outcome were sociodemographic (female, white, private school), family (maternal schooling of 12 years or more, having meals with parents/guardians and parents' knowledge of the adolescent's activities in their free time), risk behaviors (alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse without a condom) and health-related issues (physical violence, wheezing, toothache, hygiene habits, and attitude to one's own weight). Conclusion: Organizing health services in a way that takes the particularities of this population into account may provide a space to deal with subjects related to the risks to which it is exposed.

16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180018, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977703

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução : A autoavaliação de saúde (AAS) é um indicador muito estudado entre adultos e idosos, mas pouco explorado em adolescentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde em escolares brasileiros. Métodos : Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), realizada em 2015; as prevalências e os respectivos valores do intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) do indicador autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde e dos fatores associados foram estimados. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados : Entre os escolares, 7,1% (IC95% 7,0 - 7,3) relataram autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde. As características sociodemográficas, como sexo feminino, idade de 15 anos ou mais e raça/cor da pele amarela, parda e indígena; os comportamentos de risco de consumo regular de álcool e experimentação de drogas; e as questões relacionadas à saúde física e emocional mantiveram-se positivamente associadas ao desfecho estudado. Escolaridade materna e procurar serviços de saúde foram protetores. Conclusão : O impacto dos comportamentos de risco à saúde física e emocional necessitam ser abordados entre os estudantes. A escola apresenta-se como espaço seguro e oportuno para a promoção do estilo de vida saudável.


ABSTRACT: Introduction : Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. Methods : Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results : A total of 7.1% (95%CI 7.0 - 7.3) of the schoolchildren reported a poor self-assessed health status. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as female gender, 15 years of age or older, yellow, brown and indigenous race/skin color; risk behaviors such as regular alcohol consumption and drug experimentation, and issues related to physical and emotional health remained positively associated with the outcome studied. Protective factors identified were maternal schooling and demand for health services. Conclusion : The impact of risky behaviors on physical and emotional health need to be addressed among students. The school presents itself as a safe and opportune space for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180002, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977714

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as estimativas de tendência sobre a prevalência de comportamentos de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adolescentes, segundo dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar em 2009, 2012 e 2015. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados dos três estudos transversais nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal. No total, entrevistaram-se 173.310 adolescentes matriculados no 9º ano do ensino fundamental, com idade média de 14 anos. Foram estimadas pelo modelo de regressão linear as prevalências dos indicadores de fatores de proteção (consumo de feijão e frutas; aulas de educação física na escola; prática de 60 minutos ou mais de atividade física) e de risco (consumo de guloseimas e refrigerantes; uso de cigarro e álcool nos últimos 30 dias; experimentação de drogas). Resultados: Houve aumento significativo (p < 0,05) da prevalência do consumo de frutas e redução de consumo de feijão, refrigerantes e guloseimas, assim como do uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro, entretanto foi observado aumento na prevalência de experimentação de drogas ilícitas. Discussão: Apesar da tendência de redução em alguns fatores de risco, as prevalências encontradas são altas ao comparar com outras realidades socioculturais. Conclusão: A escola é um importante espaço de acesso ao público adolescente, e faz-se necessário estimular programas de promoção da saúde escolar para reduzir comportamentos de risco à saúde, assim como incentivar comportamentos protetores.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze trend estimates on the prevalence of risk and protective behaviors for chronic noncommunicable diseases in adolescents, according to data from the National School Health Survey in 2009, 2012 and 2015. Methods: Data from the three cross-sectional studies in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District were used. In total, 173,310 adolescents enrolled in the ninth grade of elementary school were interviewed, with average age of 14 years. The prevalence of indicators of protective (consumption of beans and fruit; physical education classes at school; practice of physical activity for 60 minutes or more) and risk factors (consumption of candies and soft drinks; use of cigarettes and alcohol in the last 30 days; drug testing) were estimated through linear regression. Results: There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of fruit consumption and in the reduction of bean, soft drinks and candies consumption, as well as the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes. However, an increase in the prevalence of illicit drug experimentation was observed. Discussion: Despite the tendency to reduce risk factors, prevalences are high when compared with other sociocultural realities. Conclusion: The school is an important area of access to the adolescent public, and it is necessary to encourage school health promotion programs to reduce health risk behaviors, as well as to stimulate protective ones.

18.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 26(3): 605-616, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977184

RESUMO

The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) is a survey conducted with students from public and private schools, performed in a partnership between the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, with support of the Ministry of Education. PeNSE is part of the Brazilian Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Three editions were held, with triennial periodicity (2009, 2012 and 2015), which included samples composed of 9th grade students. In 2015, a sample of 13 to 17 years old students was added, making PeNSE comparable to international surveys. Throughout the three editions, the sample has increased, in size and scope, and the questionnaire has changed. In addition to the risk and protective factors for chronic diseases, the survey covers other topics, such as sexual behavior and violence. PeNSE provides essential information to support public policies aimed at Brazilian adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Política Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20(2): 247-259, 2017.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832848

RESUMO

Introduction:: The race/skin color is an important predictor of health status of the population, as well as a marker of social inequalities. Objective:: The aim of this paper was to describe the prevalence of the main risks and the protective factors for chronic diseases in schoolchildren, according to race/skin color differences. Methods:: Data from the National Adolescent School-Based Health Survey (2012) were used. This is a cross-sectional study carried out in public and private schools. Prevalences were calculated according to the distribution by race/skin color. Prevalence ratios adjusted for age and maternal schooling were analyzed. Results:: White adolescents were younger, studied more frequently in private schools and had mothers with higher levels of education in comparison to the other students. Consumption of beans and fruits was higher among black, brown, and indigenous participants. Physical activity was more frequent among indigenous people. Experimentation with alcohol was higher among white adolescents. Indigenous students reported greater physical violence. Asian and black adolescents reported experiencing greater bullying. Conclusion:: Minimizing racial and ethnic disparities in health is necessary to disease prevention and health promotion among adolescents.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Pigmentação da Pele
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 1): 9s, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify associations of chronic back pain with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, body mass index, self-reported chronic diseases and health assessment, according to sex. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, estimated the prevalence and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of chronic back pain, according to selected variables and performed adjustment by age and education. RESULTS: 18.5% of the Brazilian population reported chronic back pain, 15.5% (95%CI 14.7-16.4) of them being men and 21.1% (95%CI 20.2-22.0) being women. The characteristics that remained associated and statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment, in men, were: age group, higher in men with 65 years or older (ORa = 6.06); low education level; living in rural area; history of smoking, high salt intake, increase in the time of heavy physical activity at work and at home; being overweight (ORa = 1.18) or obese (ORa = 1.26); diagnostic of hypertension (ORa = 1.42), high cholesterol (ORa = 1.60); and worse health assessment in comparison with very good (good [ORa = 1.48]; regular [ORa = 3.22]; poor [ORa = 5.00], very poor [ORa = 8.60]). Among women, they were: increase with age, higher among women with 55-64 years (ORa = 3.64); low education level; history of smoking, regular candy consumption, high salt intake, heavy physical activity at work and at home and increase in the time of these activities; being overweight (ORa = 1.23) or obese (ORa = 1.32); diagnosis of hypertension (ORa = 1.50), high cholesterol (ORa = 1.84); and worse health assessment than very good (good [ORa = 1.43]; regular [ORa = 3.16]; poor [ORa = 5.44], very poor [ORa = 8.19]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point out differences by sex and contribute to the knowledge of the panorama of chronic back pain, which, besides affecting individuals, generate negative socioeconomic impacts, by causing work-related disabilities and hindering everyday activities.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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